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ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ 12 страница



Many of such and the like idiomatic expressions may often have two and more analogous by sense variants in the target language. The choice of an analogy rests then with the translator and is predetermined by the style of the text: not for love or money ні за що в світі/ні за які скарби в світі; don'f teacn your grandmother to suck eggs не вчи вченого; не вчи рибу плавати; яйця курку не вчать, etc.; ne that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas з ким поведешся, того і наберешся; скажи мені, хто твій друг, і я скажу тобі, хто ти; a crooked stick throws a crooked shadow який Сава, така й слава/який батько, такий син, яка хата, такий тин; don't cross the bridges before you come to them не поспішай поперед батька в пекло; не кажи гоп, доки не перескочиш; first catch you hare then cook him не скуби, доки не зловиш; скажеш «гоп», як перескочиш. The number of analogous (similar by sense) expressions for an idiom in the target language may reach a regular row as it is the case with the Ukrainian phraseological expression і на сонці є плями/людини без вад не буває. This idiom may have the following substitutes in different contextual environments: every man nas a fool in his sleeve; every man has his faults; every bean has its black; every man has his weak side; Homer sometimes nods/sleeps; no man is wise at all times; it is a good horse that never stumbles; a horse stumbles that has four legs, etc.

4. Translating Idioms by Choosing Approximate Analogies

Some source language idiomatic and stable expressions may have a peculiar nature of their componental parts or a peculiar combination of them and thus form nationally peculiar expressiveness and picturesqueness of componental images. The latter constitute some hidden meaning, which is mostly not quite explicit and comprehensible, not transient enough for the foreigner.

As a result, there exist no genuine phraseological analogies for the units in the target language. Since it is so, their lexical meaning can be expressed by means of only approximate analogies or through explication, i.e., in a descriptive way. These analogies are only to a slight degree similar to the source language idioms, although they may be no less picturesque and expressive than the source language variants: Wnd words butter no parsnips годувати байками солов'я; to lose one's breath кидати слова на вітер; to make a cat's paw of something чужими руками жар вигрібати; а joint in one's armour ахіллесова п'ята (вразливе місце); fne sow loves bran better than roses кому що, а курці просо; more power to your elbow ні пуху, ні луски!; to come off scot free вийти сухим з води; to be finger and thumb водою не розлити (cf. нерозлийвода); to be from Missouri (Amer.) вірити тільки своїм очам; it is six and half a dozen не вмер Данило, так болячка задавила; what's Hecuba to me моя хата скраю; to get the blues місця собі не знаходити/ сумувати, etc.



No need to emphasize that selection of approximate analogies for a translator is no easy task, as the source languages idioms/ phraseologisms often bear some characteristics of a language's traits having no correspondence^ the target language. Cf.: The answer's a lemon так не буде, такне вийде.

Many idioms have obscure origin/etymology and selecting of approximate equivalents as any other corresponding semantic variants often requires a linguistic investigation on the part of the translator. For example: to be in the cart means to be closed in a cage as a convict (for some crime) and be exposed to general scorn of one's compatriots (as in old times in England). It may be translated into Ukrainian as бути в стані/ситуації хоч круть хоч верть, потрапити в безвихідь.

5. Descriptive Translating of Idiomatic and Set Expressions

The meaning of a considerable number of idiomatic as well as stable/set expressions can be rendered through explication only, i.e., in a descriptive way. Depending on the complexity of meaning contained in the source-language idiom, it can be expressed in the target language in some ways:

1) by a single word: out of a clear blue.of the sky раптом, зненацька; to pall and peel (to peel and pall) грабувати/оббирати; poor fish йолоп, бевзь, нікчема; red blood мужність, відвага, хоробрість; to sell smoke піддурювати, підманювати; to seta-limit to smth. обмежувати, стримувати; to set at large звільнювати (випустити на волю); to go aloft померти;

2) undoubtedly the most frequent is rendering the sense of idiomatic/phraseological expressions with the help of free combinations of words as in: to run amock нападати зненацька на першу-ліпшу людину; school miss школярка, соромлива, недосвідчена дівчина; to sell someone short недооцінювати когось; to sham Abraham удавати з себе хворого (прикидатися хворим); to shoot Niagara вдаватися до ризикованих дій, short odds майже рівні шанси; to sit above the salt сидіти на почесному місці; the sixty-four dollar question найважливіше, вирішальне питання; a stitch in time своєчасний захід/вчинок, своєчасна дія; to go to rack (wrack) ruin загинути; зовсім розоритися; to go west/West пропасти, зникнути, зійти зі сцени (переносно);

