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Despite the fact that the referential meaning of such and the like units of specific national lexicon may be either similar or at least closely related in English and Ukrainian (cf. class tutor/form master and класний керівник, залік test), they are still far from identical in their particular meaning. As a result, they can scarcely be substituted for each other in the target language, which points to the notions being nationally biased by their nature.

This is not so with many other notions which only at first sight seem to be different in English and Ukrainian but in reality they are quite similar and can usually be substituted for each other: box (in Christmas box) різдвяний подарунок (cf. новорічний подарунок); Department of Education and Science (Gr.Britain) міністерство освіти (і науки); Department of Industry міністерство промисловості; Department of Energy міністерство енергетики; extension course курси підвищення кваліфікації; extramural education заочне/вечірнє навчання; distant education дистантне навчання.

Apart from these there are a lot more units of lexicon which have generally the same referential meaning in both the languages in question. For example: pancake, financial year, pie and many others can be fully substituted at language level for Ukrainian млинець/ оладок, фінансовий рік, пиріг, etc. The difference between the notions in the two language is confined to some insignificant details. Thus, the financial year in Gr.Britain begins on April 1 and ends on March 31 the next year; pies are stuffed with minced steak-and-kid-ney meat or with onions/sweet mincemeat (mixture of currants, raisins, sugar, candied peeled apples, suet, etc.) and not with peas, beans, ground poppy seeds, soft cheese/curds or boiled rice as in this country. But: pop-corn кукурудзяні баранці is practically identical in English and Ukrainian.

The details are, naturally, essential for our students to know and should not be ignored, as they reflect the peculiarities of each nation's customs, traditions or its way of life. The notions like these, on the other hand, may be common in the English and Ukrainian or some other languages exclusively, which finds its explanation in the bilateral or multilateral influences to which all languages are constantly exposed as a result of cultural, political and trade contacts between their nations. Hence, the similarity if not identity in some meanings of a number of English and Ukrainian specific units of lexicon can not be treated as culturally/nationally biased, i.e., specific. Though it is not excluded that some of these notions may become specifically national in reference to certain languages of other than the European area.

A considerable number of nationally specific/culturally biased units of national lexicon have found their way to other languages in the lexical meaning and lingual form of the source language. It has happened as a result of borrowings and a long use of the source language units in the target language. Among the borrowings of the kind are some Ukrainian units of culturally biased/specific national lexicon as well. The most well-known of them are the mentioned already Cossack/Kozak, steppe and also borshch, Kyiv chicken, oblast, vulytsia, hryvnia. The English/American units of specific national lexicon, which have become internationalisms are many more. Amongst them are such well-known notions as бойкот, віскі, джентльмен, джинси, клуб, леді, мотель, нокаут, пікнік, пінчер, раунд, рекордсмен, ринґ, смокінґ, спікер, тариф, фут, ярд, джаз, рок-ен-рол, гот доґ.кока кола, чіпси, миля, Скотланд Ярд, etc.

As it may be observed, the units of culturally biased/specific national lexicon are rarely similar by their nature and meaning in either of the two languages. Consequently, there must also exist various approaches to expressing their meanings in the target language.



The choice of the way of approach to expressing the denotative meanings of the units of specifically national lexicon is strictly predetermined by some definite factors, which may be both of a lingual and extralingual nature. To these belong first of all the semantic and structural complexity (or similarity) of the units of the culturally biased specific national lexicon of the source language. As a result,

157the methods of translating may also be predetermined by the specific notion being new and not yet quite known as well as by its long tradition of usage in the target language. The choice of the method of translating may partly be influenced by the sphere of circulation of the specific notion in the source language. Last but not least this choice can also depend on the translator himself and upon the aim or purpose of translating/interpreting. Hence, one may consequently assume the existence of several ways of conveying the lexical meanings of the culturally biased units of national lexicon. Each of these ways can be considered quite reliable, if it provides the faithful expression of the main and specific sense of the source language unit in the target language.

