ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ 16 страница
Our students must be repeatedly warned, that the use of three-and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters is mostly restricted to the newspaper and scientific or technical matter texts. In spoken English and in belles-lettres texts preference is given to prepositional word-groups, which may easily be transformed into asyndetic substantival clusters. Cf.:
Newspaper texts/styles Oral speech
the plant shop-stewards the shop-stewards of the plant
Labour housing policy the policy of the Labour Party
the Midlands car factory trade the trade union committee of
union committee the Midlands car factory
All translators, therefore, must bear it in mind, that in the process of rendering far from all Ukrainian substantival word-groups should necessarily be transformed into English multi-componental asyndetic noun clusters. Exception must be made only when dealing with the names of various former Soviet and today's Ukrainian public bodies, offices and enterprises, institutes, universities, former collective and state farms, plants and factories, publishing houses, firms, farmer cooperatives, etc., which bore or bear honorary names like: Львівський театр опери та балету їм. Заньковецької Lviv Zan'kovets'ka Opera and Ballet House; київська станція метро «Шулявська» the Kyiv Shulyavs'ka underground railway station; Харківський педагогічний університет їм. Сковороди Kharkiv Skovoroda Teachers Training University, колективне сільскогосподарське підприємство (КСП) «Пролісок» the Prolisok (Snowdrop) Collective Agricultural Enterprise, etc.
SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION
1. The structural peculiarities of the word-combinations referred to as asyndetic substantival/noun clusters.
2The principle of identifying the number of componental parts in asyndetic substantival clusters.
3. The correlation between the position of N components and their functional significance in asyndetic substantival clusters.
4. The structural forms of the adjunct and head components in asyndetic substantival clusters.
5. The nature/kind of syntactic connection existing between the components of asyndetic substantival clusters.
6. Factors predetermining the approaches to equivalent rendering of meanings of two-componental (NN) substantival clusters into Ukrainian.
7. Ways of faithful expressing the meaning of the two-componental asyndetic noun clusters with extended/expanded adjuncts or heads of the NP+NP (noun phrase+noun phrase) type.
8. Approaches to rendering the meanings of the two-componental NN substantival clusters preceded by an attributive adjective, participle, pronoun, numeral or adverb.
9. Approaches to conveying the meanings of the two-componental NN asyndetic substantival clusters with attributes to the adjunct and to the head component (ANAN, ANQN, etc.).
10. The influence of semantic relations between the components of the asyndetic substantival clusters over the choice of an approach to a faithful rendition of their meanings.
11. Ways of extending two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters by adding adjuncts to each NN component.
12. The consecutive order of translation in the three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters of the N+NN and NN+N types.
13. The approach to rendering the meaning of the three-componental NNN asyndetic noun clusters preceded by attributive adjectives, participles, pronouns, numerals or adverbs.
14. The approaches to faithful translating of the four-, five-and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters with and without the preceding attributes to their component nouns.
15. The way of rendering the meaning of semantically con-
densed two-, three-, and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters.
16. The structure of the word-combinations preferred in spoken English and in belles-lettres works instead of the multi-componental asyndetic substantival clusters.
EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOME TRANSLATION
Exercise I. Define the structural form of the components in the two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters below. Suggest the possible ways of conveying their meaning into Ukrainian.
1. witness testimony; 2. skills analysis; 3. night shift; 4. debt trap; 5. Krasnodar Territory; 6. television network; 7. food prices; 8. job opportunities; 9. London docks; 10. Labour group; 11. sugar steamers; 12. oil paintings; 13. school leavers; 14. oil countries; 15. wage strike; 16. forestry products; 17. economy regime; 18. pay claim; 19. crop yields; 20. livestock products; 21. animal husbandry; 22. solid engine; 23. consumer demand; 24. wage cuts; 25. protest demonstration; 26. Midlands unemployment; 27. promotion limitations; 28. car thieves; 29. gun licence; 30. Labour backbenchers; 31. slave sailers (ships); 32. car bomb; 33. Sunday Express sellers; 34. non-smoker carriage; 35. electricity cuts; 36. «keep wages down» lobby; 37. government draft; 38. Management development; 39. a question and answer interview; 40. law and order advocates; 41. the IMF visit (to Kyiv); 42. an oblast capital; 43. a 44-hour week; 44. a team-contract method; 45. White House intern; 46. the Guardian International subscribers; 47. plan and production discipline; 48. Research and Development Society. 49. Notts County vs Bolton match; 50. Scotland Yard detectives; 51. Trafalgar Square rally; 52. the latest sun eclipse; 53. a welfare-reform plan; 54. government bond prices; 55. a «Buy America» (American cars) campaign; 56. a price-earnings ratio; 57. Tory failings; 58. contract killings; 59. the Osaca Summit; 60. John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library; 61. the Sea Owl submarines (USA).