3) when the lexical meaning of an original idiomatic expression is condensed or when it is based on a nationally specific notion/ structural form alien to the target languages, the idiomatic expression may be conveyed by a sentence or a longer explanation: a wet blanket людина або обставина, що розхолоджує; well day (well-day) день, коли у хворого не погіршувався стан здоров'я (час між приступами гарячки, малярії тощо); wise behind млявий, що погано міркує; white elephant подарунок, якого важко позбутися (те, що приносить більше турбот, ніж користі); yes man (yes-man) людина, що з усіма згоджується, тільки підтакує (підтакувач); to cut off with a shilling залишити без спадщини; fight like Kilkenny cats битися до взаємного знищення; to accept (the Stewardship) of the Chiltern Hundreds (Parliament) скласти з себе обов'язки члена британського парламенту.

It must be added in conclusion that some English idiomatic/ set expressions have a rather transparent lexical meaning and are easy for our students to translate into Ukrainian: to treat one like a lord щедро частувати (як лорда) когось, цяцькатися з кимось; with all one's steam/with all speed щодуху, дуже швидко; with a founded air ображено, з виглядом ображеного; with flags flying/with flying colours тріумфально, переможно; with a good reason не без підстав, недаремно; to be half way between something посередені (бути на середині між чимсь), іти назустріч комусь/чомусь; not born yesterday досвідчений (у житті).

Depending on the speech style of the passage/work, in which the idiomatic/phraseological expressions are used, and taking into account the nature of them (literary, colloquial, historical) some modifications of the above-given methods of translations and even new variants of translation may be suggested by the translator. Nevertheless, the aim of translation will always remain the same, viz. to fully render in the target language the lexical meaning and where possible also the structural peculiarities, the picturesqueness, the expressiveness, and the connotative meaning (if any) of the source language idiomatic or stable expressions in the target language. How it may be achieved can be seen on the examples of rendering the meaning of some national idioms.

 

TRANSFORMATION OF SOME IDIOMS IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING

As has already been pointed out some phraseological expressions singled out by the Acad. V. Vinogradov as unities and having mostly a transparent meaning may reflect various national features of the source language. The latter may be either of lingual or extralingual nature, involving the national images, their peculiar pic-turesqueness or means of expression with clear reference to traditions, customs or historical events, geographical position of the source language nation. Such phraseological expressions are often of a simple or composite sentence structure. Being nationally distinct, they can not have in the target language traditionally established equivalents or loan variants. As a result, most of them may have more than one translator's version in the target language. It may be either a regular sense-to-sense variant (an interlinear-type translation) or an artistic literary version rendering in which alongside the lexical meaning also the aphoristic nature, the expressiveness, the picturesqueness, the vividness, etc. of the source language phraseologism/idiom.

Taking into account the aims pursued and the contextual environment of the idiom, there must be acknowledged at least two main levels of translating the national idioms:

1) the level of the interlinear rendering, i.e., sense-to-sense translation only, which is quite sufficient to faithfully express the lexical meaning of most of these phraseologisms/idioms;

2) the literary/literary artistic level at which not only the sense but also the expressiveness, the vividness, the picturesqueness and the aphoristic nature (if any) of the idioms should possibly be conveyed as well.

Faithful translation of national idioms/phraseologisms is mostly achieved via deliberate transformations of all kinds performed by the translator. The transformations are aimed at making the national images, the sense and structure of these phraseologic expressions easier for the target language readers/listeners to comprehend .Such transformations, therefore, adjust in many a case the source language idiom as a sense unit to the requirements of the target language bearers. Here are some examples of translation with the help of transformations of particularly English phraseologisms performed first (1) at the interlinear (sense-to-sense rendering) level and then (2) at the literary/literary artistic level: the wind cannot be prevented from blowing 1. вітрові не перешкодиш віяти; 2. вітрові не скажеш не віяти/дути; вітру не затулиш; he that doesn't respect, isn't respected 1. хто інших не поважає, сам'поваги не має; 2. поважатимеш інших, поважатимуть і тебе; it's an equal failing to trust everybody and to trust nobody 1. однакова вада - довіряти всім і не довіряти нікому; 2. довіряти кожному і не довіряти нікому - однакова вада; the pleasures of the mighty are the tears of the poor 1. розваги всесильних/ багатих - то сльози бідних/ знедолених; 2. вельможні скачуть - убогі плачуть; що панські жарти, то людські сльози; they must hunger in winter that will not work in summer 1. той голодує взимку, хто не працює влітку; 2. шукаєш влітку холодок - знайдеш узимку голод, or: лежатимеш на печі - не їстимеш калачі.

