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The methods of conveying English vowels in Ukrainian are also different. The choice of them and the sphere of their use may be predetermined by some lingual as well as extralingual factors. These are as follows: a) the position of the phoneme in the English word/ proper name; b) the environment of the phoneme; c) the origin of the proper name; d) the tradition (if any) of conveying the name in Ukrainian, when the name is common in the two languages e.g. of Biblical origin e.g.: Elias /'/, Elijah, /I'laid'je/ ().

As to the possible substitutes for similar and divergent English vowel phonemes, some variants may be suggested in Ukrainian for short monophthongs formed at different tongue positions. The most common/traditional substitutes for English short monophthongs in Ukrainian the following vowel phonemes have to be investigated:

// for /a/ and lei: Angela /, Andy /, Amanda /, Patrick / , Allison , ; // for //, // or even //: Ulrica (/), Doug , " Justin , Sudbury /, Ulster ;

/a/ standing in English for any vowel phoneme in unstressed position can be substituted in Ukrainian for the corresponding vowels too: Ada , Alaska , Virginia ³, Rebekka , Theodore , Salisbury ;

// for lot: Dolly , Olive , Oskar , Oxford ;

// for //: Iraq , Isabel (), Isolda/e , Islam ;

/e/for/e/: Ebrington , Eckersl(e)y , Edinburgh , Eleonora , Ellis ().

It is common knowledge that either of these sounds may also convey other sounds in seemingly the same sounds environment. Cf.: Iden , Ikey , or: Ede , Eden , English (family name) or .

Long vowel phonemes in all English proper names like in other words are substituted in Ukrainian for their corresponding short vowel phonemes:

/a:/ for /a/: Art , Bart , Clerke , Mark , Carnegie 崿, Gaby ; but Derby /da:bi/ ;

/:/for//: Allcorn , Aubrey , Austin , Paola , Cornell ;

/u:/ and sometimes /ju:/ for ///: Cooper , Judy , Muriel '(), Oona , Ouse p. , Hecuba Purim , Rubens Uniat , UNESCO ;

/:/for//: Aberdeen , Celia ѳ, Easton , Eton , Deakin ij;

/:/ for /e/ or even for /i/: Earl , Herbert , Irvin / ; but: Pearl Harbor -/ϳ-, Burton , Burma , Bert , Burch .



English diphthongs are usually substituted for corresponding Ukrainian vowel combinations, though not without exceptions:

/ai/ for //: Brighton , Idaho , Ike , Mike , Pyke ; but Miami ;

/au / for /ay/: Down , Howard , Howell , Mowgli ;

/ei/for//, /a/: Ada , Mabel , Mamei , Paisley ;

/oi/for//: Croydon , Joyce , Roy but: Troy , ;

// for /oy/: Mo Moy, Owen , Rose , Snow , Sofia(Bulgaria) .

Several English proper names containing the diphthong /ou/ have no /oy/ substitution for it in Ukrainian, however: Bruno , Buffalo , Toronto ., Longfellow , , Sophia ;

// is substituted for/ea/: Ayrshire , Dalaware , Fairbanks ., Gary . , but: Ontario , Bulgaria ;

/ia/ for //, //, //: Cheshire , Madeira - , Nigeria ͳ, Victoria ³, Virginia ³, Julie , Juliet 볺.

It is not always easy to select appropriate Ukrainian substitutes for some English consonant phonemes either. That is partly because some consonants may realize their meanings depending on their environment or position in the word (proper name). Besides, the selections of a substitute for an English consonant phoneme, may sometimes be predetermined in Ukrainian by the established tradition: so /p/ is substituted for //, // or the sound //: Carmarthenshire , Caruthers /, Brothers ();

/T/ for // or /c/ sometimes // (in Greek names): Bath . , Faith /, Dartmouth , but: Athos , Carthage /, Korinth ().

/N/ for //: Arlington , Bundung ", sterling ", Darlington , Long , Goulding , Springpark ;

/Nk/ for /HK/: Bronx , Sinclair ѳ, SprinkCnpiHK, Winkie ³;

/I/ for In/ or In'/: Larry /, Lotta , Noll , Percival (), Charles , William ³, Clinton , Underhill .

