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ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ 5 страница



When used out of context, however, the names of streets, avenues and roads require in Ukrainian an additional explanatory noun вулиця (бульвар, провулок): Midland Park Road вул. Мідланд-парк роуд; Narrow Lane вул. (пров.) Нерроу-лейн; Portobello Road вул. Портобелло-Роуд; Threadneedle Street вул. Треднідл-Стріт (центр Сіті), but Wall Street Вол-Стріт.

The streets (avenues) with numbers instead of the proper names always have the number translated and not given in figures: Sixth/Seventh Street Шоста/Сьома вулиця (Нью-Йорк); First (Third, Ninth) Avenue Перша (Третя, Дев'ята) авеню. The names of streets with no appositional «street/avenue» nouns in English must be added вулиця in Ukrainian translation: Cheyne Walk вул. Чейні-вок (у районі Челсі); the Mall/Pall Mall вул. Мел/Пел Мел (у центрі Лондона); Unwin Place/Portland Place вул. Анвін-Плейс/вул.

 

Портленд-Плейс.

Ukrainian names of streets (roads, avenues) are translated according to the common rule, the proper name being transliterated (rarely transcribed) and the explaining common noun вулиця, бульвар, провулок is translated: Андріївська/Польова вулиця Andriivska/ Polyova Street; бульвар Лесі Українки/Шевченка Lesya Ukrainka/ Shevchenko Avenue. In recent years, however, especially in the local English press more and more often our вулиця, бульвар, etc. are transliterated in English: vulyts'a/vulytsia Kostel'na, vulytsia Bohdana Khmelnyts'koho, ploshcha Peremohy, ploshcha Tolstoho, but майдан Незалежності Maidan Nezalezhnosti, etc.

When the noun вулиця, бульвар, провулокіз not used in Ukrainian, it should naturally be added in the English translation: Андріївський Узвіз Andriivskyi Uzviz Road/vulytsia; Лиса Гора/ Ярославів Вал Lysa Hora/Yaroslaviv Val Street/vulytsia; Нижній/ Верхній Вал Nyzhniy/Verkhniy Val Street (Road) or vulytsia.

The names of streets and squares given in honour of social, political or historical events/personalities, along with the names formed from regular common nouns, qualitative or relative adjectives, are mostly translated. This way of translating is especially common in written language when it is not connected directly with oral communication: бульвар Дружби народів The Friendship of Nations (Peoples' Friendship) Avenue/Bulvar; вулиця Верховної Ради/ Грушевського Verkhovna Rada/Hrushevs'koho Street/vulytsia (in English newspapers published in Ukraine).

The names of English squares are also mostly transcribed and explicated (by adding площа) whether the noun «square» is mentioned or not: Clerkenwell Green/Percy Circus пл. Кларкенвел-Ґрін/Персі-серкус; Elephant and Castle пл. Елефант енд Касл; Grosvenor Square (Hanover Square) пл. Ґросвенор-Сквер (Геновер-Сквер).



Some names of squares may be either transcribed/transliterated or translated from the English language as well: Parliament Square пл. Парлемент-Сквер/ Парламентська площа; Trafalgar Square пл. ТрафальІ'ар-Сквер/Трафальґ'арська площа; George Washington Square пл. Джорджа Вашингтона/Майдан Джорджа Вашингтона.

Names of Ukrainian squares are rendered in a similar way though they are more often translated into English. It happens when the name of the square originates from a common noun or is a stable word-combination denoting some historical or revolutionary event:

 

площа Богдана Хмельницького/Толстого Bohdan Khmel'nytskyi/ Tolstoi Square/Ploshcha; Контрактова площа Kontraktova Square/ Ploshcha; Голосіївська пл. Holosiivska Square/Ploshcha and also: Bohdana Khmel'nytskoho Square/Ploshcha.

