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The subjective with the infinitive constructions may be used with some other English verbs as will be seen in the exercise below. They may sometimes influence the choice of faithful Ukrainian equivalents for these English sentences as well.




Exercise IV. Suggest possible contextual equivalents for the subjective with the infinitive constructions below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. They were seen to just touch each other's hano^s, and look each at the other's left eye only. (Galsworthy) 2. «She wants, I'm sure, to be seen today.» (J.G.Griffin) 3. Paper is said to have been invented in China. 4. Her situation was considered very good. (Bennett) 5.... he was impelled to reestablish their lines of communication (Seghal) 6. ... the injured teacher had an operation for a head wound and is said to be improving. (The Guardian) 7. She was not expected to reply, but she did. (Dreiser) 8. «They're certainly entitled to think that, and they're entitled to feel respect for their opinions ...» (H.Lee) 9. The economic problems facing France are certain to have strong repercussions. (The Guardian) 10. They were told to get the children back to sleep. (H.Fast) 11. ... the fetters that bound their tongues were considered to be locked and the key thrown away. (M.Twain) 12. He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser) 13. He was never expected to recover his equilibrium. 14. «You appear to be in poor shape, all the same.» 15. Her name appeared to be Millicent Pole. 16.1 happen to know young Tasburgh who isn't with his ship. 17. «I just happened to drive up.» (Galsworthy) 18. Bob finds it impossible to keep pace with stroke, because stroke rows in such an extraordinary fashion. (Jerome K.Jerome) 19. ... he seemed to be asking what was the matter with me. (Snow) 20. «I seem to have promised that I'd take you into my laboratory.» 21. «I seem to be getting over it a little.» (M.Wilson) 22. The tower seemed to rock in wind. (Lawrence) 23. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake, and bread and jam. (Jerome K.Jerome) 24. The goods are reported to have been awaiting shipment for several days. (The Guardian) 25. The girl seemed to perceive that a question of taste was concerned. 26. He seemed to take rather a fancy to me. 27. She seemed, indeed, to have heard it before. 28. Some fellows seem to know everybody and exactly how to work them. (Galsworthy) 29. The child is likely to face a first period of uncertainty and bewilderment on being taken into care. (Schimmels) 30. Being subject to endorsement by the Cortes, the «reform» is likely to be of little practical significance. (The Guardian) 31. The money is unlikely to be repaid, unless there is a fundamental change in the policies of the United Federation ... 32. The latest cease fire agreement between the worrying forces in Bosnia is unlikely to hold. (The Guardian)


The choice of the method and means for translating English participial constructions into Ukrainian is predetermined by the general implicit and dependent explicit meanings of the participle itself. These meanings reflect the lexico-grammatical nature of the participle as a verbal. Namely: its voice, tense, and aspect distinctions; 2) its lexical and grammatical meanings; 3) its functions in English and Ukrainian word-groups and sentences.

A peculiar feature of Ukrainian is the restricted use of both the preposed and postposed (to nouns) attributive present participles. As a result it is not always possible to translate English V.ngN or NV.n' pattern word-groups with the help of these same structural types o? word-groups in Ukrainian. Especially when the participles originate from the verbs of motion, due to which the word-groups are translated into Ukrainiar mostly with the help of attributive subordinate clauses. For example:

The hou.se was alive with ... Будинок наповнювали го-

running voices. (Mansfield) лоси ... що лунали повсюди.

This present participle may also be translated with the help of the semantically equivalent adjective лункий or even with the help of the verb лунали: Будинок сповнювався звідусіль лункими . голосами/У будинку повсюди лунали голоси.

This same way of translation is employed when conveying the meaning of English word-groups with postpositive attributive present participles whose equivalents in Ukrainian are attributive subordinate clauses:

In the night, going slowly Уночі, відходячи запрудже-

along the crowded roads we ними дорогами, ми бачили

passed troops marching under військові частини, шокрокува-

the rain, guns, horses, pulling ли під дощем, гармати, коні.

wagons, mules, motortrucks, all що тягли вози, мули, ванта-

moving from the front, жівки, які всі відступали з

(Hemingway) фронту.

