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Complete the sentences with the words given in brackets



1. In fact, ….. industrial designers often use various design methodologies in their creative process. Some classic industrial designs are considered as ….. works of art as works of engineering. (much, many)

2. We don't manufacture ….. jackets of pure wool. There isn't ….. demand for them. (many, much)

3. There aren't ….. people working at night. ….. of the staff work during the day. (most, many)

4. ….. of the timber which was delivered last week was of very poor quality. We had to return ….. of the boards. (a few, some)

5. Fibre optic cabling will be used in the future for ….. land-based communications. But, today, only …..of these communications use fiber optics. (all, some)

6. At present, only ….. paper is recycled in the UK. In the future, ….. paper will have to be collected and recycled. (a little, more)

7. In the UK, ….. electricity is generated from nuclear energy or fossil fuels and very ….. renewable energy sources have so far been developed. (few, most)

 


UNIT 20

MANUFACTURING

LEAD-IN

 

1. What do you think can be done to make manufacturing more environmentally friendly? Why is it important?

 

In pairs, discuss the benefits and problems of recycling technologies in manufacturing.

 

A B

READING

Read the text and decide whether the statements that follow are true or false.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is producing goods that are necessary for modern life from raw materials. Originally manufacturing was accomplished by hand, but most of today's modern manufacturing operations are highly mechanized and automated.

There are three main processes involved in virtually all manufacturing: assembly, extraction, and alteration. Assembly is the combination of parts to make a product. For example, an airplane is assembled when the manufacturer puts together the engines, wings, and fuselage. Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as obtaining gasoline from crude oil. Alteration is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product—for example, sawing trees into lumber.

TYPES OF MANUFACTURING. Manufacturing processes can produce either durable or nondurable goods. Durable goods are products that exist for long periods of time without significant deterioration, such as automobiles, airplanes, and refrigerators. Nondurable goods are items that have a comparatively limited life span, such as clothing, food, and paper.

FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES. Manufacturing systems today are designed to recycle many of their components. For example, in the automotive industry, excess steel and aluminum can become scrap stock for new metal, rubber tires can be chopped and mixed with asphalt for new roadways, and engine starters can be remanufactured and sold again.



Emission control will be a critical issue for future manufacturers. Smoke scrubbers must remove dangerous gases and particulates from industrial plant discharges, and manufacturing facilities that dump chemicals into rivers must develop methods of eliminating or reusing these waste products.

The economically advantageous automated factory has become the norm. Most automobile engines are manufactured using robotic tools and handling systems that deliver the engine to various machining sites. Computers with sophisticated inventory tracking programs make it possible for items to be assembled and delivered at the manufacturing facility only as they are needed.

Engineers use computers to help them design new products efficiently. The Boeing 777 jet, for example, was developed in record time by having its entire design and manufacturing systems created on a computer database rather than using traditional blueprints.

 

1. Extraction is the combination of parts to make a product.

2. Most automobile engines are manufactured using robotic tools and handling systems that deliver the motor to various machining sites.

3. Manufacturing systems today recycle many of their components.

4. Manufacturing is manufacturing goods that are necessary for modern life from raw materials.

5. Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as receiving gasoline from crude oil.

6. There are three main processes involved in virtually all manufacturing: separation, extraction, and alteration.

7. Assembly is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product—for example, sawing trees into lumber.

 

T T T T T T T
F F F F F F F

 





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