Sometimes in oral and written practice both transliteration or transcription as well as regular translation may be employed. This becomes inevitable when the name of the square/street originates from a common noun or when it is necessary to avoid some misunderstanding. Besides, there may arise a need to clarify the lexical meaning of a proper name (or a component part of it) in the target language: пл. Перемоги (Київ) Peremoha (Victory) Square/Ploshcha; пл. Возз'єднання (Київ) Vozyednannya (Reunification) Square/ Ploshcha; Музейний провулок Muzeinyi Provulok (by-street).

Certainly of interest for our students may be the rule of translating such peculiar notions as житловий масив and адміністративний район in a city. Thus, Васильківський/Яготинський район is Vasyl'kivs'kyi/Yahotyns'kyi district/rayon, Шевченківський район м. Києва is Shevchenkivs'kyi district of Kyiv. Any житловий район in any city is always a residential area: (the) Syrets/Nyvky residential area in Kyiv Shevchenkivs'kyi district, the Oleksiyivka residential area in Kharkiv, the Kharkivs'kyi Masyv residential area (in Kyiv).

8. Names of public bodies, however, are mostly translated. These include political parties, trade unions, national and international bodies of different rank and functions: the British Conservative party консервативна партія Великої Британії; the Democratic (Republican) party демократична (республіканська) партія, the Labour (Liberal) party лейбористська (ліберальна) партія; Християнсько-демократична партія України the Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine orthe Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party/Ukrainian Christian Democrats; українська селянська партія the Ukrainian Farmer's Party, спортивне товариство «Динамо» Dynamo sports society, Асоціація легкоатлетів України Ukrainian Light Athletics Association. Similarly treated are also various names of English/American trade unions which may sometimes go under the names «association», «society», «organization», «brotherhood» or simply «union», which should always be translated as профспілка: the AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labour- Congress of Industrial Organizations) АФП-КВП (Американська Федерація Праці - Конгрес Виробничих Профспілок); Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers об'єднана профспілка робітників машинобудівної промисловості Великої Британії; British Transport and General

 

Workers Union профспілка робітників транспорту і некваліфікованих працівників Великої Британії; United Mine Workers Association/United Miners об'єднана профспілка шахтарів (США).

Some trade unions of the USA are amalgamated with those of Canada. This is always indicated by the word «International» which should not erroneously be taken for міжнародний/міжнародна and consequently has to be translated as об'єднана профспілка США і Канади: International Ladies Garment Workers Об'єднана профспілка робітників по пошиттю жіночого верхнього одягу США і Канади: International Longshoremen Association об'єднана профспілка портових вантажників (докерів) США і Канади.

Names of Ukrainian trade unions are translated in the same way as the English (or American) ones. They may also be rendered in their full official wording or somewhat shortened (without using the words «trade union»): профспілка робітників гірничорудної промисловості України Ukrainian Mines Workers Union or Ukrainian Miners; профспілка машинобудівників України Ukrainian Engineering Workers Union/ Ukrainian Engineers; профспілка працівників освіти, вищої школи і наукових установ Ukrainian Public Education, Higher School and Scientific Institutions Workers (Trade) Union. Similarly translated are also names of international organizations as International Monetary Fund (IMF) Міжнародний Валютний Фонд; ЄЕС (European Economic Council) Економічна Рада Європи (Рада Європи); Дніпровський Центр українсько-польських культурних, наукових і ділових зв'язків The Dnieper area Center for Ukrainian and Polish Cultural, Scientific and Business Relations, etc.

9. Special attention should be paid to the translation of the names of institutions, enterprises, geographical objects, etc., bearing honorary names. In English the honorary name precedes the enterprise/body which bears it, whereas in Ukrainian/Russian it always follows the name of the enterprise/body: Humboldt State College Державний коледж ім. Гумбольдта; George Washington Library Бібліотека ім. Джорджа Вашинґтона; Lafayette/Longfellow College Коледж ім. Лафаєтта/Лонґфеллло; but: Cape Kennedy/ Vandenberg мис Кеннеді/Ванденберга, бібліотека ім. Котляревського the Kotlyarevskyi library; Національна бібліотека України ім. академіка Вернадського Ukrainian Academician Vernadskyi National Library.