As can be seen, the postpositive present participles in the sentence above are all translated with the help of attributive subordinate clauses: troops marching under the rain - військові частини, що/які крокували під дощем; horses, pulling wagons - коні, що


тягли вози; motor trucks, all moving from the front - вантажівки, що всі відступали з фронту.

The last word-group, naturally, can also be translated with the help of the finite verb: motor trucks, all moving from the front -всі /вони/ відступали з фронту.

There exist some exceptions, however, when attributive present participles are translated with the help of Ukrainian equivalents of the same nature, even though they originate from the verbs of motion:

«I think the whole turning point in my life was that awful Trenchardboy...» (Cheever)

«Думаю, що причиною цього поворотного пункту в моєму житті був той жахливий тип Тренчард.»

There came a rushing clatter of footsteps. (Steinbeck)

Раптом залунали, наростаючи, кроки полісменів.

The V NP pattern of the Ukrainian word-group in the above-given sentence, though grammatically/structurally acceptable can have some other faithful variants, which are more typical for Ukrainian. These are two:

1) the subordinate clause: Почулось, як залунали галопуючі кроки полісменів;

2) a construction with a diyepryslivnyk: Почулось, як залунали, наближаючись, кроки полісменів.

English attributive past participles, on the other hand, are mostly translated into Ukrainian with the help of their morphological, lexical, and functional equivalents, e.g., past participles. This makes no problems in the choice of Ukrainian faithful equivalents for English attributive word-groups of this type. For example:

«... many disappointed hearts « ... не одна розчарована still wonder why Coleman never душа й досі дивується, чому

Колеман не одружився.

її обличчя ... з підпухлими очима та розпухлими губами мало жахливий вигляд.

Вони прийшли до покинутої/залишеної комори.

Довкола все накрила темна ніч, усіяна мерехтливими зіоками-світлячками.

married. (W.Maken)

Her face... with swollen eyes and swollen lips looked terrible. (Mansfield)

They came to a deserted store. (Ibid.)

All round lay the black night, speckled and spangled with lights. (Lawrence)


English predicative participles may sometimes undergo, when being translated into Ukrainian, a morphological/structural transformation and turn into a finite form of the verb, i.e., into a simple verbal predicate:

...він вийшов у провулок Чансері Лейн і по дорозі купив газету/купивши по дорозі газету.

Настала, здавалось, погода.

Сонце залило нас своїм промінням.

...he went out to Chancery Lane, buying a paper on his way. (Galsworthy)

The weather looked settled. (Ibid.)

Sunshine came spilling upon us. (Cronin)

The compound predicates with component participles (looked, settled, came spilling) have for their equivalents respectively simple verbal predicates настала (погода), нас сонце залило.

The English past participle used as part of a compound verbal/nominal predicate may often be translated with the help of perfective and non-perfective verbs. The latter, depending on the meaning of participles, may be personal or non-personal:

What is done can not be un- Що зроблено, те зробле-

done. (Proverb) но.(Що з воза впало, те про


The street was deserted. (Snow)

Вулиця спорожніла (була безлюдна).

When used in an adverbial function, the English indefinite and perfect participles have mostly diyepryslivnyks for their semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian:

Reading the works of men, Читаючи твори авторів,

who had arrived, he noted every що досягли успіху, він схоп-

result achieved by them. (Lon- лював усі особливості їхнього

don) стилю.

Having gained her degree, Отримавши вчений cmy-

she was doing no more reading, пінь, вона вже не відводила

(Ibid.) стільки часу на читання.

The perfect participle, naturally, can be translated in the last sentence by means of a paraphrase: Після отримання/Після того, як вона отримала вчений ступінь ...

Some present participles with the implicit predicative meaning




and function may be rendered into Ukrainian either with the help of a corresponding diyepryslivnyk or with the help of a finite verb (simple verbal predicate):

Then he cut chemistry from Потім він викреслив із

the list, retaining only physics, списку хімію, залишивши

(Ibid.) тільки фізику.

