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Naturally, not every adjunct (identifying word or word-group) forming a word-combination with a polysemantic word, can discriminate the real nature and meaning of the lexeme. Because of this care should be taken when translating such polysemantic words, which may have under the same lingual form either a genuine or a

1 An illustration of this pseudo-international meaning of the noun conductor can be seen in the following excerpt from The Economist journal (February 28, 1998): A spectacular example of Oxford Health Plans once fastest-growing HMO in America. The conductor Stephen Wiggins was forced to resign as chairman on February 24th.


pseudo-international, e.i., common, non-international meaning, the latter being realized in a definite context only. A few more examples of such words may be useful:







художній мистецький артистичний

театральний драматичний

хвилюючий яскравий раптовий непередбачений


промисловість галузь промисловості старанність працьовитість




громадський цивільний

ввічливий чемний



доцільний фактичний

революція переворот

Revolution < оберт (навколо осі) сівозміна (с/г) кругообіг


Apart from the polysemantic words with several meanings, one of which is genuine international and the rest pseudo-international, i.e., non-international as in the examples above, there are also quite a few words in present-day English and Ukrainian which have an identical orthographic form but quite different lexical meaning: accu-rate точний, правильний, влучний but not акуратний: billet ордер на постій, приміщення для постою but not квиток; compositor складач (друк.) but not композитор; data дані but not дата; decade десятиріччя but not декада; decoration нагорода, прикраса but not декорація; Dutch голландський but not данський: fabulist байкар, вигадник but not фабуліст; intelligence розум, кмітливість but not інтелігенція: momentous важливий but not моментальний; matrass колба but not матрац (mattress): obligation зобов'язання but not облігація; potassium калій but not поташ; prospect перспектива but not проспект; production виробництво, випуск but not only продукція: replica точна копія but not репліка; spectre привид but not спектр, etc.

As can be ascertained, these English words quite accidentally coincide in their lingual form with some other borrowed words in Ukrainian. Thus, «replica», for example, has quite a different denotative meaning in Ukrainian than our репліка (cue, remark). So is the deno-


tative meaning of many other words, whose number by far exceeds that on the above-given list. These and the like pseudo-international words are often referred to as «false friends of the translator» (удавані друзі перекладача).

Unlike common lexical units, whose orthographic and sounding forms never coincide in the target language and in the source language, the lingual form of genuine international lexemes in all languages is always either identical or similar. It does not mean that the structural form of genuine internationalisms is necessarily always transplanted to the target language as it is observed in simple lexemes like drama, poet, opera, suffix, lord, kimono, sari, kiwi, motor, proton (драма, поет, опера, суфікс, лорд, кімоно, сарі, etc.).

More often the same genuine international lexemes in English and Ukrainian may have a different morphological structure. In Ukrainian they usually take derivational and often also inflexional affixes which is rarely observed in present-day English. As a result, most of genuine international words in Ukrainian are structurally more complicated than in English (cf. apathy-апат/я, dietic-дієтичний, form -форма, exploit - експлуатувати, economic-економічний), etc.

Some genuine international words, however, may be structurally more complicated in English than in Ukrainian: Cf.: Greek: analysis аналіз, diagnosis діагноз, sclerosis склероз, academician академік, geographer географ, mathematician математик, philosopher філософ, geologist геолог; Latin: appendicitis апендицит, tuberculosis туберкульоз, rheumatismus ревматизм, etc.

Hence, the structural models according to which different logico-grammatical classes of internationalisms are adopted in English and in Ukrainian mostly differ. On this ground relevant for the identification, as well as for the translation of any international word, remains its root morpheme, i.e., its sense bearing seme. Taking this into account, lexemes like anti-trade, arch-enemy, inventor consisting of international affixes and having common root morphemes are to be treated as non-internationalisms, i.e., as pseudo-internationalisms. The international nature/status of a source language lexeme is considered to be fully retained, when the root morpheme or at least the sense and lingual form (part of it) can be rendered in the target language. Consequently, the compounds consisting of a genuine international and a common root morpheme as school-male, coal-gas, washing-тасш'пе. etc. are to be defined in English as partly international, i.e., mixed-type lexical units. Similarly in Ukrainian: Газосховище, радіохвилі, водно-спиртовий.