Some componental phonemes may have traditionally established substitution in separate nouns. Thus,

/w/ may be IB/ or /y/: Washington , Wales , Westminster , Wilde , Bowyear ', Bristow , Shaw , Snow , Mark Twain .

When used in various combinations, these and other English vowel and consonant phonemes are mostly conveyed in Ukrainian in accordance with the above-given reading rules. As a result, English proper names are either transcribed or transliterated (or partly anscribed and partly transliterated) in Ukrainian. Mostly transcribed names/surnames containing specific English vowel phonemes are usually formed by different sound/letter combinations: Abe

, Aileen , Bab , Chauncey , Dwight , Eli

\ , Lewie /, Queenie , Raiph , Russel , Theobald ҳ/, Uriah /.

Irrespective of the considerable divergences existing between the phonemic systems of the two languages, a number of English proper names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transliteration only: Barbara , Norman , Rita г, Tristram , Victor ³, Adams , Barker , Collins /, Clark , Cronin , Wilson ³, Nelson , Robert Frost etc.

A few English proper names are transliterated with the omission or addition of a letter or two in Ukrainian. This kind of rendering becomes necessary when dealing with specifically English spelling forms of proper names and to avoid the violation of the traditionally established spelling rules of the Ukrainian language: McDonald , Macintosh , McEnroe , Dinah ij, Jupiter , Judah , Longfellow , Williamson ³.

Some other English proper names of people and geographical names are rendered into Ukrainian partly through transcription: Brooking , Huntington , Liverpool ˳, Newton , Jackson , Aberdeen , Melbourne , Valentine .

Besides, the exactitude of conveying English proper names in Ukrainian may be predetermined by some lingual and extralingual factors. The main of them are: absence in Ukrainian of corresponding phonemes and orthographic means to substitute some particular English sounds/letter combinations or the established tradition according to which some names are translated. It can already be seen on the following examples: Thorne , Ethan , Faith / , Fitzclarence Գ, Graham (), Galsworthy , Goorka , Hugon , Hutchinson / , Ptolemy , Whistler ³(), Wriothesley , and sevral others.

The bulk of all other English proper names, however, are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonetical/phonological level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. The degree of exactitude of their rendering depends on the existence/non-existence of appropriate or similar sounds in the target language. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extralingual factors. For example, the well-known names as Adam, David can be translated into Ukrainian as and (Biblical or historical) or as and (common people's names). Similarly with Matthew, Paul, Rachel and some others which can be correspondingly rendered either as /, , or as , , (), Pope John Paul II , etc.

Mostly translated, however, are the names of kings, queens, princes, princesses, tsars and tsarinas. These exceptions from the general rule are observed in the following names: King Charles/ George, Henry /, ; Queen Elisabeth/Mary Stewart / ; King James I (John, William) (, ³); Princess Ann/Margaret /; // Tsar Alexander/Nicolas/Paul.

Among the names of kings, queens, tsars, etc. are also some which are transliterated in the target language. These are mostly peculiar national names with no corresponding equivalents in other languages: King Horn ; Prince Robert ; / Tsar Boris/Ivan; King Boleslav, Prince Mstyslav.

Nicknames of people are almost always translated irrespective of the language they come from: King Charles the Great ; King Edward the Confessor ; King Richard the Lionheart/Lionhearted г ; Prince William of Orange ³ ; / Prince Mstyslav/ Svyatoslav the Brave; Prince Yaroslav the Wise; Tsar Basil the Blind; Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Contrary to this rule is the wrong translation in our mass media of Prince Charles of Wales as , instead of (according to the historically established tradition).

Indian chiefs' names and family names of American Indians, which became known mainly from J.F.Cooper's novels are translated, as a rule, too: (the) Arrowhead ; Dew of June, ; Chingachgook the Big Serpent ׳ ; the Deerslayer (the Pathfinger) (, ); the Leather Stocking, Hawk's Eye , ; John Running Deer, ҳ ; Pete Brown Feather, ϳ ϳ'. But: Prince Osmomysl, Alexander Nevskii.