No need to emphasize that some successful literary artistic translations/variants of specifically national idioms may in the end become regular translation loans of the target language.1

Transformations become absolutely inevitable when the English phraseologisms or mots contain a passive voice structure, the introductory it/there, or some other analytical constructions, as for instance, those with the auxiliary verbs (do, does, etc.). Cf.: there is no love lost between them вони недолюблюють одне одного/глек розбили; Does your mother know you are out? Молоко на губах ще не висохло/ще не доріс. Can the leopard change his spots? Горбатого могила виправить. Though sometimes transformations may become necessary to make the denotative and connotative meaning of idioms/phraseologisms easier for the target language bearers to comprehend. Thus, neither the sense-to-sense nor the literary variant of the proverb the moon is not seen when the sun shines (місяця не видно, коли світить сонце/сяє сонце - місяця не видно) can fully express its connotative (and denotative) meaning when the proverb stands for somebody or something eclipsing with his or its importance (fame, size, etc.) somebody or something meant by the «moon». All in all, however, there are few such sentence-type phraseological expressions which need some additional explication in Ukrainian. More often the content of the kind of phraseologisms/idioms is clear already at language level, i.e., out of context, which enables their literary translation. This can be observed from a few more examples below: what matters to a blind man that his father could see що з того сліпому, що його батько був зрячим; it is too late to shut the stable door when the horse is stolen пізно зачиняти конюшню, коли коня вкрали; when two ride on one horse

1 See more about translation loans in: Зорівчак Р.П. Фразеологічна одиниця як перекладацька категорія. -Львів: «Вища шк.» Вид-во при Львівському ун-ті, 1983.

one must sit behind коли двоє їдуть на одному коні, комусь/одному з них сидіти/їхати ззаду/двоє не можуть сидіти спереду..

 

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

1. Comment on the main lingual and extralingual factors influencing the translation of phraseological/idiomatic and set expressions.

2. Define the nature of phraseological/idiomatic expressions translated by choosing absolute equivalents.

3. Point out the difference between the absolute and near idiomatic/phraseological equivalents. Illustrate it with some examples

of your own.

4. Comment on the genuine idiomatic/phraseological analogies. Give a few English and Ukrainian idiomatic expressions of the kind.

5. Comment on the nature and ways of translating approximate idiomatic/ phraseological analogies.

6. Comment on the possible ways of translating national idiomatic expressions. Say, whether the cast iron nature of such idiomatic expressions can ever be maintained in their sense-to-sense

translation.

7. Comment on the descriptive method of translating idioms. Give examples of some descriptively translated by you English/Ukrainian phraseological/idiomatic expressions.

8. What kind of idiomatic/phraseological expressions are the easiest/most difficult to translate and why? Give your own reasons for that and illustrate your judgement with some examples of your own.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS-WORK AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Define the nature of each idiom below depending on the way it is to be translated into Ukrainian:

1. an eye for an eye, and tooth for a tooth; 2. custom (habit, use) is a second nature; 3. he laughs best who laughs last; 4.. let bygons be bygons; 5. like two drops of water; 6. look before you leap; 7. my little finger told me that; 8. a new broom sweeps clean; 9. no bees, no honey; no work, no money; 10. (one) can't see before one's nose; 11. (one) can't say boh to the goose; 12. to pick one's chestnuts out of the fire; 13. a prodigal son; 14. (as) proud as a peacock; 15. to return like for like; 16. to see smth. with the corner of one's eye; 17. there is no smoke without fire; 18. a tree of knowledge; 19. a voice in the wilderness; 20. to wipe off the disgrace; 21. to wipe one/smth. off the face/surface of the earth; 22. with open arms; 23. with a rope round one's neck; 24. whom God would ruin, he first deprives of reason; 25. it is a bold mouse that nestles in the cat's ear; 26. fire and water are good servants but bad masters; 27. he who is born a fool is never cured; 28. beauty is a fading flower; 29. a bad beginning makes a bad ending (Greek); 30. a full belly makes a dull brain; 31. the belly is not filled with fair words; 32. bread and circus; 33. fair words fat few; 34. between the devil and the deep; 35. like water off the feathers of a duck; 36. what is writ is writ; 37. no sweet without sweat; 38. first come, first served; 39. eyes are bigger than the stomach; 40. not blink an eye; 41. work like a dog; 42. walk on air; 43. work one's fingers to the bone; 44. Alpha and Omega; 45. physician, heal thyself; 46. the salt of the earth.