Note. Names of literary and scientific/peace prizes are mainly

 

translated in two ways - with the preservation of the name which the prize bears or with the transformation of the noun into a corresponding relative adjective: Nobel Prize Нобелівська премія (премія імені Нобеля); Pulitzer Prize Пулітцерівска премія (премія ім. Пулітцера); Taras Shevchenko Prize Шевченківська премія (премія ім. Т.Г. Шевченка); Rylskyi Translation Prize перекладацька премія ім. Максима Рильського.

English honorary names, therefore, are mostly transformed into relative adjectives in Ukrainian, whereas Ukrainian relative adjectives must be translated, where possible, as corresponding English nouns. This rule should also be observed when translating the names which contain the often used adjective державний. The latter, however, may sometimes be omitted in English, which should not be treated as a translator's mistake. The thing is that belonging of important institutions to state property in all countries is considered self-evident. As a result, two faithful translations of this kind of names are possible: Київська державна кіностудія ім. О.Довженка, Kyiv State Dovzhenko Film Studio, 2. the Kyiv Dovzhenko Film Studio; Львівський державний університет ім. Івана Франка. 1. Lviv I.Franko State University, 2. Lviv I.Franko University or: 1. Kyiv State Taras Schevchenko National University 2. Kyiv Taras Schevchenko National University.

The honorary names originating from common nouns or from those denoting historical/revolutionary events may be conveyed in two ways: 1) translated only or 2) transliterated/transcribed and explicated in brackets at the same time. Especially often this kind of names were used in Soviet times. Cf. Дзвонковецький колгосп «Смерть капіталізму»/ «Тихе життя» (Корнійчук) the Dzvonkove Smert' Capitalizmu (Death to capitallizm /Tykhe Zhyttia (Quiet Life) collective farm; Львівська фірма кондитерських виробів «Світоч» Lviv Svitoch (Torchlight) Confectionery Firm. Some names of our institutions which have recently changed their official status may be used with the definite article in the English translated variant1: Горлівський державний педагогічний інститут іноземних мов The Horlivka Foreign Languages Teachers' Training Institute (now University); Київський медичний університет ім. Богомольця Kyiv Bohomolets Medical University; Музична школа ім. М.Лисенка The M.Lysenko Musical School. It should be emphasized that the NNN-.NNNN-, etc. asyndetic word-groups are preferred in newspaper style

1 See: Povey J., Walshs I. An English Teacher's Handbook of Educational Terms. 2nd Rev. Ed - M : Vyssaja Skola, 1982.

 

whereas in spoken language or in belles-lettres works prepositional phrases are used to convey such and the like names of institutions: колишній Києво-Святошинський радгосп «Шляхом перемог» (the) former Kyiv Svyatoshyn Shlyakhom Peremoh (On the Road to Victories) state farm (newspaper style), but (the) Shlyakhom Peremoh (On the Road to Victories) state farm in Kyiv Svyatoshyn district (spoken English or belles-lettres style). When translating such and the like often used today complicated names of different institutions, the student should strictly stick to the rule: in English the honorary name, functioning as a relative adjective, follows the place name substituting the Ukrainian possessive and relative adjective formed from the place name. For example: Київський державний педагогічний університет імені М.Драгоманова Kyiv State M.Drahomanov Teachers Training University.

Similarly translated are also names of newly formed on the basis of former collective/state farms enterprises. Cf. Семенівське КСП (колективне сільськогосподарське підприємство) Semenivs'ke Cooperative Agricultural Enterprise; Рідкодубське приватне с/г Товариство The Ridkodub Private Farmers' Association/Joint Stock Agricultural Association, etc.