Instead of the diyepryslivnyk, like in the example above, the finite form of the verb may also be used in Ukrainian here: Потім він викреслив із списку хімію і залишив тільки фізику.

In some sentences the translator may have difficulties while choosing in Ukrainian the language unit or its particular form for the English participle. This is because of the existence of some ways of conveying their meaning: a) with the help of a simple verbal predicate or b) with the help of the diyepryslivnyk. For example:

When shaving, or dressing, or combing his hair, he conned these lists (of words) over. (London)

Коли він голився, одягався or: Голячись, одягаючись чи

чи розчісувався, він усе зубрив розчісуючись, він усе зубрив

ці слова. ці слова.

When translating English passive participles (predicative constructions with them) preference is given, however, to diyepryslivnyks:

Ashamed of our stupidity, she Зніяковівши від нашої

murmured: «Of course, of нетямущості, вона промим-

course.» (Leacock) рила: «Авжеж, авжеж».

«І am going the same day my- «Затримавшись тут два self having been detained here дні через повінь, я тепер і сам two days by the flood. (Gold- поїду звідси в цей день, smith)

Some other faithful variants of translating participles and participial constructions are not excluded either, which is predetermined by the factors already mentioned above.

Exercise V. Choose an appropriate Ukrainian equivalent for each English present/past participle first and then suggest a faithful translation of the following sentences:

1. The barking dog increased his tempo. (Steinbeck) 2. Dr. Maephal looked at the falling rain. (Maugham) 3. He heard the soft snow falling from a branch. (Hemingway) 4. A few early fallen oak-


leaves strewed the terrace already ... (Galsworthy) 5. Along the unpaved roads there were a few little houses ... (Steinbeck) 6. Here was a woman sitting before the fire. 7. Wherever you looked, there were couples strolling, bending to the flowers, greeting, moving on over the lawn. 8. She found herself in a wretched little low kitchen lighted by a small lamp. (Mansfield) 9. She was in their bedroom sitting by the window. (Cheever) 10. A cold wind swept the pavement, bearing a scrap of silver paper from a chocolate box across the lamp-light. (G.Greene) 11. He was in an ecstasy, dreaming dreams and reconstructing the scene just past. 12. So Martin went on into a thorough study of evolution, mastering the subject more and more himself and being convinced by the corroborative testimony of a thousand independent writers. (London) 13. Having shaken himself free from his old companions and old ways of life, and having no new companions, nothing remained for him but to read. 14. Maria, having heard his groans through the thin partition, came into his room, to put hot flat-irons against his body and damp cloths upon his aching eyes. 15. ... being unused to such appraisements, he did not know how to value it. 16. But she, who knew little of the world of men, being a woman was keenly aware of his burning eyes. 17. He halted, with a laugh, and turned, facing them. (London) 18. The street was full of people, laughing and going home. (Greene) 19. Wishing him to finish the work in time, Andrew decided to ask Chris to help him. (Cronin)


The present and the past participles may sometimes present difficulties for inexperienced translators when verbals are used as part of the compound verbal predicate or in participial (secondary predication) constructions.

Thus, the compound verbal predicate with the component present participle is usually transformed in Ukrainian into the simple verbal predicate expressed by a perfective verb. For example:

He stopped, and took me up, Він зупинився й підхопив and the light came tumbling down мене, а світло поповзло по the steps on me too... (Saroyan) східцях і впало також на мене.

When used as part of a compound nominal predicate, the participle with its linking verb is transformed in Ukrainian into a simple


perfective verbal predicate or becomes a compound nominal predi-


The trade fair was closed last week. (F.News) Виставка-

ярмарок закрилася минулого тижня.

This predicate in Ukrainian may also be compound nominal (like in English): Торговий ярмарок був закритий /було закрито/ минулого тижня.

Difficulties may present, however, some secondary predication constructions with the present and past participle which have to be treated/analysed separately.