Since the nature, the structure, the sphere of employment and the denotative meaning of different culturally biased units of national lexicon are rarely of the same semantic «extension», their methods of translating can not be uniform either. Taking into account or rather depending on the afore-mentioned factors, the following methods of conveying the meaning of specifically national units of lexicon can be recognized as quite reliable:

I. By Transcription or Transliteration Exclusively

The units of the nationally specific lexicon, whose meanings

are rendered at the phonological level, usually belong to genuine

internationalisms and comprise social and political units of lexicon in

the main (cf. lord, lady, mister, shilling, kozak, hryvnia, etc.). This can

_.o be observed on the following examples: New classified rates per word Нові тарифи на рекламу в for ads in hryvnias in the Kyiv гривнях за слово в газеті Post. «Київ Пост»

«It's a poor coloured woman's place and you are a grand gentleman from Cape Town.» (RAbrahams) «You're a supercilious half-baked snob.» (Cronin) Andrew put out some bottled beer and asked Christine to prepare sandwiches. (Ibid.)

Це кімната для бідної

кольорової жінки, а ти ж

великий джентльмен із


Ти насправді зарозумілий і

обмежений сноб.

Ендрю дістав кілька пляшок

пива і попросив Крістін

приготувати йому сандвічі.



2. By Transcription or Transliteration and Explication of Their Genuine Nationally Specific Meaning

In many a case the lingual form of a unit of nationally specific lexicon conveyed through transcription or transliteration can not provide a full expression of its lexical meaning. Then an additional explication of its sense becomes necessary. It happens when the unit/ notion of the culturally biased lexicon is introduced in the target language for the first time or when it is not yet known to the broad public of the target language readers/listeners. The explanation may be given either in the translated passage/speech flow, where the culturally biased unit is used or in a footnote r- when a lengthy explication becomes necessary: They took her to the Tower of London. (Jerome K.Jerome) Downing Street is guarded outside by a single policeman. (London Illustrated) As the dawn was just breaking he found himself close to

Covent Garden. (O.Wilde) He said that Wall Street and Threadneedle Street between them could stop the universe. (R.AIdington)

Вони показали їй стародавню лондонську фортецю Тауер. Резиденцію прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії охороняє один полісмен. Щойно стало розвиднятися, а він уже був неподалік від ринку Ковент-Ґарден. Він сказав, що Волл-Стріт і Треднідл-Стріт1 удвох (об'єднавши сили) спроможні зупинити всесвіт.

It goes without saying that the transcribed or transliterated forms of Downing Street, Covent Garden or Threadneedle Street can not be sufficient for many foreign readers to obtain a fairly correct idea of what really each of them denotes. Hence, some explication of their specific connotative meaning in footnotes becomes inevitable. Footnotes or lengthy explications should always be used when the culturally biased notions are not yet well-known in the target language. For example, surfing when only transliterated/transcribed as серфінґ will not express its denotative meaning which it in reality is - «the sport of riding waves into shore on a surfboard». Hence, a combined translation must be resorted to: серфінґ (ковзання на широкій овальній дошці по високій морській хвилі до берега); similarly with snow boarding which denotes спуск із гори на широкій лижві.

The kind of explication, naturally, can be acceptable in a dictionary but scarcely acceptable in a broader text. That's why foot notes become helpful here, though a frequent usage of them should be avoided as well, since footnotes may divert the reader's attention from the content of the passage/work in which the specific national notions occur.

1 Треднідл-Стріт - вулиця в лондонському Сіті, де розташовані кілька головних банків Великої Британії.


A combined translation may often be resorted to when a short excerpt or sentence contains some specific notions of the kind: A number of restaurants and caf- У Києві чимало ресторанів та eterias in Kyiv specialize in varenyky (dumplings), kulish (a thick meal stew) and other dishes. (News from Ukraine) No. 11 Downing Street is

guarded outside by a single policeman too. (London Illustrated)

кафетеріїв, що спеціалізуються на приготуванні вареників, кулішу та інших страв. Будинок N 11 на Даунінг стріт (резиденція міністра фінансів Великої Британії) охороняється знадвору також одним полісменом

Anybody in this country can see from the definition above that вареники are not simply dumplings, i.e., small balls of dough which can be cooked in soup or stew but a piece of flat dough wrapped around some salted/sweetish curd with fresh egg boiled and served hot with butter and sour cream. Varenyky can also be dumplings wrapped around mashed potatoes/stewed sauerkaut, etc. And also boiled and served hot with butter or small pieces of fried bacon and onions respectively1. Neither is куліш something like a thick meal stew. Besides, kulish apart from some other features, not reflected in the translation above, is not always and not in all regions of Ukraine prepared thick, it may also be thin (soup-like).