The so-called generalizing or characterizing names used by many authors in their belles-lettres works to point out some determinant (usually negative) feature of their characters are mostly not translated but only transcribed or transliterated. Such are the characters, for example, from Ch. Dickens' works: Mrs. Porkenham (cf. pork and ham / , ); Doctor Slammer (cf. to slam the door / ); Tupman (cf. tup-male sheep, ram , ) ; Nathaniel Winkle (cf. winkle sea snail used as food) ³; Miss Witherfield (cf. wither, fade) ', (' ) ̳ ³

Some nicknames of this kind may naturally be translated, especially when used in humorous stories as, for instance, in Stephan Leacock's Guide the Gimlet of Ghent: A Romance of Chivalry: Carlo the Corkscrew , Beowulf the Bradawl , Conrad the Coconut . But: Mrs. Afterthought and not .

It must be emphasized that in recent decades there has been a general tendency in translation practice to transcribe or transliterate foreign proper names and not to translate them. In conformity with the tendency some proper names of people and place names which had hitherto been translated are now transcribed or transliterated. So Michael Faraday is no more but ; George Washington is (and not ) ; Alessandro Volta is no more but ; Salt Lake City is no more but -ѳ; Leicester and Worcester are no more and but and ; Hull is no more but , etc. This tendency should also be observed when dealing with some other proper names, including geographical ones. The latter, as may have been noticed, are conveyed in Ukrainian/English in the same way as the proper names of people, i.e., they are traditionally transliterated or transcribed: Arkansas () but ( ); Belfast/Chicago /, Dublin/Ottawa / , San-Francisco -, Bakhmach, Brovary, Horlivka, / Ismail/Kaniv, Lysianka/Lysyanka, Sumy, etc.

A considerable number of English geographical names are also rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only: Buckinghamshire , Capetown/Ohio /, Dashwood , Dundee-, Freetown , Newfoundland , Seattle ѳ, Sutherland , Greenfield .

Many English place names, along with other geographical and proper names, are conveyed in Ukrainian partly with the help of transcription and partly via transliteration. This can be observed in the two-syllable names in the examples below. The first (1) group of the geographical names has the initial syllables transliterated and the closing syllables transcribed, whereas the second group (2) contains geographical names with the initial syllables transcribed and the closing syllables transliterated:

(1) (2)

Birmingham Brighton

Kingstown ʳ Greensboro

Midway ̳ Houston '

Sheffield Wyoming ( )

 

A few geographical names and some proper names of people have a traditionally established orthographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language: the Arctic Ocean ϳ ; Maine ( ); Mexico ; New Orleans ; Ulster ; Texas ( ), Lake Superior .

Names of seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of countries having the structure of word-combinations are always translated: the Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean // ; the Grampians (Appalachians) () ; the Gulf of Mexico (Salonika) () ; the Isthmus of Suez/Panama () ; New South Wales ϳ (); Strait of Magellan/Gibraltar / ; / the Carpathians/ Carpathian Mts.); Transcarpathia (Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine); / Krasnodar/Stavropol Territory; ϳ- the South Ukrainian Irrigation Canal; / Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea; / Strait of Kerch/Kara Strait; / - Kuril(e) Islands/Orkney Islands, Stratford-on-Avon --, -- Rostov-on-Don.

The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally translated from English into Ukrainian and vice versa: Cape of Good Hope/ Cape May 䳿/ -, Verde Islands O- ; Golden Gate ( .-); Grand Bank(s) ̳ ( - ); Great Slave Lake ; Northern Highlands ϳ- '; the Rocky Mountains/the Appalachians // .

Still other geographical names having single word and word-combination structures require some identifying element in the target language (an appositional noun, an adjective, etc.). These elements explain the nature and the real meaning of the geographical name in the target language: the Azores/the Seychelles / -; Idaho Falls -; New England , Maine , Massachusetts , Connecticut (), Rhode Island () -, Vermont ; Saint Vincent/Saint Helena Island - -³/ ; the Saint Lawrence p. ; Sutherland ( 䳿); / / the Buh/the Desna/the Ros' (rivers in Ukraine); Verkhovyna (upland pastures in the Carpathians); Donets Basin/Donets coal field(s); Podil (lower part of Kyjy city, a city district); // Kherson/ Lviv/Poltava region/ oblast.