Any other approach to translation of such and the like word-group structures, including the descriptive translation, which is sometimes employed by inexperienced translators, will be stylistically incompatible and therefore wrong. Care should be taken to avoid the stylistically unjustified expression «the named after» which is to be used only in explanatory versions, as in the sentence «After Ukraine's gaining independence many state institutions were named after our most prominent patriots Hrushevskyi, Vynnychenko, The Heroes of Kruty, Petlyura, and many others.» Hence, the Lviv V.Stefanyk library, the Symyrenko Horticultural Research Centre and never «the named after» Symyrenko Horticultural Research Centre or «the named after» V.Stefanyk Lviv library. It must be repeatedly emphasized that the placement of the honorary name in English translations is strictly predetermined and can not be changed deliberately unless required by the speech situation (style) and content.

Topics for Self-Control and Class/Home Reviewing

1. The main rules of conveying different English sounds in

Ukrainian translations of proper nouns.

2. Rules and methods of Romanization of different Ukrainian

 

proper nouns in English (names/family names of people, place names, etc.).

3. Methods of conveying the nicknames of people in English

and Ukrainian (the general rule and exceptions).

4. Methods of translating the nationally generalizing names of

people as Mr.Knowall, Панібудьласка, etc.

5. Rules of translating the names of companies, corporations,

firms and their equivalent bodies in English and Ukrainian.

6. The rule of translating the names of institutions bearing hon

orary names in English and Ukrainian.

7. The rule of translating the names of hotels, guest houses,

hostels in English and Ukrainian.

8. Rules of translating the names of streets, squares, and resi

dential areas from Ukrainian into English.

9. The rule of translating the names of English/Ukrainian pub

lishing houses, news agencies, etc.

10. Rules of translating the names of public bodies into Eng

lish and Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Translate the following English proper names and surnames into Ukrainian. Substantiate your way of translation. Model: John Джон (common name), Іван/Іоан (Biblical name, name of the Pope, king or prince).

a) Abel, Adrian, Albert, Aloysius, Alvin, Ambrose, Ananias,

Anthony, Athelstan(e), Augustus, Aurelius, Balthas(z)ar, Barnard,

Bartholomew, Basil, Caleb, Christopher, Clarence, Cyril, Cyrus, Doug

las, Duncan, Edmund, Elijah, Emil(e), Enoch, Erasmus, Eugene,

Evan, Evelyn, Gabriel, Gaylord, Gerald, Giles, Griffith, Gustavus,

Harold, Hilary, Hugh, Ian, Ivor, Jacob, James, Joachim, Job, Jonathan,

Joshua, Lawrence, Leigh, Leonard, Luke, Mark, Matthew, Meredith,

Miles, Moses, Nicolas, Noah, Orville, Paul, Peter, Philenion, Ralf,

Sam(p)son, Silas, Simon, Solomon, Stewart, Timothy, Titus, Van,

Virgil, Vivian, Walter, Zachariah, Zeke.

b) Abigail, Adaline, Alberta, Agnes, Alexandra, Angelica,

Annabella, Aurora, Beryl, Camilla, Caroline, Charity, Daisy, Delia,

Eileen, Eleanor, Enid, Eudora, Eva (Eve), Georgia, Grace, Hannah,

Helen(a), Honey, Hope, Ida, Irene, Ivy, Jacqueline, Janet, Julia,

Katherina(e), Leonora, Una, Lolita, Lucia, Lydia, Marianne, Martha,

Mina, Myra, Nabby, Nadine, Orrie, Pamela, Patience, Paula, Pheny,

 

Regina, Rita, Sandra, Sawnie, Serena, Tabitha, Theresa, Una, Vera, Vida, Viola, Virginia, Wilhelmina, Winifred, Zenobia, Zoe.

