TYPES OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN
If you are prosecuted for a crime in Great Britain, you may meet the following people:
Magistrates. Magistrates are unpaid judges, usually chosen from well-respected people in the local community and have no formal qualification.
Solicitors .After the accused person has been arrested, the first person he needs to see is a solicitor. They deal with all day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying or selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their clients in a Magistrates’ court.
Barristers. In more serious cases it is usual for a solicitor to hire a barrister to defend the accused. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of law and are also experts on advocacy (the art of presenting cases in Court). If you desire representation in any court except the Magistrates’ court, you must have a barrister.
Judges. Judges are trained lawyers, nearly always ex-barristers. They deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. The judge does not decide on the guilt or innocence of an accused – that is the jury’s job. However, if the jury finds the accused guilty, then the judge will pass sentence.
Jury. The jury consists of twelve people from the local community. The jury listens to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decides whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty the jury renders a verdict.
Ukraine is a sovereign state. Its independence was proclaimed on August 24, 1991. It has its territory, higher and local bodies of state power (the Verkhovna Rada and local radas) and government, the National Emblem, the State Flag and the State Anthem. There are 26 administrative districts and the Crimean autonomous republic in Ukraine.
The state language in Ukraine is Ukrainian.
Under the Constitution the powers of government are divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The highest body of the legislative power is the Verkhovna Rada. It consists of 450 people’s deputies who are elected for a term of four years.
The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and accountable to the Verkhovna Rada.
The highest body of the judicial power is the Supreme Court.
The area of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers. It is larger than the territory of Great Britain, but smaller than that of the USA.
The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It is a very beautiful city.
Ukraine is rich in mineral and natural resources. The country has metallurgical, heavy and light industries.
Ukraine is also an agricultural country.
Now Ukraine establishes new relations with the other countries of the world.
Ukraine is one of the founding members of the United Nations Organization and participates in the work of many international organizations.
The official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom covers over 240,000 sq. km. Its population amounts more than 58 million people.
The capital of Great Britain is London.
Great Britain is a Parliamentary monarchy. This means that it has a monarch, a king or a queen, as its Head of State. The monarch can reign only with the support of Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Parliament as central government is responsible for deciding national policy, but many public services are provided by local government. The UK is divided into administrative areas known as counties and each county has a county town where the offices of the local government are located. Local government is responsible for organizing such services as education, libraries, police and fire services, road building and many others.
The British government, in the general sense of word, comprises all the three powers: legislative, executive and judicial. The United Kingdom has an unusual constitution which is partly unwritten and consists of:
- the laws passed in Parliament, which are called Acts of Parliament;
- Common Law decisions made by judges in the past;
- various unwritten conventions.
All these things can be changed at any time by new Acts of Parliament, by judges, and by acceptance of new conventions. Thus the British lawyers rely mostly on customs, traditions and precedents.
THE MODERN STATE
The state is usually identified as a primarily political entity, historically defined as the defender of territorial integrity and law and order. Today it is involved in a very extensive range of activities, reaching into every aspect of life.
The modern state is hugely important in our everyday lives. It takes nearly half of our income in taxes. It registers our births, marriages and deaths. It educates our children and pays our pensions. It has a unique power to compel, in some cases exercising the ultimate sanction of preserving life or ordering death.
A democratic state is one where
-government is accountable to the people through free and fair elections to public office;
-adults have equal rights to vote and to stand for election;
-civil and political rights are respected; and
-a form of civil society can function where social associations independent of state, exist.
The Rule of law is said to prevail in a state where all individuals and institutions are subject to the law and no person or institution is above the law.