From what has been pointed out concerning the nature and componental structure of genuine internationalisms becomes clear, that a faithful rendering of their lexical meaning often requires considerable attention on the part of translators. At any rate, in the process of their translation several factors have to be taken into consideration both at language level and at speech level. These factors imply the lingual form, the lexical meaning, the structure, the source of origin and the orthographic presentation of internationalisms in both the languages. As a result, expresing of meaning of some internationalisms may not always be termed «translation» proper since it is a regular and complete transplantation of the source language units to the target language (cf. atom атом, plan план, professor професор, algebra алґебра, poetnoem, etc). Besides, translating of international lexemes may sometimes depend on the established model stereotype according to which they are generally adopted in the target language. Taking into account various peculiarities of meaning and form of international lexemes, several ways of conveying their meaning can be suggested.

1. Literal Translating of Genuine Internationalisms. It should be pointed out that the lingual form of all componental parts in genuine international words and phrases is more often completely transplanted, when they originate from languages, whose orthographic systems have been arranged on phonetical principles. Hence, the authenticity of literal translating from languages as Latin, Greek, Italian, Ukrainian, partly Russian and Spanish will be always higher than that from the English or French languages, whose orthographic systems are based on the historical and etymological principles. It does not mean, however, that a less exact literal transplantation should be regarded as less faithful or inferior. Any of them is faithful enough when it conveys the form and meaning of internationalisms. In this view literal translating of genuine internationalisms should not be regarded as a mechanical substitution of each letter of the source language lexeme for a corresponding letter of the target language. In many a case a letter may be dropped or added (substituted for another) in the target language when it is not in full conformity with its sound or spelling systems. Nevertheless, there are many letter-to-letter transliterated genuine internationalisms in English and Ukrainian. Latin: angina анґіна, dentist дентист, symposium симпозіум,


gladiator гладіатор, microscope мікроскоп, rector ректор; Greek: poet поет, micron мікрон, electron електрон, stadium стадіон, drama драма, theatre театр; Italian: macaroni макарони, pizza піцца, concerto концерт, duet дует, solo соло; Spanish: armada армада, tango танґ'о, El Dorado ельдорадо, embargo ембарго, etc.

It would be wrong to assume that genuine internationalisms from other than the above-mentioned languages can not be fully or almost fully transliterated. Literal translating can faithfully convey the lexical meaning of many English, French, German and also other than European by origin lexemes: English: bulldog бульдог1, club клуб, mister містер, shelf шельф, shilling шилінґ, shrapnel шрапнель; French: chef шеф, festival фестиваль, chiffon шифон, franc франк; Germ.: Diktat диктат, Deutsche Mark дойч марк; Portugese: cobra кобра, flamingo фламінго; Czech: robot робот; Hindi: brahmin брамін, khaki хакі, sari сарі; Japanese: kimono кімоно, tsunami цунамі; Arabic: algebra алгебра, atlas атлас, harem гарем; African: banana банан, baobab баобаб, zebra зебра; Australian aboriginal: dingo дінго, kiwi ківі, etc.

Literal translation of some of these and other genuine internationalisms may not be fully trusted, perhaps, as it has been performed not directly from the original languages but through English, which is an intermediary language here. The existence of literal forms of genuine internationalisms from these languages, however, is beyond any doubt like those from Ukrainian (cf. steppe, Cos-sack/Kozak, hryvnia); or Russian (balalaika, samovar, vodka, etc.). Nevertheless, in many genuine internationalisms there is no absolute literal/orthographic coincidence in the source language and in the target language: basin басейн, monsoon мусон, waltz вальс, wine вино, salt сіль, степ steppe, devil диявол, muscle мускул, etc.

These divergences in the literal rendering are to be explained either by the influence of the intermediary languages or by the peculiarity of the target language admitting or not admitting the source language orthographic representation (cf. brahmin брамін, class клас, diet дієта, molecule молекула, etc.) or foreign signs by the target language.