c). Adams, Ade, Bamber, Seattle, Bingham, Bloye, Caldocot, Carliie, Cheeseman, Cohen, Cowie, Dalglish, Disney, Dooling, Eaton, Ellsworth, Evans, Fawley, Foche, Fowler, Gaulit, Gifford, Greaves, Gilmour, Hare, Hawley, Hooligan, Horrocks, Hurstwood, Irving, Julian, Kane, Keyworth, Knighton, Knickerbaker, Layman, Mathews, Maw, McEnrol, Methuselah, Meno, Merriweather, Nawrat, Ockham, O'Connor, Ogle, O'Grady, Otway, Palmer, Paisley, Plowdon, Pooley, Priscott, Quaker, Ramsay, Reeve, Rotthwell, Rushworth, Sounders, Sivers, Sowers, Statham, Teall, Thorndike, Drey, Uriah, Urduahart, Van Allen, Van Buren, Vane, Wainwright, Wallace, Warwick, Watt, Yaspan.Zangwill.

Exercise II. Translate the following Ukrainian proper names and surnames into English. Define the way they are rendered (transcribed, transliterated, partly transliterated or partly transcribed, etc.).

a) Амросій, Аркадь, Архип, Богдан, Валентин, Валерій,

Василь, Володимир, В'ячеслав, Георгій, Дем'ян, Дорофій, Йосип,

Мар'ян, Михайло, Олексій, Охрім, Пантелеймон, Пилип, Тиміш,

Филимон, Хома, Юрій, Юхим, Яким.

b) Анастасія, Борислава, Василина, Віра, Галина, Ганна,

Євпраксія, Жанна, Зінаїда, Іванна, Катерина, Ксенія, Лариса/Леся,

Лепестина, Люба, Людмила, Марися, Надія, Оксана, Онисія,

Павлина, Раїса, Соломія, Таїсія, Уляна, Фросина, Юлія,

Юхимина, Явдоха, Ярослава,

c) Андрійчук, Архипенко, Богданець, Вирвикишка,

Віталієнко, Горпищенко, Григораш, Де, Дем'янчук, Дерипаско,

Добридень, Дорожченко, Жлуктенко, Жуйхліб, Іллюк, Кирп'юк,

Марущак, Неїжмак, Непийпиво, Нетреба, Нетудихата, Охрім'кж,

Ольжич, Павлюченко, Печиборщ, Панібудьласка, Підкуймуха,

Підопригора, Реп'ях, Тягнирядно, Убийвовк, Федюнишин, Ховрах,

Цьох, Юрчишин, Янченко.

d) Suggest possible methods of translation into Ukrainian for

the following English generalizing/characterizing names:

Mrs. Bundle, Mr. Gila Bend, the Giggler, Mr. Happness, Curly Bull, Run Bill Pilgrim, Whistling Dick, Shark Dodson, Lord Rubudub, Lady Singsung, Pennifeather (from K.Vonnegut's works), Mr. Knowall (Maugham), Gimlet of Ghent, Beowulf the Bradawl, Mr. Sparrow, Don Back, farmer Meadowlark, philosophical Philip, Tom Lackford Promoter, Mr. Beanhead, Mr. Newrich, Lord Oxhead, Rollothe Rumbottle

 

(from S.Leacock's works). Mrs. Trotter, Mrs. Struggles, Alfred Jingle, Mr. Mallard, Mr.Walker, Mr.Copperfield, Mr.Gradgrind (from C.Dickens's works); Mr. Crabtree/Backbite, Mrs. Sneerwell (Sheridan).