Foreign geographical names as well as many proper names of people are often reproduced in English not in the spelling form of the source language but in the traditionally established spelling form of the target language: (Germ. Aachen) Aix-la-Chapelle; (Dutch Antwerpen) Antwerp; (Pol. Warszawa) Warsaw; (Ital. Venezia) Venice; (Span.) Tierra del Fuego; (Dutch den Haag) the Hague; (Ital. Geneva) Genoa; (Ital. Italia) Italy; (Germ. ) Cologne; ˳ (Ital. Livorno) Leghorn; (Fr. Lorraine) Lorraine; (Germ. Mainz) Mayence; Maas (Germ. Maas) Meuse; (Germ. ) Munich.

Ukrainian geographical names should be translated into English as close to their source language form as possible unless other of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Bohuslav; Vynohrad; Moryntsi; Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; ' Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Chernihiv; Shchyhry/Scyhry; / Kyiv/Odesa; Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Kola Peninsula, Ladoga, Onega, Asia Minor, Central Asia, (It. Napoh) Naples, Hebrides ó/ó (also Western Isles), etc.

of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Bohuslav; Vynohrad; Moryntsi; Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; ' Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Chernihiv; Shchyhry orScyhry; / Kyiv/Odesa; Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Kola Peninsula, Ladoga, Onega, Asia Minor, Central Asia, (It. Napoli) Naples, Hebrides ó/ó (also Western Isles), etc.

CONVEYING THE NAMES OF COMPANIES, CORPORATIONS, FIRMS

1. Traditionally, most names of companies (corporations, firms, etc.) are transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated at the same time. This method is also employed when rendering the names of publishing houses, titles of most newspapers and magazines or journals, and of some public bodies. The translation may be performed either with the employment of a shorter or more extended explication. The former is practised when the name of the company (corporation, firm) is well-known or when translating at language level; the latter is resorted to when translating at speech/text level: Associated Biscuit Manufacturers ; T.Wall & Sons Co. Ltd. ' . , but: General Motors/Standard Oil / .

It is much easier to translate the names of companies/corporations when their product is indicated as in the following examples: British-American Tobacco Co. ' - - ; British and Commonwealth Shipping ; Campbell Soups Co. ; Coca-Cola Co. Inc. ' - ; China Ventretech Investment Corp.

 

; West Texas Intermediate Co. ; Volkswagen (VW) AG .

Ukrainian companies, firms and other state and private bodies performing the same or similar functions are translated according to the same rule (they are transliterated or transcribed and explicated at the same time). For example: Kyiv Svitanok civil services firm; ' Krasnodonvuhillya Coal Production Amalgamation; Ukrainian Ukrhazprom natural gas importing and extracting body; Kyiv region Kyivoblpobutradiotekhnika home radio engineering services body (firm); Bilychi Joint-Stock Furniture Factory Association; CD ( ) Bulgarian Venta Joint Venture (perfumes, makeup); Lviv Prohres footwear firm.

2. Translation of the names of British/American publishing houses is performed according to the same rules: Associated Book Publishers - ; Cambridge University Press ; Edward Arnolds (Publishers) Ltd. - () ; Harper & Row (USA) ().

Not infrequently, however, the names of British (American, etc.) publishing houses are scarcely indicated or not mentioned at all. Nevertheless in Ukrainian translation the identifying noun should necessarily be added: Penguin Books ; Raphael Tuck & Sons Ltd. ; J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. . . ; Slavic Gospel Press (USA) ' ; Randon House (USA) (); Rand McNelly {USA)

 

볻 () ; Beacon Press (USA) .

Names of Ukrainian publishing houses are rendered into English similarly: with the corresponding identifying noun Publishers or Publishing House added to it: / Kyiv/ Ukrains'kyi Pysmennyk/Dnipro Publishers (Publishing House): Muzychna Ukraina (musical works and notes) Publishers/Publishing House; Shkola/Skola Publishers/Publishing House (primary and secondary school manuals, reference books, dictionaries); Kyiv Shevchenko University Lybid' Publishers (scientific literature and higher school manuals).