3. By Descriptive Explaining/Explication Only For some reason or other the orthographic form of a considerable number of sense units belonging to the nationally specific lexicon of the source language can not be rendered into the target language. That happens mostly when the transcription/transliteration can not be helpful in expressing the sense of the culturally biased national unit, or when it might bring about an unnecessary ambiguity in the target language narration/text cf.: matron завгосп у навчальному закладі (суміщає економку і медсестру); Pilgrim Fathers Батьки-прочани - перші колоністи з Англії, що прибули 1620 року до Північної Америки на вітрильнику «Мейфлауер»;

1 Note: in some American restaurants Ukrainian varenyky are called ravioli (Ital.).

prorogation офіційне розпорядження монарха про відновлення/ закінчення сесії парламенту Великої Британії; quartermaster старшина-стерновий у морській піхоті (and also квартирмейстер) в англ. армії.

It goes without saying that such lenthy explications of «матрона» or «Батьки прочани» as well as «квартирмейстер» may be considered superfluous, as their use in translation would aggravate to some extent the elucidation of their proper meanings.

There is no need to emphasize, however, that such lengthy explanations of specifically national notions are always required in the text of the translation/interpretation. And not are all culturally biased/specific units of national lexicon are so «heavily» loaded with information so that they have to be explicated in a footnote. Quite often an explanation within the target language text may be sufficient enough too, as in the following examples: 1 thought of Phuong who would Я думав про Фуонґ, яка зараз

be haggling over the price of fish in the third street down on the left before going for her elevenses to the milk-bar. (G.Greene)

No coffins were available, so they wrapped George in a blanket and in the Union Jack. (RAIdington)

The Tommies were numbered, formed fours, right turned and marched away. (Ibid.)

I've got some shepherd's pie for lunch today - that you used to like so much. (A.Cronin)

He's upset because we don't run Jim Crow buses. (B.Gerry)

Усі бачили, як ми у церкві на рушник стали. (П. Мирний) Пісок був теплий, як нагріта лежанка. (С. Руданський)

відчайдушне торгується за рибу на третій вулиці, в центрі лівої частини міста, перш ніж зайти до молочного бару біля одинадцятої і сяк-так/нашвидкоруч поснідати У них не було готових домовин, тож вони замотали Джорджа у ковдру та в прапор Великої Британії.

Рядових солдатів

порахували, вишикували по

чотири, повернули праворуч і

відвели геть.

Але ж я приготувала

картопляну запіканку з

м'ясом і цибулею, яку ти

колись так любив.

Він дуже засмутився,що в нас

не ходять автобуси тільки

для негрів.

Everybody saw me and you

being married in the church.

The sand was warm like a clay

stove of a country cottage.

161As can be seen, not all the details constituting the semantic structure of the translated above units of specific national lexicon have been fully conveyed in English and Ukrainian translations. Thus, the «clay stove» does not sufficiently explicate the proper role of лежанка, for any stove predominantly implies its being used for cooking. In reality, however, the «clay stove» was designed in Ukrainian country cottages (khata) for heating and wanning purposes only. Similarly with the former (historical) specific American racists' contemptuous unit «Jim Crow buses», which is not simply автобус для негрів because «Jim Crow» was a contemptuous name for a Negro. When translated into Ukrainian simply as негр (автобус для негрів) the collocation would loose its connotative (contemptuous) meaning which is inherent in it. The same uan be said about the Ukrainian culturally biased notion of рушник which is certainly not quite equivalent to the descriptive meaning of «embroidered in national colours towel», because it is an indispensable item in every folk rite like birthday, weddings or burials. Besides, рушник is used in Ukraine on any other solemn or ceremonial occasion. That is why its translation in the above sentence is not fully faithful. To convey the complexity of meaning contained by the national lexicon units of the kind, footnotes may be resorted to as well. That is one more proof of the difficulties which the student sometimes has while dealing with some specifically national units of lexicon, which are always culturally biased notions.