Exercise II. Find the starting component for translating into Ukrainian the following two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters with the attribute to the adjunct or to the head noun/nucleus:
A) 1. Light music and drama programme; 2.the maximum end results; 2. the two-way trade exchanges; 4. Ukraine-British business partnership; 5. nuclear power stations; 6. the latest weather forecast. 7. Moscow-based industry analyst; 8. local sports clubs; 9. first-ever press conference; 10. our spring musical program; 11. Royal Court Theatre; 12. the main passenger section; 13. an in-house video specialist; 14. major ocean routes; 15. two-seater «city cars»; 16. three-party coalition government; 17. a Commercial production supervisor and technician; 18. larger-than-local sports projects; 19. good Ryder Cup start. 20. an island penal colony; 21. the next Cabinet meeting; 22. International Motor Show; 23. a former CIA official; 24. local education authorities; 25. off-shore oil deposits; 26. common profit aims; 27. British woman doctor; 28. meagre salary increase; 29. current wages negotiations; 30. the Scottish tartan Society; 31. intensive-type crop varieties; 32. the first NBA championship (U.S.A.); 33. (the) House Republican leaders; 34. the promising soccer club; 35. the public sector reform; 36. the modest «Santa Claus» rally; 37. a favourite harbour party.
B) 1. Republican party leaders; 2. the Middle East process; 3. most City of London economists; 4. the National Bank activity; 5. Scottish Electrical Workers Union; 5. a police department lawyer; 7. primary school teachers; 8. Labour Party conference; 9. high quality second hand cloths and accessories; 10. political committee secretary; 11. civil defence organization; 12. social insurance expenditure; 13. pop music fans; 14. local government jobs; 15. Engineering Unions officials; 16. national protest day; 17. lightweight metal; 18. tourist class double rooms; 19. the five-party Cabinet Consultative Committee; 20. the Windows operating systems; 21. British postal service processes; 22. Decimal Currency Board (Gr. Brit.) 23. a solid fuel system; 24. German Booksellers and Publishers Association; 25. a Health Sector Stream; 26. government and European Union decisions; 27. International Copyright Protection; 28. London Evening Standard.
Exercise III. Analyse the three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters below. Point out the closer NN-type sense units in them and the starting components for their translation into Ukrainian.
A) 1. a Bachelor of Music Education Degree; 2. Sunday afternoon concerts; 3. the supertanker collision drama; 4. a school football pitch; 5. Andrew Jackson Park and Museum; 6. Edinburgh Student Unions; 7. publications control board; 8. Essex Action Commit-
tee; 9. London Business School; 10. the Detroit motor show; 11. Cossack salt merchants; 12. school sports facilities; 13. State circuit court; 14. customer service laboratories; 15. City of London police force; 16. Westminster Defence Minister; 17. England team manager; 18. crime figures rise; 19. Labour majority group; 20. Tory leadership election; 21. the Natural Resourses Defence Council; 22. Local Government Officers Union; 23. New York State Governor; 24. the Youth Hostels Association; 25. V-E Day celebrations; 26. world without bombs conference programme; 27. the Kyiv Dynamo soccer club; 28. U.S. Civil War veterans; 29. Kyiv teachers and students demonstration; 29. sheep skin vests;
B) 1. U.S. Administration official; 2. the world bagpipe championship; 3. the Tory selection procedure; 4. the world disarmament conference; 5. retail food prices; 6. New Zealand Golf Association; 7. White House press secretary; 8. New York State governor; 9. Shevchenko prize winners; 10. Manchester City Council; U.Stockport trade unionists; 12. depot mass meetings; 13. Pittsburgh steel works; 14. the U.S. Senate seat; 15. water conservancy constructions; 16. Park Royal Vehicle factories; 17. South-East (a London district) Sports Council; 18. appeal court judges; 19. the US Negro servicemen; 20. the Girl Guide Association; 21. sugar crop disaster (in Cuba); 22. the House of Commons committee room; 23. Medicare part В premiums; 24. the University of Toronto graduate student; 25. the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation) liberalization commitments; 26. a baboon bone-marrow transplant; 27. upperclass mass murderer; 28. the snap opinion polls; 29. the exchange rate level; 30. South Carolina State Museum; 31. the oblast government administration; 32. a health insurance programme; 33. the Air Force General Staff; 34. the Air Force Command; 35. the London Stock Exchange; 36. the World Trade Organization; 37. the morning and evening rush time; 38. the Buckinghamshire County Museum; 39. a $542 million stand-by arrangement; 40. the Hong Kong web developer.