Exercise II. Suggest Ukrainian near equivalents for the idiomatic expressions below. Use part b) of the exercise for the purpose:

a) 1. To kill two birds with a stone. 2. A good beginning makes a good ending (A good beginning is half the battle). 3. To kiss the post. 4. To know as one knows one's ten fingers/to have something at one's finger tips. 5. To laugh the wrong side of one's mouth. 6. To lay something for a rainy day. 7. He that diggeth a pit for another should look that he fall not into it himself. 8. To lick one's boots. 9. Lies have short legs. 10. Life is not a bed of roses. 11. To make one's blood run cold. 12. Measure twice and cut once. 13. More royalist than the king. 14. As naked as a worm. 15. Nobody home. 16. No sooner said than done. 17. Not to lift a finger. 18. An old dog will learn no new tricks. 19. Old foxes need no tutors. 20. To buy a pig in a poke. 21. To play one's game. 22. To pour water in (into, through) a sieve. 23. To praise smb. beyond the skies/the moon. 24. As pretty as a picture. 25. As handsome as a paint. 26. Not to have a penny/a sixpence/a dime to bless oneself. 27. Not to have a shirt (rag) to one's back. 28. Not to know A from B. 29. To put spokes in one's wheel 30. Pride goes (comes) before a fall/destruction. 31. To promise mountains and marvels. 32. One fool makes many. 33. The voice of one is the voice of none. 34. One step above the sublime makes the ridiculous. 35. On Monday morning don't be looking for Saturday night. 36. As pale as a corpse (as ashes, death). 37. Let George do it.

b) 1. Одним ударом (махом) двох зайців убити. 2. Добре

199розпочати - півділа зробити. 3. Поцілувати замок. 4. Знати, як свої п'ять пальців. 5. На кутні сміятися. 6. Відкладати щось на чорний день. 7. Хто іншому яму копає, той сам у неї потрапляє. 8. Лизати п'яти (комусь). 9. Брехнею далеко не заїдеш (весь світ пройдеш, та назад не вернешся). 10. Життя прожити - не поле перейти (на віку, як на довгій ниві). 11. Кров у жилах холоне. 12. Сім раз відміряй (одмір), а раз відріж (утни). 13. Більший католик, ніж папа римський. 14. Голий, як бубон. 15. Не всі вдома (однієї клепки не вистачає). 16. Сказав, як зав'язав (сказано-зроблено). 27. Пальцем не поворухне. 18. Старого не перевчиш (вченого вчити - тільки час марнувати). 19. Не вчи вченого. 20. Купити (купувати) кота в мішку. 21. Танцювати під чиюсь дудку. 22. Носити воду в решеті. 22. Підносити когось до небес. 24. Гарна, як квітка (як яблучко). 25. Гарний, як червінець. 26. Не мати шеляга/копійки за душею. 27. Сорочки на плечах не мати. 28. Ні бе, ні ме, ні кукуріку. 29, Вставляти палиці комусь в колеса. ЗО. Гордість (пиха) до добра не доводить. 31. Обіцяти золоті гори. 32. Дурість заразлива. 33. Один у полі не воїн. 34. Від великого до смішного-один крок. 35. Шукати вчорашнього дня. 36. Білий, як стіна (як крейда, як полотно). 37. Іван киває на Петра.

Exercise III. Suggest Ukrainian single word equivalents for the following English phraseological and set expressions: 1. all for naught; 2. a shot in the blue; 3. a simple innocent; 4. to sink to destitution; 5. the small of the night (the small hours of the night); 6. soft in the brain (head); 7. Before you can say Jack Robinson; 8. mother's strawberry/mark; 9. breathe one's last; 10. by word of mouth; 11. tender years; 12, to the end of time; 13. to the purpose; 14. white liver; 15. will and testament; 16. with a bold front; 17. with a faint heart; 18. with a good grace; 19. with one's tongue in one's cheek; 20. a young Tartar; 21. you try us; 22. as the crow flies.