4. By Translation of Componental Parts and Additional Explication of the Units of the Nationally Biased Lexicon

The proper meaning of some specific units of the national lexicon can be faithfully rendered by way of regular translation of all or some of their componental parts and explication of the denotative meaning pertaining to the source language unit. The combined approach in the treatment of this group of specific national lexicon units is called forth by the complexity of meaning inherent in the source language units. It is also due to the inadequacy of componental translation, which does not reveal the essentials that are absolutely indispensable for correct comprehension of the real meaning of the culturally biased lexical units of the source language.

Due to this way of rendering the meanings of this kind of units practically involves two simultaneous performances. The first is a regular translation of the main, if not all, componental parts and the next, which follows it, is a more or less exhaustive explanation of the essence pertained to the specific national element of the source language. The extent of the explanation in the target language is predetermined by the nature of the specific unit of national lexicon, by the purpose of translation, and also by some characteristic possibilities of the text in which the unit is used. When translating at language level (out of context) the explanation may be practically unrestricted: Battle of Britain Битва за Англію (повітряні бої англійської авіації з гітлерівськими бомбардувальниками над територією Великої Британії, особливо в районі Лондона і Південної Англії 1940-1941рр.); bull's eye бичаче око (круглий великий різноколірний м'ятний льодяник); collective membership тимчасове колективне членство в лейбористській партії (наприклад, на час виборів) профспілок, кооперативних товариств; члени цих організацій автоматично стають членами лейбористської партії); ginger ale, імбірний ель/імбірне ситро (базолкогольний газований напій); inner Cabinet «внутрішній кабінет» (кабінет у вузькому складі) до якого входять керівники найважливіших міністерств на чолі з прем'єр-міністром.

Such and the like explanations can not, naturally, be made in the text of a translation, hence they are given usually in the footnotes:

«Well, I can tell you anything «Ну, я тобі можу розповісти that is in an English bluebook, все, що написано в англійській Harry.» (O.Wilde) «Синій книзі. »1 Labour Day was past, but День Праці2 був позаду summer still pressed down on (минув), а літня спека the city. (M.Wilson) продовжувала зморювати. Frances wanted very little: а Франсіс хотіла зовсім небагато: salad, toast melba, no wine, салат, грінки «мельба»3, без only ice water. (A.Cronin) вина, а тільки воду з льодом.

When the lexical meaning of the unit of specific national lexicon is not so complex, it is usually explained in the target language text. The explanation, of course, is not always as exhaustive as it can be in a footnote:

Keep your fingers crossed for Щоб мені була вдача, склади me! (M.Wilson) навхрест (хрестиком) _______ пальці!.

1 «Синя книга» - збірник документів, що видається з санкції парламенту Великої Британії в синіх палітурках.

2 «День Праці» - офіційне свято в США (відзначається у перший понеділок вересня).

3 На ім'я австралійської співачки Н. Мельби.

163(I) Knew the Professor before he turned into a wooly West-Ender. (A.Cronin) Though veneered by his thirty years in the Civil Service - he had worked his way from boy clerk to principal - Gill was human underneath. (A.Cronin) I will be in the Ladies Gallery tomorrow night at half past eleven. (O.Wilde) Левкові чи не вперше за своє парубкування стало чомусь тоскно. (М. Стельмах) Згадав він поради свої... і сільські весілля, на яких він грав весільного батька. (М. Коцюбинський)

Я знав цього професора ще до того, як він став багатієм аристократичного Вест-Енда. Пройшовши за тридцять років служби в державному апараті від розсильного до завідуючого відділом, Джіл у душі і все ж залишався людиною. Завтра о пів на дванадцяту я буду на жіночій гальорці в палаті громад. It was probably for the first time in all his mature boyhood that Levko felt somewhat dull. He recollected the pieces of advice he had once given - and the rural weddings at which he would perform the honorary duty of the missing bridegroom's or bride's father.

A fuller and more detailed explanation of the kind of nationally specific notions as given above is not desirable, since it would considerably extend the text of the translation. That is why the student should be warned not to unnecessarily enlarge the explanation of the culturally biased notions, unless required for their exhaustive and correct comprehension. Laconism, therefore, should be the prevailing principle when dealing with the kind of specific national elements, but not to the detriment of explicitness/lucidity and faithfulness of translation.

