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ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ 14 страница



dreadful people you're associ- перестали спілкуватися з усіма

ated with. (O. Wilde) тими покидьками.

The identifying definite article may include in its semantic information some specifying function and meaning too:

The Chinamen were already Там уже метушились госпо-

busy in their shops. (Ibid.) дарі китайських крамничок.

Some implicit contextual meanings of the modifying and identifying definite article the can often be given a true and faithful explication i.e. realization in translation only after a thorough study of the broader content as well. Cf.:

After a moment's hesitation, Стрікленд роздумував

Strickland scrambled to his feet, недовго. Випростав затерплі

and together they went to the ноги, і вони вдвох подалися до

Bonchee de Pain. іншого благодійного

(S.Maugham) закладу під назвою

«Хлібодар».

The MacAndrews, who were Полковник Мак-Ендрю з

childless and in easy circum- дружиною, бездітні й добре

stances, arranged to undertake забезпечені, взяли на

the care of the children, and Mrs. утримання її дітей, так що місіс

Strickland had only herself to pro- Стрікленд заробляла тільки на

vide for. (Ibid.) себе.

b) Sometimes the article may substitute an implicit identifying/

interrogative pronoun and a particle expressing the contextual mean

ing of the emphatically used noun with the definite article. This can be

seen in the following exclamatory sentence:

 

The pity of it! The pity of it! Як жаль! Який жаль!

шкода! Дуже шкода!

The picture of contextual realizations of meanings pertained to the determining and identifying articles would be incomplete without some illustrations of their «deep», as one might call them, or interpharasal and superphrasal meanings, which the articles may acquire in some contexts. The interphrasal meaning of the definite or indefinite article may be elicited already from its contextual meaning at the level of the sentence. Cf.:

I looked at her mouth for an Я позирав на її вуста - чи expression that could give me не майне там бодай тінь її a clue to what she felt. (Maugham) душевного стану.

The meaning of the noun with the indefinite article (an expression) is clearly perceived from the content of the sentence where it may also be substituted tor якийсь вираз/хоч якийсь вираз.

More or less transient is also the meaning of the underlined noun with the definite article in the following sentence:

Of the threat she said noth- Власне ж про саму погрозу

ing. (O.Wilde) вона промовчала/не сказала

нічого.

In some cases, however, it is next to impossible to translate a noun with the implicit meaning of its identifying or specifying article without an inquiry into the broader context of the whole work, as in the following sentence:



They sent me to Amsterdam Мене вірядили до

to try for a scholarship, and І Амстердама на конкурс, який

won it. (Maugham.) обіцяв стипендію в художній

школі, і я здобув її.

It goes without saying that such a descriptive translation of the noun (a scholarship) could be offered only by a translator well acquainted with the content of the preceding sentences or even of the whole paragraph.

There are, naturally, many more contextual realizations of the lexical meanings, pertaining to the definite and the indefinite articles, which they may acquire in a text/at speech level.

In view of the diversity of possible lexical realizations, which the English articles may have in speech, the student will be warned to employ not only their single word equivalents to express their meanings in Ukrainian. A thorough study of the broader context may sometimes help to find a more fitting substitute for a lexically charged

 

indefinite or definite article in Ukrainian. Thus, in the sentence He had a face that reminded me of a frog. (W.Lewis) the bold type indefinite article a can not be denied the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun таке. All this must be borne in mind when dealing with the lexically meaningful articles in the sentences of the exercise below. Unfortunately, the restricted space of the manual makes it impossible to give regular passages with the implicit (contextual) meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles.

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

1. The most general contextual realizations of meanings of

the nominalizing and emphatic articles. The means of expressing

their meanings in Ukrainian.

2. The most common contextual meanings of the definite arti

cle and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.

3. The most common contextual meanings of the indefinite

article and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.

4. Ways of conveying the rhematic and thematic contextual

meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles in Ukrainian.