Exercise IV. Point out the sense units in the three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters below and render descriptively their meanings into Ukrainian.
1. the Fire Brigades Union; 2. land improvement measures; 3. the League management committee; 4. world light-weight title; 5. the Commonwealth sugar agreement; 6. vehicle repair industry; 7. post office employees; 8. trade union movement; 9. front line positions; 10. Ireland Civil Rights Association; 11. the London building workers joint sites; 12. car bomb explosion; 13. Nottingham autumn stakes;
14. Leeds Anti-Racialism Committee; 15. motor vehicle castings; 16. Thames Television interviewer; 17. school milk cuts (in Great Britain); 18. summer holidays vacancies; 19. a health insurance programme; 20. Jbkoda sports coupe; 21. the world cricket team; 22. Scots shipyards stewards; 23. Mersyside car workers; 24. Derbyshire and West Midlands police force; 25. a Ryder Cup golf series; 26. the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders shop-stewards; 27. the Ford joint shop-stewards committee; 28. Ashridge (settlement) executive development programmes; 29. the Saxony data-protection commissioner; 30. the voucher insurance company; 31 Public Sector Management Institute (UK) 32. the Oxford Strategic Leadership programme; 33. the Verdugo Hills Archery club (Cal., U.S.A) 34. the business development division; 35. United Nations Environment programme; 36. (Rural) Finance and Enterprise Support Project; 37. China familirization programme; 38. world stockmarket capitalization; 39. (Ukraine's) 1999 privatization efforts; 40. Itar-Tass news agency; 41. the UJS. Supreme Court decision. 42. Salary structure design.
Exercise V. Analyse the semantic Interrelation between ~ ІНв ^oTTtpo*rT8fft8l fJSnS Of tfie AWN^MNANll-,**^li5r'fypeS 6T~~ asyndetic noun clusters below. Point out the starting and the proceeding components to achieve a faithful translation of the clusters into Ukrainian.
Model: Former world heavyweight champion колишній чемпіон світу у важкій вазі (1 -4-2-3). The first trade union country club (1 -4-2-3-5) перший переферійний профспілковий клуб.
1. additional television news programmes; 2. National Health Service hospitals; 3. International amateur golf tournament; 4. the Common Market fisheries policy; 5. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks; 6. Labour Party conference week; 7. the black-soil zone crop yields; 8. French television network facilities; 9. the entire trade union movement; 10. The preschool child care establishment; 11. the internal trade union conference; 12. Labour Shadow Home Secretary; 13. South Wales steel plants; 14. a local CBS television station; 15. large-scale US air raids; 16. Singer's Sewing Machine factory; 17. the Tory Industrial Relations Act; 18. State Social Security Department (USA); 19. Trade Union Congress general secretary; 20. the International bass guitarist section; 21. International ski federation rules; 22. successful world championship defence; 23. the North-West Economic Planning Council (Gr. Brit.); 24. British Ocean Steamship companies; 25. British Steel Corporation shop-stewards; 26. the 1998 World
Cup final; 27. our fall (autumn) drama production; 28. strict data protection laws; 29. a marginal income tax reform; 30. European and world club champion; 31. British steel strip products; 32. private White House polls results; 33. the Caspian pipeline Consortium deal; 34. a true health care reform; 35. international labour organization criteria; 36. a moderate welfare reform plan; 37. the nuclear power plant disaster; 38. the captive gas station attendant; 39. a moderate welfare reform plan; 40. The daytime and evening bus service; 41. New York City Transit Authorities.