3. Transcribed or transliterated and mostly shortly explicated

in the target language are also the names of news agencies: (the

British) Reuters (News Agency)

; UPl/France Presse ϲ (),

- (); ij

Ukrainian Dinau Ukrinform News Agency;

/ Russian TASS/Novosti News Agency; but

ѳ- Chinese Communist New China

News Agency.

4. Names of theatres, cinemas, hotels are also mostly repro

duced through transcription or transliteration and explication at the

same time: Comedy Theatre 䳻; Dairy Lane

/-; Commercial Theatre

( ); the Continental

( ,

); the Empire

( );

the Bolshoi Theatre or: the Moscow Bolshoi Opera and Ballet

Theatre; .

the Kyiv State Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre;

() 䳿 the (Kyiv) Musical Comedy Theatre;

() the (Kyiv) Young Spectators Thea

tre; / the Kyiv city Kyiv/Slavutych Cin

ema Hall.

5. Names of hotels are translated in the same way as the names

of cinema halls. When the names originate from common nouns (or

word-combinations) they may be transcribed, transliterated and expli

cated or translated: the Royal Court Hotel ; the

Mitre Hotel (); /

 

/ the Kyiv/ RusV Ukraina Hotel; the Opryland Hotel/ Restaurant (Nashville, Tennessee) / (CLLJA, . , ); the Westin Hotel (Calgary, Canada) (), / / the Kolos, Birch Tree (Cosy Nook), Hotel; the Lysyanka Kolos Hotel.

The same way of translating is employed when dealing with the names of restaurants: the Banff Springs Restaurant (ab. Calgary) , the Anatole Restaurant (Dallas) ; / / the Moskva/ Dnipro/ Kyiv restaurant; ³/ the Vitryak (Windmill)/Myslyvskyi (Hunter's) restaurant.

6. Names of newspapers, journals, and magazines require a special approach on the part of the translator. The thing is that in English some more extended explication may be needed for a particular foreign newspaper (magazine, journal) than in Ukrainian: the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada Holos Ukrainy newspaper; the Ukrainian army Narodna Armiya/Armia paper/newspaper; a Ukrainian Russian language Nezavisimost newspaper/paper, the Ukrainian youth Molod' Ukramy newspaper; the Bukovyna region(al) Bukovyna newspaper/daily; the Kyiv city Verchirniy Kyiv evening newspaper, but The Ukrainian Day newspaper (published also in English).

Very often the body to which the paper belongs or which sponsors its publication may be indicated too: Ukraine's Ministry of Public Education and Culture Osvita weekly; ˳ the Ukrainian writers Union Literaturna Ukraina weekly.

Names of Ukrainian journals (magazines) are translated in the same way as the titles of newspapers: ³ Ukrainian writers' Vitchyzna/Vitcyzna (Fatherland) literary journal; Ukrainian humorous and satirical Perets (Pepper) weekly magazine; Ƴ Ukrainian Zhinka (woman) monthly/magazine Ukrainian linguistic Movoznavstvo journal or: Ukrainian linguists' Movoznavstvo journal; Ukrainian teachers of foreign languages Inozemni Movy journal; Ukrainian Suchasnists' (modern literature and politics) journal.

The titles of English newspapers, journals and magazines are

 

traditionally less explicated in Ukrainian (like in Russian) translation: the New York Times - ; Observer - ; Washington Post ; Business Week ( ) . The definite/indefinite article used before the titles of English newspapers/journals is mostly omitted in Ukrainian translation: The Teacher ҳ ( ); The Seaman ѳ ( ); but: News of the World ( ).

Several titles of foreign newspapers and journals may also be translated into English. Among them are the following: the Russian New Times English language journal; The Russian Army paper The Red Star (in Russia's English press, however, only Krasnaya Zvesda); the Decembrists journal The North Star; but - the Chinese Communist/ Peijing People's Daily.

7. Translation of the names of streets, avenues and squares is predetermined by several factors. Alongside the established tradition, the most important of these factors is the meaning of the component parts making up the name. When used in contextul environment, the names of streets, avenues, roads, and squares may often be simply transcribed or transliterated, since the nouns street, avenue, road or square are familiar to many Ukrainians: Dean Street ij-; Milton Street/Oxford Street ̳ /-; Wall Street/Fleet Street -/-; Farringdon Road -.





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