2. Translating via Transcribing/Conveying the Sounding Structure

Many genuine internationalisms are also faithfully rendered into the target language in their sounding form. This kind of translating provides the rendition of the lexical meaning of a lot of internationalisms originating from English, French and some other languages, which have


their orthographic systems based on other than phonetical principles. Cf.: English: boom бум, box бокс, yeans джинси, knock-out нокаут, leader лідер, га/с/рейд, round раунд, frac/стрек; French: boulevard бульвар, bouquet букет, bourgeoisie буржуазія, bureau бюро, drape драп, prize приз, pince-nez пенсне, etc.

The English and French international lexemes above belong to the lexico-grammatical class of nouns. But the number of genuine internationalisms, whose lexical meaning is faithfully conveyed in their unchanged original lingual form is small. More units of the layer of lexicon in English and Ukrainian do not fully coincide in their orthographic, sounding and morphological (structural) form. This is to be explained by the differences in the phonetic and morphological systems of the two languages and also by the possible influence of a third language as an intermediary between the source/target language and the language from which the international lexeme originates. To render faithfully the denotative meaning and the lingual form of these genuine internationalisms other ways of translating are to be employed.

3. Translating by Practical Transcribing

International morphemes and lexemes are adopted in all languages according to the historically established traditions of their own. These find their expression in stereotype models for each lexico-grammatical class of words. As a result, any international word, whatever the language of its origin and irrespective of the source language, from which it is translated, will have one and the same lingual and structural form in the target language. Thus, whether it is bankruptcy in English, bankerott in German, banqueroute in French or bancarotta in Italian, it will always remain «банкрутство» in Ukrainian. Hence, only some degree of likeness is retained between the lingual form of bankruptcy and its Ukrainian equivalent «банкрутство». The adopted word has obtained in the target language an orthographic, sounding and morphological/structural form, which is only similar to that of English, French, German, or Italian. This kind of adopting internationalisms is traditionally called «practical transcribing» or translator's transcription.

Hense, some internationalisms may retain still less similarity/ likeness in their lingual form when they are translated from English into Ukrainian: bacne/огбакалавр, cocoa какао, crown корона/крона, dance танець, giant пїант, grade градус, nocus-росизфокус, mother-of-pearl перламутр, mosque мечеть, о/У олія, outpost аванпост, papa/папський, pound фунт (from German Pfund), etc.


The number of internationalisms making up this group is comparatively small in the two contrasted languages. The bulk of international lexemes, when conveyed by way of practical transcribing, still retain a considerable degree of lingual and structural similarity in the two languages. These are first of all nouns of Greek and Latin origin and also some adjectives, adverbs and verbs. They may often differ considerably in their morphological structure, mostly taking additional affixal morphemes in Ukrainian: ambition амбіція, apathy апатія, condenser конденсатщ, devil диявол, diplomacy дипломатія, hierarchy ієрархія, lecturer лектор., vegetarian вегетаріанський, condense конденсувати, criticize критикувати, stabilize стабілізувати, seriously серйозно, economic економічніш, etc.

Translating of genuine and mixed-type international compounds is performed on the basis of and in accordance with the lingual form and structure of their componental parts. As a result, English international compounds can be rendered in the following ways:

a) with the help of corresponding compounds having the same

international root morphemes as in the source language: electro-

biology електробіологія, f/Vm-acfor кіноактор, gas-meter газометр,

motor-cyclist мотоцикліст, radio-active радіоактивний, six-footer

шестифутовий, etc.

b) by word-combinations consisting of the same componental

parts as in the international English compound words but of different

than in the source language morphological structure and nature of a

componental part of speech: dance-music (N+N) танцювальна (adj.)

музика, gas-collector газовий (а.) колектор, nerve-centre нервовий

(а.) центр, olive-coloured оливкового (а.) кольору, police-station

поліційне (а.) відділення, radio-active element радіоактивний (а.)

