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Know the Receiver and Construct the Message Accordingly

Thesender should acquire as much information as possible about the individual or group that is to receive the message. Senders need to know the receiver's job, experience, personality, perceptions, and needs.

Select the Proper Medium The choice of a medium to carry the message depends in part on the content of the message. Confidentialities and praise always call for a personal touch. If the receiver is in a remote location or if the matter is complex and lengthy, putting it in writing might be the best choice. If the receiver prefers a given medium, the sender should try to use that method.

Time the Transmission The timing of the communication affects its success. The sender’s needs along with the receiver’s must be considered in determining the best time.

Seek and Give FeedbackSenders have the primary responsibility to make certain that their messages have been received and understood. The only way to make certain is to get feedback. The sender cannot settle for the response, "I understand." If receivers have no questions, the sender should have some.


Verbal messages

A verbal message is any type of spoken communication that uses one or more words. There is an intentional verbal messages; these are the conscious attempts we make to communicate with others through speech. Using verbal symbols we are able to create images in our brains.

The common principle states that words themselves do not contain any meaning. it is a fallacy to believe that meanings are carried or contained by words.

Unintentional verbal messages are the things we say without meaning to (slips of the tongue). Freud argued that all the apparently unintentional stimuli we transmit – both verbal and nonverbal – are unconsciously motivated.

Nonverbal messages are all the messages we transmit without words or over and above the words we use. They include all the nonverbal aspects of our behaviour: facial expression, posture, tone of voice, hand movements, manner of dress, and so on. Intentional nonverbal messages are ones we want to transmit. We use them to reinforce verbal messages. At times we deliberately use nonverbal messages to cancel out a polite verbal response and indicate our true feelings: the verbal message may be positive, but the tone of voice and facial expression indicate that we mean something negative.

Unintentional nonverbal messages are all those nonverbal aspects of our behaviour transmitted without our control. Controlling nonverbal messages is a very difficult task. Body language often gives us away.

27a Informative Speeches

Most information transmitted today is communicated through the informative mode. What is meant by the informative mode? The media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television and radio) are the most commonly recognized tools of informative communication. Lectures, oral presentations of varying types, writing reports and legal and medical briefings are informative tools. These forms of communicating information are commonly used in classrooms, places of business, international organizations, and houses of government, among a variety of others.

When information is to be transmitted objectively for the purpose of imparting and understanding factual material, the informative mode should be employed. Oral techniques for transmitting information differ from written techniques. If you are to give an effective informative speech, you must thoroughly familiarize yourself with the techniques involved. Begin by deciding upon a topic and gathering a bibliography. After you have gathered sufficial material and taking notes on your subject, you will be ready to compose a thesis statement. The thesis statement tells you and your audience the subject matter (main idea) and scope (what you will cover) of your speech.

An informative speech is composed of factual material. A fact is a datum that can be verified in a reliable source. A fact can deal with the historical happening or a current event. Facts are also scientific data that have been proved and widely accepted.


The interview encompasses many of the elements of all two-person communication.

It is: "a process of dyadic, relational communication with a predetermined and serious purpose designed to interchange behavior and involving the asking and answering of questions".

Whatever his or her objectives, the interviewer may use one of two approaches: standardized or unstandardized. The standardized interviewconsists of a set of prepared questions from which the interviewer is not allowed to deviate. The unstandardized interviewallows the interviewer as well as the respon­dent considerable latitude.

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