Persuasive speech is one that causes
the listeners to respond in some way.
This response may take a form
of a reaffirmation of a belief that is already
held by the audience. The purpose of this
type of speech is to inspire the listeners
to maintain beliefs that they already hold
or to strive to work for something in which
Another type of persuasive speech aims
to change the attitude or thinking of the
audience. It is necessary to identify with
the speaker’s outlook and to accept it.
For instance, in the USA abortion has
been controversial issue for many years.
The groups in favour of abortion
call themselves pro-choice, and the
groups against call themselves pro-life.
A speaker representing pro-choice organization may argue that each
women should have the right to make
personal decisions about her body.
A speaker from pro-choice and pro-life
group giving a persuasive speech would,
for example, attempt to get the
audience to take an active role by
voting for a law favoring on denying
abortion rights. Speakers who
want their listeners to act should ask
them to do something that is in their power,
not beyond it. Some persuasive speeches
can be classified into 3 main categories depending on their aims speeches
that confirm a belief or conviction or
inspire one; aspire to change a belief
or conviction, and inspire to action.
PRbelong to the system of mass communication with such other elements as advertising, personal selling and sale stimulation.
Pr is an activity directed on the creation firm’s positive image or at least benevolent attitude towards it’s products. Each type of goods promotion on the market has its own unique characteristics. Which showed that it is important to be taken into account while forming firm’s system of mass communication.
PR can be characterized by:
Ø Long living effect:
Ø High information reliability in the eyes of consumers, as it is given in the firm of news, but not in the form of advertising announcement.
Ø Large numbers of audience can be influenced.
PR have some negative sides:
Ø The firm cannot always control the content of information
Ø Most frequently PR are simply addition to advertising.
Mass media play a large and influential role in our life. Medium embraces functions of several media such as newspapers, magazines, movies and recordings.
The major media can be divided into 2 kinds print and electronic. The print media – newspapers, magazines, book, pamphlets, catalogues, anything you can read. And are the oldest, dating back to the invention of the printing press in the 15th century. The electronic media – radio, television, films that is transmitted by the use of electricity are less than a hundred years old.
Modern media are characterized by the speed of message’s movement. Centeries ago it took months or even years of painstaking work to reproduce a single manuscript by hand. Today high speed presses run off thousands of copies of a book that’s distributed around the country in a matter of days. Besides being rapid, modern mass communication is usually continuous rather than sporadic newspapers appear every day, magazines appear weekly or monthly and so on.
The journalism, urgent issues, news or information-giving portion of media output is selected, edited, pronounced, placed in time slots or positioned in the newspaper or magazine. Some of the medias output has long lasting value and worth; some are not only cheap, tawdry and superficial stuff but physically, emotionally and intellectually harmful.
Propaganda is a one-sided communication designed to influence people’s thinking and actions. A television commercial or a poster urging people to vote for a political candidate might be propaganda, depending on its method of persuasion.
Propaganda appeals to its audience in 3 ways:
It calls for an action or opinion that it makes seem wise & reasonable. It suggests that the action or opinion is moral & right. It provides a pleasant feeling , such as a sense of importance or belonging.
There are some techniques of propaganda:
Gaining people’s trust. Propagandists must be believable. Audience must consider them reliable authorities. Gaining people’s trust can be made by:
Reporting unfavorable needs that the public knows or will design; agreeing by people’s existing opinions. People place most trust in speakers and writes whose ideas are similar to their own;
Simplicity and repetition. Propaganda must be easy to understand and remember;
The use of symbols. Words and illustration that can attract their attention.
Distortion and concealment. Propagandists exaggerate some facts and twist the meaning of others.