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1) Affixation.affixes are classified into native and borrowed; productive and non-productive types.

2) CompositionClassification of compounds: neutral, morphological, syntactic

idiomatic compounds non-idiomatic compounds.

3) Conversion (verbs made from nouns: tool or implement, an animal, a part of the human body, a profession or occupation, a place, a container, a meal

4) Shortening There are 2 ways to read abbreviations: 1. As a succession of alphabet reading of letters або of sounds, denoted by letters

5) Clipping.Words, which have been shortened at the end (apocope), at the beginning (aphaeresis). Phone some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the middle (syncope).Maths at the beginning and end. Flu – influenza, fridge – refrigerator


1. Onomatopoeiachatter, bubble, murmur

2. Reduplicationbye-bye ping-pong, chit-chat

3. Reversion (back-formation) to burgle from burglar

4. Blendingsmog – smoke+fog brunch – breakfast+lunch Bisquick – bisquit+quick

5. Sentence-condensation -substantivising of the phrase. forget-me-not,

6. Sound and stress interchangeThere are 2 groups of sound interchange: 1. Vowel interchange: (foot – feet). 2. Consonant interchange: (use [jus] – to use [juz], believe – belief,


Morpheme is the minimum meaningful language unit, constituent part of words, not independent, not divided into smaller meaningful units.

Types: Root morpheme – lexical nucleus of the word. Affixational morphemes (inflexional affixes (inflexions) and derivational affixes (prefixes and suffixes).

Morphemes may be:

Free – coincide with word forms of independently functioning words.

Bound – do not coincide with independently functioning words. These are prefixes and suffixes.

Positional variant of morpheme occurring in the specific environment and characterized by complementary distribution is called allomorph.

According to number of morphemes words are classified into monomorphic and polymorphic(Derived words and Compound words)

Morphemic analysis.the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents (ICs and UCs).

It is based on binary principle. Each stage of the procedure involves 2 components the word immediately breaks into. (ICs). at the next stage of analysis is broken into smaller meaningful elements UCs. friend+ly + ness friendliness

(bird), Sound form Referent (a particular bird – голуб)

Referential and functional approaches to study of meaning. “Basic triangle”(Concept

Types of meaning.1) Grammatical 2) Lexical (Denotation Connotational)

Factors of changing of meaning: Extralinguistic factors Linguistic factors

Types of changing of meaning:

a) extension; country – сільська місцевість - країна

b) narrowing; field – поле – галузь.

c) transference (metaphor (short time) and metonymy); may be influenced by many relations: Spatial (house): Causial (youth): Symbolic (White House): Instrumental (hand): Common names derived from proper:

d) evaluation; Lord: master of the house – title

e) degradation. Villain – peasant – servant – rascal

Modern English vocabulary is divided into:

1) Words of literary stylistic layer (Standard English)

Literary colloquial.are words denoting everyday concepts. the core of the vocabulary.

Literary bookishwords are mostly polymorphic and polysyllabic.

1)Terms: Popular(of special spheres of human knowledge, angina), Special (1 profession

2)Poetical words (poeticisms). sometimes literary neologisms - nonce-words. boyo - хлопчина

3)Barbarisms– words, which are borrowed without any change. ciao, tête-à-tête, vis-à-vis,

4)Archaisms.garth - двір glave - меч standish - чорнильниця affright - лякати

5)Literary neologisms: 1) neologisms representing new meanings of long used words. mouse, driver, site. 2) r n names of long used concepts. E.g.: boss (master), Teddy-boy (dandy).

3) compound words created from existing native elements. E.g.: space rocket,, web-design,

4) words created through affixation. E.g.: televiewer, escapism, vitaminize, evacuee, rocketry.

5) phraseological word combinations. e.g.: frequency modulation, sit down strike.

6) words borrowed without any considerable change in sound or meaning. E.g.: sputnik,.

7) translation loans. E.g.: wall newspaper, chamber gown, collective farm.

8) words created from classical elements (Latin or greek). E.g.: isotope, positron, telegenic

9)combinations of etymologically and structurally heterogeneous elements. rhesus-factor,mini-c

2) Words of non-literary stylistic layer.the words of sub-standard English.

1) Colloquialisms conversational type of everyday speech. awfully sorry, a pretty little thing,

2) Slang – exist on periphery of the lexical system of the given language. божеволіти

students’ slang, newspapers’ slang, schoolboys’ slang etc. to go crackers to go bananas

3) Professionalisms outer – нокаут piper – кондитер, що прикрашає торти

4) Vulgarisms – rude words and expressions used mostly in the speech of lower levels of society. E.g.: son of a bitch, bloody beast. E.g.: damn it, to hell with, Goddamn, go to hell.

5) Jargonisms – words used within certain social and professional groups, a sort of secret code,

E.g.: Wet Triangle – Північне море to have soldier’s supper – лягти спати голодним

6) Dialect words – words and phrases used by inhabitants of certain regions of the country.

E.g.: baccy – tobacco unbeknown – unknown winder – window loch – lake.

We distinguish Cockney dialect – language of former inhabitants of London slums (East End).

e.g.: die (day), mike (make), plice (place), loaf (head), quid (pound), moll (woman).

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