5. Other possible contextual meanings of the definite and in

definite articles and means of their expression in Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Analyse the sentences and substitute the definite article for an appropriate Ukrainian demonstrative pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

I. This was the man Dorian Gray was waiting for. (O. Wilde) 2. He had met the woman at last - the woman he had thought little about, not being given to thinking about women. (Ibid.) 3. Eight Street Bridge is the place. (J.London) 4. - and at the instant he knew, he ceased to know. (Ibid.) 5. That's the Barney, that has the ugly daughter. (W. Maken) 6. «You've heard of Rancocanty?»- «I'm the man». (G. Byron) 7. «The Mr.Jardyce, sir, whose story I have heard?» (C. Dickens) 8. When she smiled, he saw the Pat he had known, the Pat smiling at him from worn photo, that still lay in the pocket-book against his heart. (J. Lindsay) 9. If I ever saw a man hopelessly hard up it was the man in front of me. (H. Wells) 10.1 was brought up by

 

my paternal aunt, Miss Frobisher, the Miss Frobisher of the Barton Chapel Case and the Woman's World Humanity movement. (Ibid.)

Exercise II. Substitute the definite article for an appropriate possessive pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. He had uttered a mad wish that he himself might remain young, and the portrait grow old - . (O. Wide) 2. It was his beauty that ruined him, his beauty and the youth that he had prayed for. (Ibid.) 3. «Take the thing off the face. I wish to see it.» (Ibid.) 4.1 know the age better than you do, though you will prate about it so tediously. (Ibid.) 5. The next night, of course, I arrived at the place again. (Ibid.) 6. At last, liveried in the costume of the age, Reality entered the room in the shape of a servant to tell the Duchess that her carriage was waiting. (Ibid.) 7. - and you have often told me that it is personalities, not principles, that move the age. (Ibid.) 8. «He began to talk about the house». (J.Fowles). 9. In England he never quite capitalized on the savage impact, the famous «black sarcasm» of the Spanish drawings. (Ibid.) 10. The friendship, the rapport (взаємовідносини) became comprehensible - . (Ibid.)

Exercise III. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Give your reasons for the choice of the indefinite pronoun (or cardinal numeral) to express the lexical meaning of articles.

1. «A Mr. Forsyte to see you, sir». (J. Galsworthy) 2. «By the way, have you any spare clothes you could give the wife of a poor snipe? -. (Ibid.) 3. He was moving slowly on the Bond Street, when a little light lady, coming from the backwater, and reading as she went, ran into him behind. (Ibid.) 4. Haviland looked at him for a moment and then hung up his hat and coat. (M.Wilson) 5. «I saw a Mrs. Danvers on the twelfth floor at two o'clock», he said. (D. du Maurier) 6. There was a woman sitting before the fire. (K.Mansfield) 7. There lay a young man, fast asleep - sleeping so soundly, so deeply, that he was far, far away from them both. (Ibid.) 8. In a few minutes a man came in, and George explained that the cook was sick. (E. Hemingway) 9. «We're going to kill a Swede. Do you know a big Swede named Ole Anderson?» (Ibid.) 10. As he swung, head down, into Talgarth Street he was conscious, suddenly, of a man running. (A. Cronin) 11. «- not to be acquainted with a Jarndyce is queer, ain't it, Miss Flite?» (C. Dickens). 12. Every old gang has a Billy in it. (S. Leacock) 13. «What a fool Rawdon Grawley has been to go and marry a governess!» (W. Thackeray) 14. After a pause Lord Henry pulled out his watch. (O. Wilde) 15. When all that is settled, I shall take a West End theatre and bring her out properly.

 

(О. Wilde) 16. A woman in a fluttering shawl was creeping slowly by the railings, staggering as she went. (Ibid.) 17. At last he heard a step outside, and the door opened. (Ibid.) 18. When a government makes a bad mistake of judgement, the electorate turns against it as soon as it feels the effect. (J. Galsworthy)