e) Suggest your versions for the nicknames of the U.S. and Canadian sports clubs and translate the sentences into Ukrainian: 1) In sports many victories were never enjoyed for long and the losses lingered. 2) The New York Yankees sprayed champagne after John Wetteland closed out the World Series, but he soon departed to the Texas Rangers as a $24 million free agent. 3) Jimmy Key took the Baltimore Orioles' money. Jim Leyritz, whose home run fumed the Series, was traded to the Anaheim Angels. 4) Michael Jordan lifted the Chicago Bulls to a fourth National Basketball Association title. 5) John LeClair scored twice as the Philadelphia Flyers stretched the National Hockey League's longest current unbeaten run to 13 games with a 4-2 victory over the slumping Calgary Flames. 6) Tommy Albelin and Sandy McCarthy, with his first goal of the season, led the Flames. 7) The loss left the Panthers in a first-place tie with Philadelphia in the Atlantic Division. 8) The Blues had not beaten the Bruins since 1994. 9) NBA Roundup: Shaquille O'Neal scored 28 points in 28 minutes and Eddie Jones had 20 points and seven steals as the Los Angeles Lakers beat the Philadelphia 76ers. 10) Isaiah Rider scored 19 points while playing less than three quarters as the host Trail Blazers routed the Spurs.

Exercise III. Identify the methods of translation of the following holy names, festivities, and remembrance days of the Orthodox Church into Ukrainian. Use the English-Ukrainian dictionaries or part В of this exercise for the purpose.

A.Nativity Vigil, Nativity of Christ, Mother of God, First Martyr Stephan, St.Basil the Great/New Year, Jordan Dinner, Theophany, John the Baptist, Three Hierarchs, Meeting of the Lord, Meat Fare Sunday, All Souls Saturday, Cheese Fare Sunday, Great Fast, Sunday of Orthodoxy, Cross Veneration, Sunday Great Fast, Annunciation, Great Thursday/Friday, Easter Sunday/Monday, Saint Thomas, Ascension, Peter's Fast, Pentacost, Holy Spirit, Apostles Peter and Paul, Blessed Olha, Patron Saint Day, Saint Volodymyr, Prophet Elijah, Baptism of Ukraine (August 14, 988), Transfiguration, Dormition, Beheading of St. John the Baptist, Cross Elevation, Protection Mother of God, Remembrance Day, Synaxis of Archangel Michael, Autumn Nativity Fast, Entry Mother of God, Apostle Andrew, Saint Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, Conception of Mother of God.

 

В. Святий Вечір, Різдво Христове, Первомученика Стефана, Пресвята Богородиця, Святого Василя Великого/Новий Рік, Йорданська Вечеря, Богоявлення, Іоан Хреститель, Трьох Святителів, Стрітення Господнє, М'ясопусна Неділя, Поминальна Субота, Сиропусна Неділя, Неділя Православ'я, Великий Піст/ Хрестопоклоніння, Благовіщення, Страсний Четвер/П'ятниця, Великодня Неділя, Світлий Понеділок, Провідна Неділя/Проводи, Вознесіння, Петрівка, Трійця /День Св.Трійці, День Св. Духа, Св. апостолів Петра і Павла, Блаженної Ольги, Храмове Свято, Св. Володимира, Пророка Іллі /Спасівка, Хрещення України, Преображення, Успіння Пресвятої Богородиці, Усічення глави Св.Іоана Хрестителя, Воздвиження (Чесного) Хреста, Покрова (Св.Богородиці), Поминки, Собор Архангела Михаїла, Пилипівка, Введення Пресвятої Богородиці, Св. Апостола Андрія Первозванного, Св. Миколая Чудотворця, Зачаття Пресвятої Богородиці.

Exercise IV. Translate the following geographical names into Ukrainian and define the method each of them is rendered in part a) and part b):

a) the Channel Islands, the Cheviot Hills, Christmas Island,

the Commander Islands, the Crocodile River, Everglades National

Park (USA), the Grand Falls, Grand Falls (town), the Great Slave

River, the Great Sandy Desert (Australia), the Great Victoria Desert,

Hudson Bay, Idaho Falls, Kerch Strait, Maritime Territory (Russia),

Near Islands, the Niagara Falls, the White Nile, the White Mountains,

the Yellow River.