Exercise VI. Suggest the possible approaches to translating the four-componental asyndetic noun clusters below.
Model: the BBC TV feature Death in the Prison Yard (3-2-1-4) художній телефільм Бі-Бі-Сі «Смерть на тюремному подвір'ї.»
A) 1. Durability Insurance Trust Fund; 2. the United Nations Refugee Relief Agency (UNRRA); 3. the nuclear weapons test ban treaty. 4. New-Castle Youth Employment Office; 5. the UK oil output figures. 6. the Post Office Engineering Union; 7. the trade union branch table; 8. the USA Senate Foreign Relations Committee; 9. the Child Poverty Action Group; 10. London port ship-repair workers; 11. the Europa World Year Book; 12. State Development Research Centre; 13. the BBC Radio «Today» programme; 14. the Medicare health insurance programme; 15. the State Duma Culture Committee (Russia); 16. a Harvard Business School professor; 17. George Washington Bridge bus station; 18. the Nobel Peace Prize Winner; 19. (this year's) Cannes Film Festival winners; 20. the Air Traffic Control Staff; 21. (the Department of Transport's) Air Accidents Investigation Branch; 22. Boryspil Airport same-day tickets sales; 23.the Manhatten Express bus service; 24. the Pacific Stock Exchange technology index; 25. the University of Chicago Law School 26. Kyiv career club open meeting.
B) 1. French world record race champion; 2. the Rolls-Royce Bristol engines division; 3. the estate grain elevator company; 4. factory and office trade union committees; 5. the speed-way Express Knock-out cup semi-final; 6. district trades union council; 7. Clyde-bank Town Hall Council; 8. Northern Ireland Labour Party leaders; 9. the Birmingham regional Hospital Board meeting; 10. China Policy Study Group; 11. the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Associations Executive; 12. Shevchenko Literature Prize winners; 13. the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive; 14. the US Cruise missile bases; 15. European Petroleum Equipment Manufacturers Federations; 16. British European Airway cheap summer tourist flights; 17.
all-Britain East-West trade agreements; 18. leading Southampton Dock trade unionist; 19. former world mile record holder; 20. Indian Union Carbide Pesticides Plant; 21. Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation poets award; 22. Mountain State arts & crafts Fair; 23. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area; 24. the New York Times bestsellers list; 25. The United Nations Security Council Resolution; 26. the New Castle second division football match; 27. The Northern Praries Wildlife Research Center.
Exercise VII. Point out the sense units and the starting components to translate correctly each five- and six-componental asyndetic substantival cluster below. Offer one or two Ukrainian variants (where possible) for each English word-group.
1. the Voice of America Language service inauguration dates; 2. the world speedway team championship final; 3. the Perkins Diesel factory engine plant; 4. the Retail Food Trades Wages Council; 5. the Coventry tool room rate agreement; 6. a Natal University Sports Union dinner; 7. Essex Gold Cup supporters club trophy; 8. West Midlands Deputy Chief Constable Les Sharp; 9. guerrilla suicide car bomb attack (Lebanon); 10. World Number One amateur tennis player Roy Emerson; 11. the Suez Canal Zone base agreement; 12. the U.S. Information Infrastructure Task Force; 13. the community development block grant programme; 14. the government law enforcement assistance administration; 15. United Nations Security Council Resolution 425; 16. Mr. Shimpei Nukaya, Economic Planning Agency deputy director-general; 17. the Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat. 18. the Radio City Music Hall box office; 19. cane sugar industry waste products; 20. the U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial; 21. the U.S. health maintenance organization; 22. Ameri-can'Power Boat Association Gold Cup Champions.
Exercise VIII. Prior to translating the sentences below into Ukrainian point out the sense units in their asyndetic substantival clusters and find the starting component for a faithful conveying of their meaning into Ukrainian.