Exercise IV. Analyse the sentences below. Identify how the contextual meanings of the bold type articles are realized in Ukrainian (as an identifying pronoun, a relative adjective or any other semantically/contextually suitable word). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Desperately he came to a halt in front of one decent picture hanging on the walls. (A. Huxley) 2.1 honestly think if a person's an artist nobody ought to have any feeling at all about meeting him. (D. Parker) 3. Life worried and bored him, and time was a vexation. (J. London) 4. He is a man. (Ibid.) 5. He was over to San Francisco yesterday looking for a ship. (Ibid.) 6. «What's that?» he replied to a question from Olney that broke in upon his train of thought. (Ibid.) 7. «Yes, she is a peacock in everything but beauty», said Lord Henry. (O. Wilde) 8.1 have not laid eyes on him fora week. (Ibid.) 9. They are always telling that it (America) is the Paradise for women. (Ibid.) 10. Were people to gape at the mystery of his life? (Ibid.) 11. «An eternity», she tells me... (Ibid.) 12. There is hardly a single person in the House of Commons worth painting - . (Ibid.) 13.1 want to place her on a pedestal of gold, and to see the world worship the woman who is mine. (Ibid.) 14. Then he discovered Henley and wrote a series of sea-poems on the model of Hospital Sketches. (J. London) 15. For a generation ... the Old Hundredth (night club) has maintained a solid front against all adversity. (F. Fitzgerald) 16. So when a young man at the office suggested that we take a house together in a commuting town, it sounded like a great idea. (Ibid.) 17. «You can tell me the truth without giving me any of that lip.»(W. Saroyan)

Exercise V. Substitute the articles in bold type for the appropriate particles (вже, навіть, просто, саме, таки, ще, etc.). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1.1 believe some pictures of mine had made a real success at the time... (O. Wilde) 2. It was the passions about whose origin we deceived ourselves that tyrannised most strongly over us. (Ibid.) 3. You are the type the age is searching for -. (Ibid.) 4. It seems to be the one thing that can make modern life mysterious or marvellous to us. (Ibid.) 5. Conscience is the trade-name of the firm. (Ibid.) 6. «You are the one man in the world who is entitled to know everything about

 

me - . (Ibid.) 7. «Years ago, when I was a boy», said Dorian Gray -. (Ibid.) 8. The very thought of it stirs me. (J. London) 9. -when that was over and he had failed to kill his loneliness but only made it worse, he had written to her, the first one, the one who left him. (E. Hemingway)

10. «I suppose, it's the thing to do», Macomber agreed. (Ibid.)

11. «She went into a house-» «Intoahouse!» Michael dived his ciga

rette-case. (J. Galsworthy) 12. -1 have this coloured laundress. She is

a real character. (D. Parker) 13. - He says he wouldn't sit down at the

table with one (Negro) fora million dollars. (Ibid.) 14. She is more than

an individual. (O. Wilde) 15. «That's better», the sheriff said. «That's a

civil answer». (W. Saroyan) 16. «You should go and see Claud Brains.

He's a real genius». (J. Galsworthy) 17.1 have no doubt it was not an

accident, Dorian. (O. Wilde) 18. What a girl! (T.Dreiser) 19.... «but I

shall have to ask them what the name of the country is, you know»

(L. Carroll) 20. It sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly

and simply arranged. (Ibid.) 21. That will be a queer thing, to be sure!

(Ibid.) 22. «Ah, that's the great puzzle!» (Ibid.) 23. «What a curious

feeling»! said Alice. 24. Either the well was very deep, or she fell very

slowly. (Ibid.)

Exercise VI. Point out the difference in the lexical meaning expressed by the indefinite and the definite articles signalizing respectively the rheme and theme in the sentences below. Pay attention to the place which the rhematic and thematic nouns occupy in their Ukrainian variants.

1. As he passed the bronze statue of the Four Moors a man's figure emerged from an old house on the opposite side of the shipping basin. 2. The man approached unsteadily along the water side, shouting an English song. (E. Voynich) 3. As they passed by the gateway of the Uffizi, he crossed the road and stooped down at a dark bundle that was lying against the railings. (Ibid.) 4. The bundle moved, and answered something in a low, moaning voice. (Ibid.) 5. «What a fool Rawdon Grawley has been to go and marry a governess!» (W.Thackeray) 6. «But there was something about the governess too. Green eyes, fair skin, pretty figure». (Ibid.) 7. It was as John had said - he and she just wanted to live and the past was in their way - a past they had not shared in, and did not understand. (J.K.Jerome) 8. I've written a lot of them (his sayings) down in a book for fear of losing them. 9. It is only fair that at the back of the book I would be allowed a few pages to myself to put down some things (Ibid.) 10. It was an early morning of a sunny day. (Ibid.) 11. He remembered suddenly the early morning when he slept on