елемент, telegraph-line телеграфна (а.) лінія, etc. Thus, only ra

dio-active and радіоактивний are adjectives in both languages.

Mixed-type compounds consisting of international and common Ukrainian root morphemes are translated in accordance with their complex nature. Their equivalents in Ukrainian, however, may be both compound words and word-combinations consisting of international and non-international (as in the original) component parts (or even simple words): gas-mask протигаз, taxi-cab таксі, river-basin басейн річки, toilet-table туалетний столик, torpedo-boat торпедний катер, turning-point поворотний пункт, etc.

4. Descriptive Translating of International Lexemes Many genuine international lexemes are semantically condensed and can be translated into the target language only in a de-


scriptive way. Depending on the nature of the lexemes, their translation may have two somewhat different realizations:

a) the lingual form of the source language lexeme/s can be

retained as the main lexeme/s of the target language word-combina

tion/sentence: civilizable той (та.те), що піддається цивілізуванню/

цивілізації; classifiable той (та,те), що піддається класифікації;

barony 1 .володіння барона; 2.титул барона; energize викликати

(збуджувати) енергію; examinee той, що екзаменується/складає

іспит; golf-club 1. клуб гравців з ґольфу; 2. ключка для гри в ґольф;

b) the lingual form of the internationalism is not or can not be

retained in the target language. It happens when the internationalism

has not been adopted yet by the target language. Thus, the noun epi

logue is a genuine internationalism in many European languages but

the adjective epilogic derived from it, though semantically quite pellu

cid, is unknown in Ukrainian. Besides, some internationalisms can be

substituted in the process of translation with the aim of achieving ex

pressiveness (for the reasons of style) or for the sake of explaining

their denotative meaning: deputize (v) виступати (бути

представником) від когось; epilogic заключний, кінцевий; park (park

ing) ставити машину на стоянку; percenter лихвар («процентник»);

twopenny нікчемний/копійчаний (вартий двох пенні).

5. Translating by Way of Synonymous Substitution An international lexeme of the target language can be often substituted in the process of translation for another international lexeme of synonymous or close to it (or of the same) meaning. The substitutions are mostly performed in larger context, though sometimes they may also be carried out at language level. This kind of substitution becomes possible due to the existence in the target language of internationalisms borrowed by it at different previous historical periods. Such international lexemes are of the same logico-grammatical/ lexico-grammatical class. The faithfulness of translation achieved through this kind of synonymous substitutions may be usually established in a text only, though it may partly be traced at the word-group level as well. This can be seen from the following examples: athletics гімнастика and not атлетика, diagram схема and not діаграма, phase період and not фаза, fashion paper журнал мод and not журнал фасонів, base фундамент and not база, committee комісія and not комітет, gangster бандит and not ґанґстер, standard еталон and not стандарт; ангар garage and not hanger, бульвар avenue and not boulevard, графік plan/diagram and not graph, естрада variety and not estrade, party line політичний курс and not партійна лінія, national


есопотународне господарство and not національна економіка. The use of such and the like forms of internationalisms is always predetermined, naturally, only by context.

Translating of Loan Internationalisms

Forming a common fund of lexicon in different languages of a geographical area, the loan units usually retain an identical/similar surface structure, i.e., form of a word, word-combination or sentence. Like genuine internationalisms, they are constantly appearing in different languages as a result of unceasing progress in various domains of science, technology and culture. A great many of international loans have long become an integral part of each language's lexicon. Despite all that, they preserve in each national language the unity of their componental parts, i.e., their structural peculiarly, an absolutely identical notional meaning and a common sphere of functioning: loud-speaker: Germ. Lautsprecher, Ital. altoparlante, Ukr. гучномовець, Russ. громкоговоритель; steam-engine: Germ. Dampfmaschine, Ital. macchina a vapore, Ukr. парова машина, Russ. паровая машина; long/short waves (radio), Germ, lange/kurze Wellen, Ital. onde lunge/corte, Ukr. довгі/короткі хвилі, Russ. длинньїе/короткие волньї, etc.