Exercise IV. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Define the ways in which the idioms in them are to be translated. 1. «I feel on the top of the world. I feel like a million dollars.» (Maugham). 2. The sole object of their lives is to be always playing with fire. (O. Wilde) 4. Joe felt he wanted putting himself into George's shoes. (J. Brian) 5. Don't talk rot. (D. Cusak) 6. «Don't think I am trying to pry into your affairs», - went on the politician. (T. Dreiser). 7. «The other chap, Profond, is a queer fish. I think he's hanging round Soames' wife, if you ask me!» (J. Galsworthy) 8. Little Jolyon was born with a silver spoon in his mouth. (Ibid.) Keep your eye upon him in the meanwhile, and don't talk about it. He is as mad as a March hare. (Ch. Dickens) 10. The proof of the pudding is in its eating. (S.Maugham) 11. A bird in the hand was worth two in the bush. (Ibid.) 12. Walter knew which side his bread was buttered. (Ibid.) 13. Why not cure unemployment by a National Slum Clearance effort, and kill the two birds with one stone. (J.Galsworthy) 14. However, I must bear my cross as best as I may: least said is soonest mended. (B. Shaw) 15. Oh, well, it's no good crying over spilt milk. (S.Maugham) 16. Her absence had been a relief. Out of sight was out of mind! (J. Galsworthy) 17. «He'll never set the Thames on fire»,-said Soames. (Ibid.) 18. «Silly little thing to try to put a spoke into my wheel.» (S.Maugham) 19. The apple of discord had, indeed, been dropt into the house of Millbornes. (T. Hardy) 20. The poor man's alarm was pitiful. His bread and butter was at stake. (J. London) 21. «I shall let sleeping dogs lie, my child». (J. Galsworthy) 22. The boy is very dear and the apple of her eye. (Ibid.) 23. You've landed yourself in a helpless mess. And I wash my hands of you. (A.Cronin) 24. You know the expression: «She has made her bed, she must lie on tf.»(lbid.) 25. «After all, the proof of the pudding's in the eating». 26. «Yes, I couldn't make head or tail of it.» 27. «You can twist her round your little finger.» 28. «Oh, I don't care a hang about that.» 29. «He says you just eat out of his hand». 30. «By God, if you had, that old hag would have had you out of the play, you're in now before you could say knife». 31. «She almost wished he wasn't going tomorrow so that she could have the pleasure of turning him out bag and baggage». 32. And to dare to treat her like that, a twopenny halfpenny little man in the city.» 33. «Poor lamb, he must be as poor as a church mouse». 34. Oh, well, in for a penny, in for a pound.» 31. «I never slept a wink all night for thinking of you,» he said. 35. «It's quite obvious that you don't care two straws for me.» 36. «That was quite another pair of shoes». 37. «After all sh*e must be tolerant, he was only a boy, and if you must cross your t's, she was old enough to be his mother». 38. «Wish me luck», he whispered, as he turned from her to enter the lift. It's almost too good to be true.» 39. «She had never seen him in evening clothes before. He shone like a new pin». 40. «...she wanted him to have his money's worth». (S.Maugham) 41. Ask them - for pity's sake to stop the gramophone (A.Cronin)

Exercise V. Compare each English idiom with its corresponding Ukrainian equivalent below. Other all possible ways in which they can be translated.

1. like teacher, like pupil; 2. let the dead bury the dead; 3. he who keeps company with the wolves, will learn to howl; 4. the morning sun never lasts a day; 5. to keep a body and soul together; 6. murder will out; 7. of all birds give me mutton; 8. one could have heard a pin drop; 9. one today is worth two tomorrows; 10. one rotten apple decays the bushel; 11. people who are too sharp cut their own fingers; 12. pie in the sky; 13. pigs grunt about everything and nothing; 14. pitch darkness; 15. to play a dirty (mean, nasty) trick on one; 16. to point out a mote in one's eye; 17. to poison the fountains of trust; 18. a pretty penny; 19. a pretty little pig makes an ugly sow; 20. to keep one's tongue between one's teeth; 21. to make it hot for one; 22. to make mince meat/to make meat of smth.; 23. more power to your elbow; 24. to pull one's leg; 25. every dog has his day; 26. this is too thin; 27. to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds; 28. a saint's words and cat's claws; 29. one's sands are running out; 30. never bray at an ass; 31 .to find a mare's nest; 32. sounding brass; 33. to talk through one's hat; 34. to talk a dog's (horse's) hind leg off; 35. to touch bottom; 36. company in distress makes sorrow less; 37. tit for tat; 38. tomorrow come never; 39. weeds want no sowing; 40. we got the coach up the hill; 41. what's Hecuba to me/to you; 42. when bees are old they yield no honey; 43. the wind in a man's face makes him wise; 44. scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 45. To kill the goose that laid the golden egg.