b) 1. The Rocky Mountains (the Rockies) are considered young

mountains: of the same age as the Alps in Europe, the Himalayas in

Asia, and the Andes in South America. 2. There are 48 areas in the

Rocky Mountains set aside by state and federal governments for

national parks. Among the world-wide known are Yellowstone Na

tional Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, Mesa Verde National Park,

and, of course, Grand Canyon National Park. In the Sierra Nevada

Mountains area best-known is the Yosemite National Park. 3. The

Appalachians are old mountains with many coal-rich valleys among

them. 4. The Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains

catch the largest share of rain off the Pacific Ocean. 5. At the border

of the Pacific Ocean lie the Coast Ranges, relatively low mountains.

6. The Grand Canyon cut by the Colorado River in the high Colorado

Plateau, is 1.6 kilometers in depth. 7. North of the Central Lowland

are the five Great Lakes and West of the Central Lowland are the

 

Great Plains. 8. The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers, like the Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, or the Ganges, Amur, and Yangtze in Asia. 9. The winding Mississippi River and its various branches drain a great basin extending from the Appalachians to the Rockies about one-third the land of the United States. 10. Curving through the heart of the whole western half of the Central Basin is the Missouri River, chief western branch of the Mississippi, once the most destructive river in the United States. 11. The Missouri rises high among the snows of the Rocky Mountains. 12. Like the Mississippi all rivers - east of the Rockies finally arrive at the Atlantic. For this reason the crests of the Rocky Mountains are known as the Continental Divide. 13. The Rio Grande is the foremost river of the Southwest between Mexico and the United States. 14. The skyscrapers of New York, the steel mills of Pittsburg and the automobile assembly lines of Detroit which are symbols of industrial America form the «melting pot» of the country. 15. Detroit, heart of automobile industry, began as a waggon-making town, using wood from the forests that covered the peninsula between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. 16. The cargo tonnage which passes between Lake Superior and Lake Huron about equals the combined capacity of the Panama and Suez Canals. 17. From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across New York State flows the Hudson River which falls to New York harbour. 18. Great Salt Lake to the north of Salt Lake City in the State of Utah, contains an estimated six thousand millions of tons of soda.

Exercise V. Define the methods in which the following geographical names below have to be translated into English.

Алабама (p.), Алабама (штат США), Азорські острови, Апандські острови, Алжир (країна і столиця), Альпи, Амазонка, Азовське море, Аральське море, р.Буг, Говерла, Арктика, Атлантика, Багамські о-ви, Бенґальська затока, оз. Верхнє, Гавайські о-ви, Ґобі (пустеля), Ґрампіанські гори, оз. Гурон, м. Данді/Дербі, р. Дунай, Кривбас, м.Едінбурґ, оз. Ейре, м. Житомир/Запоріжжя, Ірландське море, м. Кельн, Лестер, Ліворно, Лідс, Маґелланова протока, гори Маккензі, острів Мен, р. Міссурі, р. Прип'ять, м. Мюнхен, м. Новий Орлеан, р. Огайо, оз. Онтаріо, Оркнейські о-ви, Піренеї, м. Ростов-на-Дону, Сахара (пустеля), Невада (пустеля і штат), Керченська протока, Кримський перешийок, ос. Святої Єлени, Сейшельські о-ви, Соломонові о-ви, р. Темза, м. Ворик, м. Франкфурт-на-Майні, м.Аахен.

 

Exercise VI. Translate the names of the following English and American trade unions into Ukrainian:

1. ACTW, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers (USA).

2. AUEW, Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers (USA).

3. AAEE, American Association of Electrical Engineers. 4. AAA, Ameri

can Automobile Association. 5. ASLEF, Associated Society of Loco

motive Engineers and Firemen. 6. NUT, National Union of Teachers

(Gr. Br.). 7. SE, Scottish Electricals. 8. TGWU, Transport and General

Workers Union (Gr. Britain ). 9. UPOW, Union of Post Office Workers

(Gr. Br.). 10. UMWA, United Mine Workers of America.