A. Ways of Translating the Objective with the Participle Constructions/Complexes

Like the objective with the infinitive complexes the secondary predication constructions with the present or past participle are used with the verbs of physical and mental perception, as well as with the verb to have. The participial construction thus formed has the function of the complex object and may be translated in different ways, the choice of which is predetermined, by some factors like in case of the functionally corresponding infinitival complexes. The main of them are as follows:

1 ) the lexical meaning of the participle;

2) the lexical meaning of the verb with which the participle is


3) the availability of the lexico-syntactic means in Ukrainian to convey the peculiar content and structural peculiarity of these secondary predication constructions.

Taking into account the above-named factors, the objective with the present participle constructions may be faithfully translated into Ukrainian in one of the following ways:

1 . With the help of the object subordinate clause introduced by the conjunction що or the adverbial connectors як, коли:

...he heard her moving about e/H Чув як вона ходила по

the room. (W.Jacobs) кімнаті.

He listened to his uncle talk- він слухав, як дядько вів

. to him ... (Hemingway) розмову/розмовляв з ним.

2. With the help of the adverbial subordinate clauses of time, purpose, manner, etc. which testifies to the existence of functional


discrepancies in the two languages at the level of syntactic structure, function, and content. For example:

Я бачив його у вересні, коли він переходив майдан до бару в ресторані Континенталь...

Я докладав зусиль, щоб каміння не зірвалося з-під ніг і не покотилося вниз.

/ had seen him last September coming across the square towards the bar of the Continental... (Greene)

I took pains not to send them (stones) tumbling down the slope. (S.O'Dell)

3. On rarer occasions a faithful translation of the object with the present participle construction may be achieved either with the help of an object subordinate clause or with the help of a semanti-cally equivalent substantival word-group:

Я чув, як хтось плакав/ чийсь плач.

Потім я почув Пайлів

/ heard someone weeping. (G. Green)

шепіт/як шепнув «Томасе, Томасе.»


Then I heard Pyle whispering. «Thomas, Thomas.» (Ibid.)

4. With the help of the finite form of the verb, i.e., with the help of the simple verbal predicate:

«I can see you marrying after «Ти, бачу, як підіп'єш, то ще

a drink too many.» (Greene) станеш женихатися тут.»

Some objective with the present participle construction may be translated with the help of two object subordinate clauses, as in the following sentence:

He didn't care that they saw him crying. (Hemingway)

Йому було байдуже, 1) що вони бачать, 2) як він плаче.

The objective with the past participle constructions having actually almost the same N/l/Ven structural pattern as the previously analysed complexes are characterized by a stronger predicative motivation and meaning. This is because these complexes are used to express the state of an object/person, the meaning of someone's experience in something, one's witness or that something is made/done for the benefit of someone other. As a result, some ways of translation of the objective with the past participle constructions sometimes differ from those employed for the translation of the objective with the present participle or the objective with the infinitive constructions. The main of these ways coincide, however, and are the following:




1. With the help of an object subordinate clause:

/ heard his name mentioned Я чув, що/як його ім'я

in the crowd. (Saroyan) називали у натовпі.

This objective with the participle construction may also be translated with the help of a metaphorical paraphrase: Я чув його ім'я на вустах натовпу.

2. By means of the finite form of the verb (simple predicate) plus the objective noun:

She grew more and more її щодалі більше турбувала alarmed by the intrusion. (O'Dell) ця висадка/ це вторгнення.

Or as a predicative to the noun being the subject of the sentence as in the example below:

Some of the houses had their У деяких будинках вікна

windows broken. (Cheever) були побиті.

3. By transplanting the participial complex to Ukrainian sentences having here identical predicative constructions:

When I returned I found the Прийшовши додому, я

fence broken and the house door застав паркан проломаним. а

opened. (O'Dell) хатні двері відчиненими.

Note. Care should be taken as not to confuse attributive constructions of the V/l/Vlng pattern with those of the V/l/Ven pattern. The former are translated in two ways:

1) either with the help of a subordinate clause (when the noun is followed by the present participle):

He looked at his father listen- Він глянув на батька, що

ing with a kind of painful despera- слухав його з якимсь болісним

tion. (Cronin) відчаєм.