1. The three-man UN mission leaves London today after four days of talks with the British Government. 2. Several magistrates are staying from the civic luncheon being given by the Labour-controlled city magistrates. 3. Two new miniature power units have been announced by the Lexor Electronics. 4. At Scottish career offices there were, in September, only 287 real jobs for more than 10,000 school leavers. 5. Public support for the Coal Miners strike decision
in Luhansk region is growing. This is shown in an opinion poll published yesterday. 6. On Friday the Foreign Secretary flies off to Washington for a NATO Ministers meeting. 7. The frequency meter type 265 will measure the frequency of repetitive wave form. 8. The workers have to fight redundancy dismissals, pit closures, rail closures. 9. A week of county council election opened in England and Wales yesterday. 10. «We'll never accept Govt pay policy», say miners. 11. The book features short excerpts from actual student communication note books as well as excerpts from student and professional speeches. 12. He has three times been President of the Romford Constituency Labour Party and also of the Romford Trades Council. 13. «And there's a play on from the New York Theatre Guild...» (A.Cronin) 14. He had really belonged... to that crowd of outsiders who turned up their coat collars, spotted, smoked, and took their occasional recreation not at the University Students Union Club but in a downtown billiard saloon. (Ibid.) 15. This is the name («Little General Assembly») given to the three-month United Nations World Trade and Development Conference which opens today. 16. The Public Health Laboratory Service team is to try to track down the cause of what is commonly known as «gastric flu» by studying outbreaks throughout Britain. 17. The committee studied a trade union activities draft document in dealing with the multinational companies. 18. The USA continues to produce most MBA or Master of Business Administration graduates. 19. Harvard Business School and Columbia University both have introduced more team projects in their management courses. 20. The satellite is some 15 times heavier than previous US spy satellite models. 21. The New York Herald Tribune Washington correspondents say the deficit now stands at about two million dollars and continues to grow. 22. A General Assembly resolution provided for the establishment of a United Nations Emergency Force Special Account. 23. The Amalgamated Engineering Union South Essex District Committee is sending a delegation to meet Members of Parliament with a request for engineers to flood the lobby when they have finished work. 24. The dispute at Fords factory is to be the subject of any inquiry headed by chairman of the Motor Industry Joint Labour Council. 25. Five members of the Windsor group hospital management committee at the Binfield Park Hospital for mentally handicapped children took part in the discussion. 26. The United States Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratories at Fort Bluoir are currently testing a multi-pur> pose tracked vehicle. 27. Quality Control Department decision re-
garding proposed defect elimination expenses estimate was referred to Chief Design engineer, Welding Department superintendant and Process Department superintendant. 28. But Miss Mason who came, she exposed, from the Home Office Frozen Meat Investigation Department-proved a restricted source of enlightenment. (A. Cronin) 29. The British Aircraft Corporation combined shop-stewards committee expressed full support for the NUM (National Union of Miners). 30. «Hong Kong doesn't need high technology manufacturing», says Mr. Howard Davies, Hong Kong Polytechnic University professor of business studies. 31. Mr. Shimpei Nukaya, Economic Planning Agency deputy director-general, said growth in gross domestic product was on track to meet the more modest government target of 2.5 per cent for the fiscal year. 32. The full-year growth rate was distorted by artificially strong data in the first quarter. 33. It has been taken Boyko up till today to change most of the personnel in the oblast government administration. 34. One of the ways New Jersey is making it easier for families to save is the Garden State Savings Bond Programme. 35. The interest earned on Garden State Savings Bonds will not be included in gross income for Federal income tax purposes and will be exempt from the tax imposed by the New Jersey Gross Income Tax Act. 36. South Carolina kindergarten teacher Phyltis Adelsflugel had a flair for imaginative ways to seize the attention of her pupils. 37. Get tickets at the Radio City Music Hall box office (Bronx).
Exercise IX. Transform the following Ukrainian noun word-groups into English asyndetic substantival clusters:
1. Книжковий фонд Київського державного лінгвістичного університету. 2. Шостий Київський авторемонтний завод. 3. Студенти Київської музичної академії ім. П.І. Чайковського. 4. Молочні продукти Білицького (Біличі) молокозаводу Києво-Святошинського району Київської області. 5. Призери фінального туру студентського конкурсу «Красуня міста Києва» 1999 року. 6. Рішення Київської міської державної адміністрації. 7. Зустріч випускників 1940 року Боярської середньої школи Лисянського району. 8. Науково-дослідні інститути академії наук України. 9. Різдвяні колядування учнів молодших класів міста Львова. 10. Наслідки зимової студентської сесії 1999 року. 11. Заочники Київського інституту бізнесу і технологій. 12. Заліки п'ятикурсників за останню весняно-літню сесію. 13. Новорічні та різдвяні свята харківських школярів. 14. Київські видавництва художньої літератури «Веселка» та «Український письменник». 15. Читачі
15. Читачі національної бібліотеки України ім. Вернадського.