 

the house-boat after her father died-. (J.Galsworthy) 12. He wrote a pamphlet on Malt on returning to England - . (Ibid.) 13. She ... took an interest in the pamphlet on Malt: was often affected, even to tears. (Ibid.) 14. There came a morning at the end of September when aunt Ann was unable to take from Smither's hands the insignia of personal dignity. (Ibid.) 15. The morning after a certain night on which Soames at last asserted his rights and acted like a man he breakfasted alone. (J.Galsworthy)

ASYNDETIC NOUN CLUSTERS AND RENDERING THEIR MEANING INTO UKRAINIAN

Present-day English abounds in asyndetic noun clusters which are very often used in newspaper and scientific matter/texts. They are word-groups consisting of two, three or more nouns (functionally equivalent to word-groups) like yarn production, yam production figures; the House of Commons debate; mother and child care. New Deal and Great Society programs.'

Irrespective of the number of components in these clusters or their structure, they are always in subordinate relation to each other, i.e., they function as adjunct (attributive component) and head (nucleus). The former occupies the left-hand (initial) position and the latter -the right-hand (closing) position in the cluster. The subordinate relation between the parts of the binary asyndetic substantival cluster can be graphically presented as follows: yarn -> production, the House of Commons -> debate, mother and child -> care, cotton yam -> production, New Deal and Great Society -> programs.

In many such and the like noun clusters the head components may have a compound noun or a word-group structure too: Sahara -> oilwells, US -» open tennis champions, The placement of head may be reverse: Stormont<r- a Social Democratic and Labour Party MP. Many asyndetic noun clusters have often extended adjuncts and extended/expanded heads as in examples Upper Clyde Shipbuilders -> shop stewards; Noise Advisory Council -> working group representative; the Suez Canal Zone base -> agreement negotiations.

The semantic interrelation between the componental parts in asyndetic noun clusters may often be rather complicated.

1 The illustrative examples of asyndetic noun clusters on this and on the forthcoming pages have been picked up in British and American papers: The Guardian, Financial Times, USA Today, from The Time magazine and others.

ASYNDETIC NOUN CLUSTERS AND RENDERING THEIR MEANING INTO UKRAINIAN

Present-day English abounds in asyndetic noun clusters which are very often used in newspaper and scientific matter/texts. They are word-groups consisting of two, three or more nouns (functionally equivalent to word-groups) like yarn production, yam production figures; the House of Commons debate; mother and child care. New Deal and Great Society programs.'

Irrespective of the number of components in these clusters or their structure, they are always in subordinate relation to each other, i.e., they function as adjunct (attributive component) and head (nucleus). The former occupies the left-hand (initial) position and the latter- the right-hand (closing) position in the cluster. The subordinate relation between the parts of the binary asyndetic substantival cluster can be graphically presented as follows: yarn —> production, the House of Commons -* debate, mother and child -> care, cotton yarn -> production, New Deal and Great Society -> pro- grams.

In many such and the like noun clusters the head components may have a compound noun or a word-group structure too: Sahara

-> oilwells, US -> open tennis champions, Stormont -> a Social Democratic and Labour Party MP. Many asyndetic noun clusters may have extended adjuncts and extended/expanded heads as in examples Upper Clyde Shipbuilders -> shop stewards; Noise Advisory Council -> working group representative; the Suez Canal Zone base

—> agreement negotiations.

The semantic interrelation between the componental parts in asyndetic noun clusters is often quite complicated.

1 The illustrative examples of asyndetic noun clusters on this and on the forthcoming pages have been picked up in British and American papers: The Guardian, Financial Times, USA Today, from the Time magazine and others.

 

 

So is the structural complexity of many asyndetic substantival clusters, which may make their identification as two-, three-, four-, etc. componental word-group uncertain. In other words, a difficulty may arise as to how the asyndetic clusters should be treated - as the NN, NNN, or NNNN, etc. word-groups. This is of importance not so much for the allotment of a substantival cluster, which can partly be seen from the following examples: wage increase підвищення заробітної платні/зарплати; 10 per cent wage increase підвищення зарплати на 10% or десяти відсоткове підвищення зарплатні; US policy політика США; US foreign policy зовнішня політика США; the House of Common's debate дебати в палаті громад; the recent House of Commons debate недавні/останні дебати в палаті громад.