2) or with the help of an identical attributive construction (when the noun is followed by the past participle):

He had seen towns destroyed Він побачив міста,

by bombing. (Cheever) зруйновані бомбардуваннями.


lated into Ukrainian much like the above-treated subjective with the infinitive secondary predication constructions. There is, however, some difference between the action expressed by the NV.nf pattern constructions and the action expressed by the subjective with the participle N/l/Vlng pattern construction. The latter also in Ukrainian expresses an action in process. For example:

Чули, що він співав. Чули, як/коли він співав.

He was heard to sing.

He was heard singing.

English simple sentences with the subjective present participle constructions are mostly transformed in Ukrainian into a complex sentence introduced by the one-member indefinite-personal principal clause or by the infinitive performing the same syntactic function. The introductory/principal clauses and infinitives are Кажуть/ Як кажуть; Повідомляють; Повідомляється, що; Очікується, що/Очікують, що.

This kind of transformations has to be performed when the present participle in the secondary predication construction is used with the verbs of saying/reporting or with the verbs of physical or mental perceptions (to see, to hear, to know, etc.) The principal clause then (the single verb indefinite personal sentence) is followed by an object subordinate clause:

Бачили, ... як він притулявся своїми теплими вустами до мармурового чола античної статуї.

Чули, як вони вдвох розмовляли, а Мейтлод,

He had been seen ... pressing his warm lips to the marble brow of an antique statue. (O.Wilde)

сидячи поруч, обмахувала його газетою «Світло».

Очікується, що пізно в суботу ввечері або вже в неділю на нараді ЄЕР буде прийняте остаточне рішення на пропозицію президента Клінтона.

They were heard talking together. Maitlaud beside him, fanning him with a copy of the Light. (Cronin)

The EEC meeting is expected to take its final decision on presi-

dent Clinton's proposal late on Saturday or on Sunday. (Guardian International)


В. Ways of Translating the Subjective with the Participle Constructions

The subjective with the participle (or the nominative with the participle constructions, as they are traditionally called) are trans-


The subjective with the past participle constructions which are used in English with the verbs to appear, to seem, to have etc., do not require considerable structural transformations in the process of translation into Ukrainian. Their meaning is usually conveyed by




means of the same simple sentences as in English, with the past participle turned into the predicate verb:

He had his eyes fixed always Він завжди спрямовував

on the future. (London) свій погляд у майбутнє.

This sentence, accordingly, may also be translated word-for-word:

Б/й завжди мав свій погляд спрямованим у майбутнє./Його

погляд завжди був спрямований у майбутнє.

Ruth Morse seemed further Pvm Морз. здавалося,

removed than ever. (Ibid.) відхилилася від нього далі, ніж


The last sentence can be translated with the help of a complex sentence as well, with the verb seemed turned into the introductory principal clause: Здавалось, Рут Морз відступила від нього далі, ніж будь-коли.

It should be pointed out in conclusion that there are some constructions with the past participle in English which may erroneously be taken for the nominative absolute participial complexes, which in reality they are not. These constructions have also a past participle for their syntactic head and may occupy an initial, middle or final position in the sentence:

Taken hostage, the French Red Cross officials fell in the hands of a Maskhadov rival group in Chechnya. (The Guardian)

Взяті заручниками представники французького міжнародного Червоного Хреста потрапили до рук ворожого Масхадову військового угрупування.

Participial constructions of the kind are often formed from intransitive verbs:

Arrived at this point, we Прибувши на це місце, ми

halted. (S.Leacock). зробили зупинку/ми зупинилися.

The nature and meaning of the kind of participial construction is more transparent, when it follows the noun and occupies a concluding position, as in the following sentence:

He spoke with rare affection Він з особливою любов'ю

of his sister Jean, now married розповідав про свою сестру,

and comfortably settled in Тупе вже одружену, яка щасливо

castle. (Cronin) поживає в Тайнському замку.


Nothing in common with the NAPC have also constructions with the concluding past participle as in He had his hair cut, she had her photo taken, which are translated with the help of finite forms of the verb (predicate): Він підстригся, вона сфотографувалась.