16. Комісія в справах обміну сільськогосподарською продукцією.
17. Заходи стимулювання інвестицій у промисловості України.
18. Наслідки фінансової кризи осені 1997 року. 19. голова комісії
Верховної Ради у справах боротьби з корупцією Г.Омельченко.
20. Агентство у справах контролю повітряних ліній України.
21. Державна комісія України в справах контролю авіаційних зв'язків
із країнами Західної Европи та Близького Сходу.
TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH VERBALS AND VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS/COMPLEXES
Common English and Ukrainian non-finite forms of the verb, i.e., the infinitive and both participles, are characterized by identical functions in the sentence. Some of their lexico-grammatical meanings, however, are considerably broader in English than in Ukrainian and include the combined tense and aspect or tense, aspect and voice forms of the infinitive as well as of the present participle derived respectively from the intransitive and from transitive verbs (cf. to live - to be living, to have lived; but: to do - to be done, to be doing; doing - being done, having been done, etc.)
To render faithfully some of these lexico-grammatical meanings (semes) of English verbal paradigms into Ukrainian is not always possible. An exception make the simple paradigms, which usually have semantic and structural equivalents in both languages. For
to ask —to be asked Запитувати - бути
working (Participle I) - працюючий, працюючи; having worked (Perfect Participle) - попрацювавши, пропрацювавши.
Translation of verbals depends not only on their structural, i.e., paradigmatic forms but also on their nature. Thus, a special approach is needed to render in Ukrainian the complexity of meanings contained by some paradigms of the English gerund (or to render the meanings of the Ukrainian diyepryslivnyk in English).
Consequently, the ways of rendering the meanings of verbals are predetermined by some factors which include a) the structural form of the verbal and b) the function of the verbal in the sentence,
where it may be either a single part of the sentence or a component of an extended part of the sentence.
Despite the differences in their morphological nature and lexical meaning, some verbals may perform the same functions in English sentences and in their corresponding Ukrainian syntaxemes. Hence, it is expedient to contrast the functions and meanings of English and Ukrainian verbals in the corresponding sentences of these two languages.
WAYS OF RENDERING THE LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ENGLISH INFINITIVE
Translation of the English infinitive is greatly predetermined by its form and sometimes by its function in the sentence. The infinitive functioning as a single part of the sentence, i.e., not being a component of a secondary predication complex, has usually corresponding equivalents in Ukrainian. The latter are a single infinitive or infinitival phrase when the infinitive functions as 1. The subject:
Було так приємно знову дістатися до своєї кімнати.
«Вивезти Айріні за місто... - в цьому було все!»
Не було жодної потреби описувати родину Келсів.
It was pretty nice to get back to my room. /Salinger/
To get Irene out of London ... that was the thing. /Galsworthy/
There was no need to desribe
the Kelseys. (Christie)
«Щоб чоловікові вдарити / бити жінку!»
2. The simple nominal predicate: «A gentleman to strike a lady!» (B.Shaw)
This function of the infinitive is often observed in Ukrainian
literary speech style, eg: Hi. He бути панам на Вкраїні!
Вже скоро бути бабиному літу. (Дмитерко)
3. Part of a compound predicate /or predicative:
No, you couldn't have called Hi, її не можна було назвати
her beautiful. (Mansfield) гарною.
... the company began to ...товариство заходилося/
mark the time. (LDurrel) розпочало відраховувати час.
Her next step was to speak її наступним кроком було
to Llewellyn. (Cronin) ^ поговорити з Ллевеллином.
«You will have to wait until you «Вам доведеться почекати.
hear from me again.» (Dreiser) доки я знову сповіщу про себе».
4. The Object (simple, extended or expanded):
~i- --- - - ,
Julia found it very pleasant to sit then in the shade looking at the river. (Maugham)
She taught him tosjtata table and not put his elbows on it. (Ibid.)
Джулїі дуже подобалось тоді сидіти в затінку і дивитися на річку/воду.
Вона вчила його сидіти за столом і не класти на нього руки.
The infinitive has also its equivalents in Ukrainian when it is
used as a complement to an adjective or adjectivized past participle:
«I'm very glad to have seen «я дуже радий, що зуст-
you again...» (Cronin) рівся з вами знову/що побачив