A bulk of international loan words and expressions are used to designate various grammatical, lexicological, stylistic and other notions. Depending on their nature, as well as on their denotative meaning and their sphere of functioning, international loan units can be rendered into Ukrainian in one of the following three ways:

a) by direct translation of the componental parts without changing considerably their structural form cf.: coefficient of efficiency коефіцієнт корисної дії, conjugation/declension дієвідмінювання/ відмінювання (слів); genitive/dative case родовий/давальний відмінок; personal/possessive pronouns особові/присвійні займенники; prepositional government прийменникове керування; compound nominal predicate складений іменний присудок; literal/ verbal translation буквальний/дослівний переклад, etc.

Note. It is worth mentioning that some Ukrainian or Russian loan internationalisms may be genuine internationalisms in other languages and vice versa. Thus, підмет, присудок and other parts of the sentence are genuine internationalisms in English, German, Italian and in some other West European languages. Cf.: the subject, the predicate, the object; German: der Subjekt, das Pradicat, das


Objekt; Italian: il soggetto, il predicate, etc. Consequently, these and other loan internationalisms are practically rendered only with the help of the phonological level units, i.e., they are transcribed or transliterated in these three languages.

b) with the help of componental translation and some replace

ments, omissions or substitutions arising from the national peculiari

ties of the target language, i.e, depending on its stylistic mode of

usage. Thus, the equivalent of the English set expression foreign

trade is not іноземна торгівля but зовнішня торгівля, and living

standardis not життєвий стандарт but життєвийр/вень. Similarly

in other cases with single loan internationalisms. Cf.: homogeneous

parts of the sentence однорідні члени речення but not частини

речення; structure of matter is будова матерії but not структура

матерії, national anthem is державний гімн but not національний

гімн. Similarly with national serviceman військовослужбовець а не

національний службовець and parts of speech are частини мови,

but not члени мови.

c) with the help of descriptive translation as in the examples

like: digital computer цифрова обчислювальна машина; compound/

complex sentence складносурядне/складнопідрядне речення; in

volution (math.) піднесення до ступеня; pluralia tantum іменники,

що вживаються тільки в множині; singularia tantum іменники, що

вживаються тільки в однині; evolution (mathem.) винесення з-під

радикала (витягнення кореня), common fraction (mathem.) простий


Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion

1. Types and kinds of genuine internationalisms as to their

form/structure and lexical meaning in English and Ukrainian.

2. The main way of distinguishing between the genuine

internationalisms and loan internationalisms.

3. The lingual form (expression) and meaning of some words

being the genuine internationalisms in one contextual environment

and pseudo-internationalisms (non-internationalisms) in some other


4. Express your point of view on the term and notion of «par

tial» or «half-internationalism». Use some examples from Exercise

III below to justify or reject the use of the suggested term.

5. Expand on the ways of translation of the genuine


internationalisms and exemplify: a) the method of their transliteration only; b) the method of their transcription only; c) the method of their transliteration and partial transcription or vice versa (as in compound words); d) the method of the translator's transcription; e) the descriptive method. Use the exercises below to illustrate the above-mentioned methods of conveying the meanings of internationalisms.

6. Identify and exemplify the pseudo-internationalisms referred

to as «the false friends of the translator». Use the exercises on the

forthcoming pages for the purpose.

7. Name the main criterion of distinguishing the genuine

internationalisms from loan internationalisms. Exemplify the latter

on simple lexemes/words and lexico-syntactic units (word-groups)

from different domains of social sciences.


Exercise I. State whether the words below are genuine or pseudo-international. Substantiate your judgements:

adressee, adequate, admiral, algebraic, allergy, Alpine, annulment, archive, bamboo, botanist, bronchitis, capillary, cockatoo, cybernetics, dissymetric, ellipsis, epochal, evacuee, fantasia, geometer, hierarchical, hypotaxis, iambus, inductor, lectureship, morphemic, morphologist, non-metal, parallelepiped, parataxis, professorate, quixotry, reduction, rhematic, sable, scenery, sonorant, stereometry, subcommittee, sublieutenant, substantival (gram.), synthetic, systemic (gram.), technologist, utilize, vacuum, voltameter, waffle, zinc, xylonite.