5. By Ways of Word-for-Word or Loan Translation

When the componental parts making up the units of the nationally specific lexicon are at the same time the main transparent bearers of their proper sence expressed through their meaning, a faithful translation of such sense units may be achieved either by way of word-for-word translation or by way of loan translation. Each of these ways can be well exemplified in English and Ukrainian.

A.Translated word-for-word are the specific national units of lexicon as first (second, third) reading перше (друге, трете) читання (офіційне внесення законопроекту в англійський парламент); secondary grammar school (середня граматична школа); стінгазета wall newspaper; студентське наукове товариство Students' Scientific/Research Society; щоденник (учнівський) student's record book.

В. The denotative meaning of many units of the specific national lexicon may be rendered by way of loan translating as well: from English: Salvation Army (USA, Gr. Britain) Армія порятунку; the Order of the Garter/of the Bath орден Підв'зки/Лазні; the Order of St. Michael and St. George орден св.Михаїла і св.Георгія; fan club клуб прихильників/уболівальників (артиста, спортсмена тощо); from Ukrainian: орден Ярослава Мудрого the Order of Yaroslav the Wise/Yaroslav the Wise Order; орден св. княгині Ольги Київської the Order of St. Olga Princess of Kyivan Rus. The denotative meaning of these and many other English/Ukrainin specific units of national lexicon of the kind will undoubtedly be correctly understood by the target-language speakers. And yet neither of the two ways of translating can often provide an exhaustive expression of all the extralingual details of meaning inherent in most of the units in the source language. Thus, the aim and purpose of issuing our «wall newspaper», which was a regular practice in all state institutions of the former USSR as well as in this country today would scarcely be understood by the British or Americans. Neither do most of our people understand the whole complexity of meaningful semes pertained, for example, to the British Order of the Bath. Hence, such culturally biased notions are to be explicated more detailed in the target language. .

A considerable number of specific units of the national lexicon, both in English and in Ukrainian, consist of the component parts with seemingly transparent lexical meaning. But when conveyed verbally or word-for-word, however, they may lose their proper meaning together with their nationally specific nature. That happens, because the real connotative meaning inherent in the seems, bearing the national peculiarity can not be achieved via these methods of translation. For example, the «House of Lords» when translated as будинок лордів completely perverts the real meaning of the collocation as «House» here, like in the «Upper House» (or simply the «House» when capitalized) always preserves the connotative meaning of палата. Likewise with the «House of Commons» where both components are also endowed with a nationally peculiar meaning and can not be translated as будинок простих людей but only as «Палата громад».

This method of translating is also widely employed when dealing with former Sovietisms as «Герой Соціалістичної Праці», «соціалістичне змагання», etc. Here too the verbal translating of «праця», «змагання» like other notions of the kind would completely distort the proper sense of the collocations which they are components of. The variant *Hero of Socialist Work* would also be inadequate stylistically, because the componental part «work» belongs to the neutral style lexicon. Similarly in case with the former term «socialist competition» in which the noun component had nothing to do with the meaning or «competition» proper. Therefore, a faithful translation of the kind of units of lexicon is predetermined by the correct choice of equivalent units for the semes bearing the national peculiarity. The latter may be expressed both verbally/word-for-word and by means of translation loans, which should be resorted to when verbal translating ruins the national peculiarity of the source language culturally biased units. The number of English genuine translation loans in Ukrainian and Ukrainian in English is considerable. So is the number of verbal and word-for-word translations, as can be seen from some of the examples below: English: cornflakes кукурудзяні пластівці; English Industrial Revolution промисловий переворот в Англії (18-19 століть); skyscraper хмарочос;,supermarket універсальний магазин (універсам); brain washing промиваная мозку (ідеологічна обробка); oat-flakes вівсяні пластівці (геркулес). Ukrainian: карбованець karbovanets', гривня hryvnia, Верховна Рада Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's Parliament), Герой України Hero of Ukraine; заслужений діяч мистецтв України the Merited Worker of Arts/Ukraine's Merited Worker of Arts; голова районної/обласної Ради народних депутатів, Chairman of the District/Region Rada of People's Deputies; медаль за трудову доблесть the Medal for Labour Distinction; орден Богдана Хмельницького 1,11,111 ступеня the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi (First, Second, Third Degree).