Exercise VI. Translate in viva voce the following phraseological/idiomatic expressions, proverbs and saying into English. Define the ways in which their meaning can be faithfully conveyed:

1. який Сава, така й слава; 2. що було, то загуло; 3. з ким поведешся, того й наберешся; 4. на світі нема нічого вічного; 5. ледве зводити кінці з кінцями; 6. шила в мішку не сховаєш; 7. найкраща риба -ковбаса /гарна птиця ковбаса; 8. тихо, яку вусі /чути,, як трава росте; 9. не відкладай на завтра те, що можна зробити сьогодні; 10. одна паршива вівця всю отару поганить; 11. хто сміється, тому не минеться; 12. краще жайворонок у руці, ніж журавель у небі; 13. людям язиків не зав'яжеш; 14. темно, хоч в око стрель; 15. підвезти воза /підкласти свиню; 16. чуже бачити аж під лісом, а свого й під носом не помічати; 17. підірвати довір'я до себе; 18. грошей добру копійку /грошей дай Боже; 19. всі дівчата, мов квітки, а звідки погані баби беруться; 20. тримати язик за зубами/ ні.пари з уст; 21. дати прочухана /нагріти чуба; 22. не лишити каменя на камені; 23. ні пуху, ні луски; 24. морочити комусь голову; 25. козак не без долі /і в наше віконце ще загляне сонце; 26. білими нитками шито; 27. служити і вашим, і нашим; 28. м'яко стеле, та твердо спати; 29. недовго (комусь) ряст топтати; ЗО. не водись з дурнем; 31. попасти пальцем у небо; 32. пусті слова /балачки; 33. верзти нісенітницю; 34. наговорити сім мішків /кіп гречаної вовни; 35. узнати/спізнати, по чім ківш лиха; 36. в гурті і смерть не страшна /поділене горе - півгоря; 37. око за око/зуб за зуб; 38. обіцянка-цяцянка, а дурному радість; 39. дурнів не орють, не сіють (а вони самі родяться); 40. знайте нас: ми кислиці - то з нас квас; 41. а яке мені діло/ моя хата з краю; 42. був кінь, та з'їздився; 43. біда вимучить, біда й навчить; 44. рука руку миє. 45. Зарізати курку, що несла золоті яйця.

Exercise VII. Choose in part B of the exercise below the corresponding English equivalents (відповідники) for the following Ukrainian idiomatic/phraseological expressions and substantiate the way in which you decided to translate them.

A. 1. виїденого яйця не вартий; 2. я не я, і хата не моя/ моя хата з краю; 3. купається /плаває, як вареник у маслі; 4. як тільки язик повертається; 5. як сніг на голову; 6. лупцювати, як Сидорову козу; 7. (дивитися) як цап /баран на нові ворота 8. спіймати облизня; 9. чув дзвін, та не знає, не він; 10. як чугуївська верства (високий); 11. чого я там не бачив; 12. спасти на думку; 13. отримати прочухана; 14. рости, як із води; 15. здоров'я -найдорожчий скарб; 16. розбити глек із кимсь; 17. розв'язувати руки комусь; 18. сім п'ятниць на тиждень; 19. кашу маслом не збавиш; 20. водити за ніс (когось); 21. морочити комусь голову / піддурювати когось; 22. від долі не втечеш/у всякого своя доля; 23. клепки не вистачає (комусь); 24. верзти нісенітницю; 25. справи йшли як по маслу; 26. з вірогідного джерела/ з вірогідних джерел, із свіжих рук; 27. буря в склянці води; 28. гроші /гаманець, або життя; 29. не їла душа часнику, не буде й смердіти.