11. UAWU, United Auto Workers Union. 12. USWA, United Shoe Work

ers of America. 13. UTWA, United Textile Workers of America. 14. The

AFL - CIO, the American Federation of Labour - the Congress of In

dustrial Organizations. 15. UPS, United Parcel Service (USA).

Exercise VII. Translate the following names of Ukrainian trade unions into English. Define the method they are to be rendered:

1. Профспілка працівників будівельної промисловості України. 2. Профспілка працівників енергетичної промисловості України. 3. Профспілка працівників гірнично-рудної промисловості України. 4. Профспілка працівників м'ясо-молочної промисловості України. 5. Профспілка працівників машинобудівної промисловості України. 6. Профспілка працівників охорони здоров'я України. 7. Профспілка працівників освіти, вищої школи та наукових установ України. 8. Профспілка працівників суднобудівної промисловості України. 10. Профспілка працівників хімічної промисловості України.

Exercise VIII. Translate the names of the following English public bodies into Ukrainian:

a) 1. Amateur Athletic Association. 2. The British Field Sports Society. 3. Royal Geographical Society. 4. New Economic Foundation. 5. Greenpeace. 6. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. 7. Boy Scouts Association. 8. British Association for the Security and Cooperation in Europe. 9. British Institute of Public Opinion (Gullop Poll). 10. British Medical Association. 11. CPDS, Centre for Political and Diplomatic Studies (Oxford). 12. IATEFL International Association for Teaching English as a Foreign Language 13. Central Office of Information. 14. Department of Education and Science. 14. Department of Employment. 15. Duke of Humphrey's Library (Oxford Univ.) 16. Inner London Education Authority. 17. London County Council. 18. London Stock Exchange. 19. (Public) Record Office.

 

20. Royal Exchange. 21. Royal Mint. 22. Royal National Institute for the Blind/Deaf. 23. Joint Nature Conservation Committee environmental protection (Gr. Br.) 24. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. 25. UN Security Council. 26. CBIE Canadian Bureau for International Education. 27. The Democratic Party. 28. The Republican Party (USA). 29. The Royalist Party. 30. The Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine. 31. The Lovers of Beer Party (Ukraine). 32. The Women Admirers Party (Ukraine).

b) Find Ukrainian equivalents for the English public bodies below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. There is a broad consensus that the Social Security system needs reform, but little agreement on what should be done, and many of the important organizations in the debate are formulating their strategies. 2. The AFL-CIO, which has focused on Wall Street as an adversary in the campaign ahead, is seeking to protect a financial safety net for low-income workers, as well as to maintain a central role for government in public benefit programmes. 3. Even the AFL-CIO, however, favours investing Social Security money in the stock and bond markets, although it wants the money controlled by the government, and not put in the hands of private investors. 4. The Hong Kong Aircrew Officers' Association said pilots had been complaining of a loud buzzing in their ears that forced them to quickly change to another frequency to maintain contact with air-traffic control. 5. The strike was called by the Histadrut Trade Union Federation to protest tax increases, budget cuts and privatization plans of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government. 6. The meeting of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) ended Friday in Copenhagen. 7. The Ukrainian Union of Businessmen became a member of the International Organization of Employers (ЮЕ). 8. Abraham Katz, president of the U.S.Council for International Business and deputy chairman of the ЮЕ executive committee, noted at the meeting that the success of reforms in Ukraine is defined by the level and speed of investments, both domestic and foreign. 9. Residents of the Bukit Gombak public housing estate in the central part of the main island of Singapore have a powerful inducement to end their support for the opposition and vote for the candidate of the governing People's Action Party. 10. Janice Shields of the U.S.Public Interest Research Group and Chris Privett of the American Society of Travel Agents, blamed airline pricing policies for the wide range of prices, saying «there may be up to 100,000 fare changes a day». 11. Mr. Rajavi married Maryam,





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