Certainly the most confusing for inexperienced translators are participial constructions with the grammaticalized past participles given, taken, granted etc. which are translated into Ukrainian with the help of diyepryslivnyks, diyepryslivnyk constructions or even via prepositional noun phrases. Cf.:

Taken together, the results of Підсумовуючи/У підсумку the reaction proved the existence наслідки реакції підтвердили of some touch in the solution. існування домішок у розчині.

Given the present financial Враховуючи/зважаючи на

situation in South Korea, no other сучасний фінансовий стан

move from the IMF could be ex- Південної Кореї, інших кроків від

pected. (Fin. News) МВФ не доводилось очікувати.

Exercise VI. State the nature of the participial constructions in

the sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.

1. Suddenly he heard someone running down the stairs. 2. I saw people wearing different clothes today. (C.Schimmels) 3. Through the open door of her room, he saw her pushing up her window. (Cronin) 4.1 had seen her three hours ago turning off the main road. 5. He saw the car coming over the rise of a hill. 6. «Just look at the rain coming down!» (Cheever). 7. Suddenly I saw the brush moving on the opposite side of the ravine. 8.1 watched them (Aleuts) landing on the bay. (O'Dell) 9.1 hear him calling her name. (Fitzgerald) 10.1 thought I detected a bazooka replying, then all was quiet again. 11. «You'll have them fighting.» 12. I would imagine him going up my stairs, knocking at my door, sleeping in my bed. (Greene) 13. She could hear the man and Soames talking together. 14. «And yet I don't see him doing it.» 15. «And yet we can see him taking no further notice.» 16. I don't want them writing home.» (Galsworthy) 17. Despite his concern for Alexander, Coleman found himself becoming annoyed. 18. As he spoke, Mike Seddrus found himself regarding this girl with even greater interest. 19. David Coleman found himself liking this girl. (Hailey) 20. He remembers Barker coming into the mess and starting to tell about it. 21.... I listened to him breathing regularly. 22. In the morning the old man could feel the morning coming. 23. One evening he was seen going into this very house, but




was never seen coming out of it. (J.K.Jerome). 24 Did you ever see baseball played? 25. «I heard your testimonial read in the Police Court, Fleur» (Galsworthy) 26. «He saw her face contorted for a moment with the extremity of his feeling ...» 27. On Wednesday morning Julia had her face massaged and her hair waved. (Maugham) 28. He saw her arms raised as she fixed her hair before a mirror. (London) 29. But they would feel their tails being tied! (Galsworthy) 30. At six forty-five I walked down to the quay to watch the American planes unloaded. (G.Greene) 31.1 watched him adjusting himself a little, visibly. (Fitzgerald) 32. We have the enemy almost surrounded. (Cheever) 33. I always see you this time of the year going up. (W.Maken) 34. This point is obvious: given the choice, businessmen would rather not pay bribes. (Newsweek) 35. Given the shortage of officers, it was not unusual for majors or captains to command brigades. (Encyclopedia of Ukraine -Toronto. Univ. Press.) 36. Given those anxieties, Germany's political and journalistic establishment enthusiastically greeted the appointment of Mr.Kornblum. 37. Given his background, Clinton doubted his own ability to have a successful marriage. (Intern. Herald Tribune)

C. Ways of translating the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions

These English secondary predication word-groups, which are very often used in literary substyles, are presented in some structurally different types. The main of them are three:

1. The nominative absolute participial constructions consisting of a synthetic or analytical paradigm of the present participle. This type of secondary predication complexes may have the form of a synthetic or an analytic paradigm of the participle. For example, in the underlined nominative absolute participial construction This duty done, we refilled our glasses (J.K.Jerome), the paradigm of the participle is simple, i.e. synthetic. It has been derived, respectively, either from a less extended (The duty being done), or from a more extended/full analytical paradigm of this participle (The duty having been done). The contracted and less extended forms of the nominative absolute participial constructions are much more occurent in present-day English than their full paradigmatic forms, in which some emphasis is always laid on the categorial meanings (tense, aspect, voice) of the action expressed through the componental parts of the paradigm. Cf.: This duty having (perfective aspect) been (passive voice) done (accomplished action). When no emphasis is laid on the

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