В. 1. is not worth a straw; 2. it does not concern me/it is not business of mine; 3. one lives in luxury/on the fat of the land; 4) how dare(s) one say so; 5. to come plump upon one/ to come like a bolt from the blue; 6. to beat the life out of one; 7. to look/ be astounded, to be very surprised; 8. to fail face/be a complete failure; 9. that is mere hearsay/rumor; 10. (as) tall as a maypole; 11. I've nothing lost there; 12. to bring back (call) to memory; 13. to grow (take) one's gruel; 14. to overgrow; 15. good health is above wealth; 16. to have a quarrel with one/to break off with one; 17. to give rein/to give full scope (swing) to one; 18. to keep changing one's mind; 19. plenty is no plague; 20. to pull (one) by the nose; 21. to pull one's leg; 22. every bullet has its billet; 23. (one) has not all his buttons/one has a screw loose, one is a little wanting, one is not right up there; 24. to talk nonsense/bunkum; 25. things went swimmingly/without a hitch, work like butter; 26. straight from the horse's mouth/ straight from the tin; 27. a storm in a tea-pot/tea-cup (Am. a tea-cup/tea-pot tempest); 28. to stand and deliver; 29. people throw stones only at trees with fruit on them.

Exercise VIII. Suggest suitable Ukrainian versions for the following English proverbs, sayings and catchwords (крилаті слова та вирази):

1. actions speak louder than words; 2. all that glitters is not gold; 3. work and no play makes Jack a dull boy; 4. a bad workman always blames the tools; 5. barking dogs seldom bite; 6. beauty is only skin deep; 7, creaking gate hangs long; 8. don't cross the bridge until you come to it; 9. don't put the cart before the horse; 10. the early bird catches the worm; 11. every dog has his day; 12. forbidden fruit is sweetest; 13. if a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well; 14. its easy to be wise after the event; 15. it's never too late to mend; 16. it never rains but it pours; 17. more haste less speed; 18.no gain without pain; 19, necessity is the mother of invention; 20. never look a gift horse in the mouth; 21. no news (is) good news; 22. one swallow doesn't make a summer; 23. out of sight, out of mind; 24. paddle your own canoe; 25. the proof of the pudding is in the eating; 26. the road to hell is paved with good intentions; 27. the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak (The Bible); 28. still waters are deep; 29. time and tide wait for no man; 30. too many cooks spoil the broth; 31. when the cat's away the mice will play; 32. where there's a will, there's a way; 33. while there's life, there's hope; 34. you can't run with the hare and hunt with the hounds; 35. you may lead a horse to water, but you can not make him drink; 36. man proposes and God disposes; 37. give a man a fish and he eats all day. Teach him catch fish and he eats for a lifetime; 38. education makes people easy to lead but difficult to drive, easy to govern but impossible to enslave; 39. good advice comes from the aged; 40. an old man is like a child; 41. early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise; 42. there is no place like home; 43. one today is worth two tomorrows; 44. a man is old as he feels, a woman is old as she looks; 45. many a good cow has a bad/evil calf; 46. one's eyes drop millstones; 47, a forgetful head makes a weary pair of heels-; 48. great talkers are all little doers; 49. a great ship asks deep water/s; 50. great weeds grow apiece; 51. to have not a penny to one's name/ to have not a shirt to one's back; 52. keep your mouth shut and your ears open; 53. spare the rod and spoil the child; 54. a sparrow in the hand is better than the pigeon on the roof; 55. a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; 56. birds of a feather flock together; 57. the ass is known by Its ears; 58. a bird is known by its note, and a man by its talk; 59. a bitten child dreads the dog; 60. a burnt child dreads the fire/a scalded cat/dog fears cold water; 61. the face is the index of the mind; 62. a fair'face may hide a foul heart; 63. far from eye, far from heart/seldom seen, soon forgotten; 64. to fear as the devil fears the holy water; 65. to fiddle while Rome is burning; 66. one's fingers are (all) thumbs; 67. fish begins to stink at the head; 68. fools will be fools; 69. a fool when he is silent is counted wise; 70. friends may meet but mountains never; 71. friends are thieves of time; 72. God helps those who help themselves; 73. man is known by the company he keeps; 74. a good Jack makes a good Jill; 75. every god has his way; 76. fine feathers make the bird; 77. don't have too many irons in the fire; 78. while there's life there's hope; 79. the wish is father to the thought; 80. a word is enough to the wise; 81. a rolling stone catches no moss; 82. Rain at seven, fine at eleven.





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