Exercise II. Identify the genuine international and the pseudo-international (non-international) meanings in the following lexemes:

accumulator, accuracy, ambition, analyst, autocrat, balance, barbarity, buffet; calendar, civil, code, colours, co-ordination; damask, desperation, diminutive, dramatic, dynamic; effective, elementary, expedition; faction, fiction, film, figure, front; gentleman; harmonious, humanity, hypothetical; imitation, instrument; juridical; liberal, locomotive; marshal, medicine, minister; nation, natural; objective, officer, original; pamphlet, paragraph, petition, press, pygmy; racing, record, revolution; scene, storm; tank, tattooing, terror, twist; vector, vulgar; wag(g)on; zodiacal; frigit zone.

Exercise III. Translate the following English compounds. Point out which of their lexical equivalents in Ukrainian are com-


pound/simple words or word-combinations and which are partially/fully international or pseudo-international:

a) air-mechanic, administer, arch (n), barman-club-law, cof

fee-bean, dessert-knife, gas-main, lieutenant-colonel, mine-layer,

motiveless, paper-cutter, phrase-book, soda-fountain, soda-water,

submachine-gun, sugar-cane, tiger's-eye, cane-sugar, motoring,

mythicize, narcotism, number, orchestric;

b) day-school, field-hospital, fire-bomb, fire-brigade, fish-tor

pedo, hand-grenade, opium-eater, horsemaster, seeding-machine,

stamp-album, steam-turbine, stock-farm, telegenic, teleshow, talk

ing-film, tape-machine, travel-bureau, washing-machine, zenith-dis


c) boxing-match, consul-general, electro-dynamic, figure-art

ist, flag-captain, grammar-school, office-copy, orange-coloured, palm-

oil, party-club, press-corrector, press-box, radio-controlled, station-

master, sugar-refinery, tram-line, yacht-club.

Exercise IV. Translate the words and word-groups below into Ukrainian and identify which of them are genuine international or loan international, and which pseudo-international.

1. conjugation, co-ordination, subordination, the indicative (imperative, subjunctive) mood, syllabification (phonet.), proof-reader, spelling-book, versification; 2. The law of gravitation, the theory of relativity; addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, decimal fractions, equations, identity, root extraction (math.); 3. decontamination, engineering, hothouse effect, myopia, piston, storage-battery, traffic rules, welding; 4. horse power, income tax, black soil, land improvement, cereals, legumes; 5. growth rate, latitude, longitude, mass media, national economy, precipitation, weather forecast; 6. decathlon, pentathlon, fencing, penalty area, penalty kick, snow boarding, wrestling (sport); weightlessness, purification, traffic-light.

Exercise V. Translate the English words and word-groups below into Ukrainian. Point out which of them are loan internationalisms and which - pseudo-internationalisms (non-internationalisms):

a) abacus, actual, conductivity, corner-stone, copyright, decontaminate, equilibrium, ever-frost, refrigerator, hypersonic, ignition, jet-fighter, non-conductor, gymnasium, quadrilateral, ropedancer, sabre-rattling, second-class, self-preservation, shock-worker, self-defence, sleeping-bag, smoke-screen, smoking-carriage, sparking-plug, standard-bearer, subtitle, summarise, summation, superconductivity, supernatural, supersonic, superstructure, syndetic, thermostable,


thrashing-machine, tightrope-dancer, toolroom, turn-screw; argument, billet, bombard, buffet, brilliance, complexion, cream, cymbals, dispute, electric eye, ferment (v), genii, gastronome/r, implicitly, intelligence, liquor, locomotion, nocturnal, observation, occupant, officiant, partywall, replica, satin, satirize, technology, tripartite, unintelligible, zero-gravity, diesel locomotive, alternative current, .direct current, ionic rectifier, rate of exchange.

Exercise VI. Render the meaning of the English simple/ compound words below by substituting where possible the international lexemes for their synonymous international components in Ukrainian:

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