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Complete the text about car recalls with words from the box below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian



charge, dealer, fail, fault, fitted, handbrake, injuries, recall.

 

A leading car manufacturer is recalling 70,000 models in the UK to check for a potentially life-threatening ________. The brake pedal on the top-selling small MPV can ________ suddenly. The problem affects all UK cars sold since the launch in July 2000 except those delivered in recent weeks. A small clip – if incorrectly ________ – can allow the pedal to detach from the rest of the braking system. If this happens on the move, the driver is reduced to using the ________ and gears to bring the car to a halt. The car manufacturer says a small number of owners have experienced the problem but no ________ have been reported. The manufacturer says it has written to every owner asking them to take the car to their ________. Any work needed will be carried out free of ________. Since only 85% of owners respond to ________ notices, 10,000 potentially dangerous models could still be left on UK roads.

4. Match the questions (1 – 7) with their answers (a – g):

1. Where is the windscreen washer container? a) You look at the level at the reservoir.
2. Do I have to wear protective clothing when I work on the battery? b) The cooling system is filled once at the factory and never has to be changed.
3. Do I have to change the coolant in the cooling system? c) It is good to check the oil level every time you put fuel in the car.
4. How do I check how much brake fluid I have? d) You needn’t go to a service station for a brake fluid change. This can do any competent person with the help of necessary tools.
5. Do I have to go to a service station to change my brake fluid? e) Under normal conditions it’s not necessary to anything with the battery, but check the electrolyte level occasionally.
6. How often do I need to check the oil level? f) It is the plastic rectangular container next to the power steering reservoir.
7. Do I have to do anything with the battery? g) You mustn’t work on the battery without wearing eye protection and gloves.

Imagine you are a transport consultant brought in to advise it on how to make cars safer. Prepare and deliver a presentation of your recommendations to the representatives of the design department.

Pay attention to the following:ABS, adaptive cruise control, highly rigid roof, automatic emergency braking, seat belt, airbags, retractable steering wheel, shatterproof windscreen, lane departure warning system, xenon headlights, …

AIRBAGS

Until a short time ago, most of the progress made in auto safety was in front and rear accidents, even though 40% of all serious injuries from accidents are the result of side impacts and 30% of all accidents are side-impact collisions.



Many car makers have reacted to these statistics and new standards of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) by making doors, door frames and floor and roof sections stronger. But cars that now offer side airbags represent a new type of occupant protection.

Engineers say that designing effective side airbags is much more difficult than designing front airbags. This is because much of the energy from a front-impact collision is absorbed by the bumper, hood, and engine, and it takes almost 30 to 40 milliseconds before the impact reaches the car’s occupant. In a side impact, only a relatively thin door and a few inches separate the occupant from another vehicle. This means that door-mounted side airbags must begin deploying within 5 or 6 milliseconds. It takes a collision of about 19kph to trigger side airbags.

The seatbelt airbag is intended to give back-seat passengers the same level of protection as front-seat occupants. The airbag is incorporated in the rear-seat seatbelt and inflates forward on impact.

Bosch has developed an airbag control unit with extended functional range for highly precise triggering of airbags and belt tensioners. According to the company, the system detects the impact speed of a frontal collision at a very early stage with the help of two ‘upfront’ sensors. The central crash sensor’s information ensures good decision precision. Depending on the type of accident, the occupant restraint system can be triggered either in one or two phases.

The new system has two acceleration sensors which transmit signals, from which the electronic control unit calculates early and precisely the energy absorption as well as the velocity of vehicle deformation. After only 15ms, it is clearly recognizable whether it will be a minor crash without the actuation of the airbag of a serious crash with triggering of the necessary passive safety system.

The side impact is detected by means of four side-impact sensors, the signals of which are checked for plausibility against those of the central sensors in the airbag. This concept ensures triggering of the side airbag for optimum protection of head and chest in a lateral collision.

Airbags, though, do not always save lives, they sometimes kill people who are too small or are in the wrong position when the airbags deploy. To prevent this from happening, car makers and suppliers are developing occupant-sensing systems. The three leading technologies for smart airbags are weight-sensing in the seat, position sensing within the car and camera monitoring. These detection systems can automatically deactivate the airbags if the situation is dangerous.





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