The adjectival components, therefore, can extend the asyndetic noun cluster and change the starting point of their translation without changing in any way their asyndetic nature. Neither do they change the quantitative correlation of noun components in the clusters. Thus, the House of Commons debate, the Scottish League Cup-tie, the US foreign policy, etc. are two-componental NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters. Proceeding from this, the components like North-West, the U.S.A., the U.K., Long Kesh and the like are to be treated as single heads or single adjuncts, since they function as a single Compound or Nabbreviate</N proper- еіс- Hence, the word-groups, as these below, are three-componental only: the Long Kesh concentration camp (Nprop. +NN), the US foreign policy statement (Nabbrev.+ AN+N).

It goes without saying that each lexeme in the asyndetic substantival clusters adds some new meaning to its general semantic structure. Hence, the more lexemes the cluster consists of, the more unlike the other ways of approach to its translating there may be.

APPROACHES TO TRANSLATING ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS

As has been pointed out, there may be different approaches to rendering the lexical meaning of asyndetic substantival clusters. These approaches are predetermined by the following main factors: 1) by the number of nouns making up the cluster; 2) by the structure of the adjunct and head (or both these components); 3) by the semantic relations between the constituent parts of the asyndetic substantival cluster which may be local, temporal and others by nature; 4) by the presence or absence of the preceding adjective, participle, possessive pronoun or ordinal numeral.

 

Besides, a quick and correct rendering of meaning of any type of asyndetic substantival clusters mostly depends on the choice of the right component (or its part) from which the translation has to be started.

TRANSLATION OF TWO-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS

There can be suggested some ways of faithful translation of asyndetic noun/substantival clusters into Ukrainian. Each of these ways may be predetermined by one of the following three factors: 1) by the lexical meaning of the component parts; 2) by their structural form and 3) by the meaning of the cluster as a whole. Hence, translation of two componental asyndetic NN-structure clusters may start:

1) with the head noun: board members члени правління; economy regime режим економії; policy change зміна політики; payment imbalance нестійкість/незбалансованість платежів;

2) beginning with the adjunct (functioning as an adjective) or with the head (functioning as a noun): dinner-time break обідня перерва/перерва на обід; school reform шкільна реформа/ реформа школи; student groups студентські групи/групи студентів; currency reform грошова реформа/реформа грошової системи; liberation movement визвольний рух/рух за визволення.

The number of thus translated asyndetic substantival word-groups in present-day English is considerable. Having often a dual meaning and nature, some Nadjuncts may be treated both as A+N- and as N+N-components of asyndetic substantival clusters.

Of similar nature are also the substantival clusters with prefixed adjuncts which are translated, as a rule, beginning with the head noun which is characteristic of the NN-type asyndetic noun clusters: anti-apartheid legislation законодавчі акти/закони про заборону апартеїду, anti-trade union act закон (спрямований) проти профспілок; non-smoker compartment купе для некурящих/ для некурців.

3) the meaning of some asyndetic substantival clusters with compound adjuncts can be rendered into Ukrainian in a descriptive way as well: nine-men defence захист із 9 гравців (спорт); two-thirds majority більшість у дві третіх голосів; top-drawer family родина, що вдягається у дорогу одіж; the under-16 country match матч сільських спортсменів віком до 16 років. Some adjuncts of asyndetic noun clusters often have a composite structure. They may consist of words belonging to different parts of speech which consti-

 

tute either a regular phrase/word-group or a hyphenated conglomeration of words. This kind of word-groups are usually translated in a descriptive way too: the lame duck policy невдала/збанкрутіла політика; dead ball situations ситуації, за яких м'яч команді не зараховується; rob Peter and pay Paul policy політика виплати одній категорії населення за рахунок пограбування іншої; Manchster -travel-to-work area район Манчестера, звідки дістаються на роботу комунальним транспортом.