It is worth mentioning that some of the above-given and other Ukrainian units of the kind may be translated into English either as asyndetic structures or as syndetic (prepositional) word-groups. The latter are absolutely predominant in conversational English, the former are more common in written (or official) language: заслужений учитель/артист України the Honoured Teacher/Artist of Ukraine or Ukraine's Honoured Teacher/Artist; медаль «За трудову відзнаку» the medal for Labour Distinction or the Labour Distinction Medal. But: герой України Hero of Ukraine.

6. Translating by Means of Semantic Analogies

Despite the differences in economic, social, political, cultural and in many cases also geographical/environmental conditions, under which the nation of the source language and that of the target language develop, some peculiar notions in both the languages may be identical or similar/analogous in their meaning and functioning. It happens due to the existence of common routine or habitual actions, common occupations, social services, food, etc., in these two language communities.

The appearance of analogous units in the national layer of lexicon of different languages may also be the result of bilateral or multilateral contacts and influences to which the nations may have been exposed for centuries. Consequently, similar/analogous national notions in different languages may appear as a result of direct or indirect (through an intermediary language) borrowings. No wonder that analogous units of national lexicon directly correlate in the source language and in the target language in their denotative meaning and mostly in the common sphere of their functioning - social, cultural, political, etc. Though far from all the analogies ever possess the absolute complexity of meanings inherent in the source language units. The connotative divergences and sometimes the spheres of use may not always fully coincide in the target language as can be seen from the following few examples. English: the City/Town Board of Education міський відділ освіти; pop com кукурудзяні баранці; gingerbread імбірний пряник, коврижка; shop-steward цеховий староста (голова профкому); stewed fruit узвар/компот; Well done! Well done! (sports) Мо-лод-ці! Мо-лод-ці!; come! come! Вгамуйся, заспокойся/ цить, цить, не плач. Ukrainian: залік preliminary/qualifying test/examination; дипломна робота graduation essay/project; курсова робота yearly essay/project; доцент principal lecturer/ reader, associate professor; курси вдосконалення refresher course; підвищення кваліфікації in-service training course; кватирка hinged window pane/pilot window; консультація tutorial.

No doubt some of the English /Ukrainian units in the list above are only functionally approximate analogies (cf. доцент principal reader/lecturer reader, associate professor, кватирка hinged window pane). Their complete denotative meaning can naturally be understood only from a larger context. Functionally analogous are also some nouns in the forms of address in both the languages as shown below:

Sir, she, being his wife will not, Пане, їй, як дружині, згідно according to custom, mention звичаю не можна називати ім'я his name. (M.R.Anand) свого чоловіка.

Грай, кобзарю] Лий, шинкарю] (Т. Шевченко) «То, прошу панів, наше пасовисько...» (І. Франко) «Oh, I beg your pardon. I'm terribly sorry, gentlemen» (Ibid.)

Innkeeper, pour! Play, minstrel, play!

Please, sirs, that's our pasture.

«Ax, перепрошую вас, дуже перепрошую, панове...»

As can be seen, the choice of an appropriate analogy in the target language is greatly influenced by the national/cultural traditions (cf. пани sirs/gentlemen; кобзар minstrel). The use of various analogiesin the target language is largely because of the existence of many translations and often repeated usage of them. Especially strong is the influence of translation of belles-lettres works and films, let alone the large scale Study of the source language at our schools as a foreign language. Under the influence of these and other factors the co-occurrence of some units of particular national lexicon in the target language may increase considerably. These units may soon become well-known to the majority of the target language speakers. It is in this way that many English and American culturally biased notions have become familiar in this country and some our culturally biased words (notions) have penetrated into the English and other languages. Many of these units of the specifically national lexicon have become regular internationalisms (cf. hryvnia, kozak, Kyiv chicken, borshch, etc.). Similarly the notions like долар, шилінґ, Торі, бренді, фунт, etc, and now also бартер, ваучер, дискета, транш, дефолт, аудит, саміт, комп'ютер, менеджмент, рокенрол, поп-музика and many others from the English/American culturally biased lexicon belong not only to our active vocabulary. They have penetrated into other languages as well despite the fact that they are still clearly recognized by the target language speakers as foreign borrowigns.

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