Asyndetic substantival clusters of the NN-, NNN-, etc. structure are often preceded by adjectives, participles, bahuvrihi formations, pronouns, numerals, etc., used in the function of attributes. They usually form with the N/NN components distinct sense units, which may often predetermine the way of approach to the translation of clusters. For example, in the substantival clusters as final press conference, English amateur champion, London cab drivers, striking mine workers the attributive (adjectival) components modify the NN head components forming with them word-groups of the A+NN structure. In examples like a Democratic Party member, the Tory Government policy, toxic action results the attributive components form close sense units of the AN+N structure with the head noun. This structure of the word-group, i.e., asyndentic noun cluster, and the semantic interrelation between its components predetermines the choice of the approach to translating it. As a result, the meaning of the A+NN-type substantival clusters can be rendered into Ukrainian by the following main approaches:

1) beginning with the initial adjective after which the head noun and its adjunct noun is translated in succession: English amateur champion англійський чемпіон-непрофесіонал; leading world jockeys провідні (найкращі) жокеї світу; public protest meeting загальні збори/мітіні1 протесту; junior hospital staff молодший медперсонал лікарні; British health service англійська служба охорони здоров'я/ служба охорони здоров'я Великої Британії;

2) beginning with the adjective after which the following noun (adjunct) and then the head noun is translated in succession: final press conference заключна пресконференція; London cab drivers лондонські кебмени/таксисти; Royal Shakespeare company Королівська шекспірівська трупа; six-week summer holiday півторамісячна літня відпустка; major autumn campaign головна осіння кампанія London undergroud tunnels лондонські підземні тунелі;

3) a considerable number of lexically transparent asyndetic substantival clusters of the A+NN-type are translated in reverse or-

 

der, i.e., beginning with the head noun after which the attributive component and the adjunct noun is translated in succession. The choice of this approach of translating the A+NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters becomes possible due to the existence in Ukrainian of identical semantic units formed with somewhat different grammatical means: European Cup-winners Cup кубок еропейських володарів кубків; Local authority staff штати місцевих органів влади;

4) some asyndetic clusters of the type may be semantically condensed. As a result, more words are needed in the target language to render their meaning, i.e., they are to be translated in a descriptive way: Royal Berkshire polo ground королівський стадіон для гри в поло в Беркширі; London Evening News лондонська вечірня газета «Івнінґ ньюз»; Royal Air Force військовоповітряні сили Великої Британії. The A+NN asyndetic substantival clusters may sometimes be translated in two ways: a) by preserving the componental structure of the English word-group; b) by transforming the initial adjective into a noun and changing the order of components: Maltese NATO base 1) мальтійська військова база МАТО; 2) натівська військова база на Мальті; 3) військова база МАТО на Мальті.

Much simpler is the approach to translating the AN+N-type of asyndetic noun clusters in which the initial adjective (A) and the following adjunct noun form a sense unit of their own. The AN-type sense unit functions as a syntactically and semantically single at-.tributive component of the head noun. Translation of the AN+N type asyndetic substantival clusters predominantly starts with the head noun, after which the attributive component and then the adjunct noun is translated in succession: the Republican Party candidate кандидат у президенти від республіканської партії США; toxic action results наслідки токсичної дії (інтоксикації); dense fog patches пасма/латки густого туману; British Lion film фільм англійської кінокомпанії «Брітіш Лаен»; human resources planning планування людських резевів.

As has been already mentioned some attributive components in English are of dual nature (cf. cannon ball, speech sound). As a result, they can be conveyed either as relative adjectives or as nouns: Labour Government policyполітика лейбористського уряду/політика уряду лейбористів', London district chairman голова лондонського окружної ради/голова окружної ради Лондона; salary structure design проект реструктуризації/впорядкування зарплатні.

A number of AN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters are

 

 

 

translated in a descriptive way too. It becomes necessary when the asyndetic noun cluster is used to denote a specifically British/American feature, which needs an explanation in the target language: Civil disobedience campaign кампанія громадянської непокори (кампанія протесту населення Північної Ірландії проти дискримінаційної політики англійської уряду супроти/проти католицької меншини); Industrial Relations Act закон про взаємовідносини в промисловості (закон косерваторів, яким обмежувалось право на страйки).

Two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters may often have other than AN+N or AN+NN-type structure of components. These may be of the N+AN, or A+AN+N/AN configuration. The approach to their translating may consequently vary to some extent as well. The asyndetic clusters with the N+AN structure of the componetns may be translated in the following ways:





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