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Exercise V. Translate the sentences in viva voce into English. Use in each of them an appropriate form of the gerund.

1. . 2. , . 3. ϳ , . 4. , , . 5. . 6. , , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , , . 11. , . 12. . 13. , . 14. 쳿. 15. -. 16. ³ ,


. 17. , 볺, . 18. , ' ? 19. , .




Modality as an extralingual category expressing the relation of content to reality has in English and Ukrainian common means of

realization. These include:

a) phonological means (stress and intonation);

b) lexico-grammatical means (modal verbs);

c) lexical means (modal words and modal expressions) conveying subjective modality;

d) grammatical means (mood forms of the verb) conveying

grammatical modality.

The expression of modal meanings by phonological means has often an identical realization in both languages, though in Ukrainian the lexical means such as modal particles and modal adverbs are mostly preferred here. These means may also express the most subtle meanings of suggestion, admonition, supposition, doubt, assuredness, etc. Among the most frequently used particles, which create such and other meanings, are , , , , , , , -, -, , , etc., and also adverbs , , , , , , , , , and some others. The choice of the particle or modal adverb is predetermined by the content, though sometimes it rests only -with the translator, who may employ stronger or weaker means to convey the modal meaning in the sentence. Thus, the modal meaning in the proverb sentence below may have two expressions - a weaker and a stronger one (more enphatic) in Ukrainian:

After us the deluge.

ϳ . or: ϳ .


Since the phonologically expressed modality is always conveyed by translators as they themselves subjectively perceive the relation of content to reality, there may naturally be various ways of its individual realization in the target language. This can be seen from some possible interpretations of the modal meaning in the sentence where modality is expressed via the emphatic and logical stress laid on the predicate centres and on the pronoun you. Hence, there may be at least five different ways of expressing the modal meaning of the sentence in Ukrainian:

I do really wish it hadn't been you. (Greene)


, .

-, .

, .

, .

When under the emphatic or logical stress happens to be the English modal word, the expression of modality may coincide in both languages:

Jane is sure to be at her birth- / '-

day party to-night. (Hailey)


This same modal meaning of certainty (assuredness) may equally be expressed in Ukrainian by means of the modal adverb / and the particles , :


- .

The meaning of unsertainty or doubt expressed in English through prosodic means finds its full realization in Ukrainian with the help of particles and the corresponding intonation and stress as well, Cf.:

What if I don't pass the examinations, said Charlie (D. Lessing)

, , .

As will be seen below, Ukrainian particles and adverbs .may also be used to render modality which is expressed in English by some other lingual means.





This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions perform the function of the compound modal verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian translations on the forthcoming pages.

1. Thus, the modal verb can/could expressing physical or mental ability is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the modal verbs , or by means of their equivalents /, / :

a)l saw that he could hardly , / take his eys off her. (Maugham) .

Now, you pray, Harold, she said. I can't, said. Krebs. (Hemingway)

I haven't been able to do what I meant. (E. Warton)

, , - . . .

, ...

b) When expressing doubt, distrust, uncertainty, etc. (mainly in interrogative and negative sentences) the meaning of can/could is mostly enforced in Ukrainian with the help.of the particles , or the adverb :

() , ?


/ ?/ .

Can't you believe me, mother? (Hemingway)

It can't be the same man -


It can't possibly be Walter. (Maugham)

) When expressihg the meaning of reproach, surprise or permission the lexical equivalent of the modal verb can in Ukrainian is mostly the stative :

/ ?


, .

How can one promise that? (Greene)

Can I come up and see your pictures? (Hemingway)

Having it all, one can't leave a woman without a bob. (Maugham)


d) When the modal verb can expresses irrefutability of action or assuredness of statement, it may be conveyed in Ukrainian, where this kind of modal meaning is usually expressed implicitly, through a definite word-order and sentence stress (prosodic means):

You can't teach an old dog -

new tricks. (D. Lessing) .

There was nothing, the boy could do but run. (J.K. Jerome) , .

Can the leopard change his -

spots? (Saying) .

e) Some modal meanings of can/could are expressed in Ukrainian either lexico-grammatically or through phonological means. The choice of the means rests then exclusively with the translator. Thus, in the sentence below the meaning of the modal verb could is under logical (or emphatic) stress which may be marked (pointed out) accordingly in Ukrainian: / could know it without your telling me. (B.Shaw) .

The same could in the isolated sentence may also be treated as a form of the subjunctive mood, marked by the participle /: /  .

can't recollect him. /

(Greene) .

Why can't he go to a hospi-

tal? (Christie) ?/


Note. Some English modal meanings of can have no corresponding equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.: / can see in this picture. ... can hear you well. . you see me? ?

f) In some contextual environment the modal meaning of can may be expressed in Ukrainian through other modal verbs:

How can you talk to me like 쳺

that. (Fitzgerald) .

We had an awful time get- . ting back, I can tell you. (Ibid.)


The modal verb can/could followed by the perfect infinitive


and expressing a probable, doubtful, uncertain, incredible, etc. action is usually translated into Ukrainian depending on its contextual meaning. The latter may be expressed: 1) through the past form of the corresponding verb (indicative mood) or 2) through its subjunctive mood form ( ). For example:

1) She can't have neglected all that. (F.King)


2) How could she have been like that? (Fitzgerald)

Nobody could have saved him. (W.Trevor)

But he could have lived, this boy. (Hailey)

/ ?

ͳ / .

/ .

Exercise I. Offer appropriate Ukrainian particles or modal adverbs (or both) to convey the phonologically expressed (through emphatic stress or intonation) modality in the English sentences below.

Model: I did have ideas that way. For a time. (Hailey) / , (modal particle ', modal particle plus the modal adverb ).

1. Wouldn't you like me to read? she asked. 2. Wouldn't you like some broth? 3. I wouldn't know what to do. Honestly. 4. Behave yourself. Why don't you try behaving? (Hemingway) 5. Oh, I am longing to see it, Iris said. 6. Sweety, I don't honestly like this very much. (F.King)?. I know you didn't mean to. but you did it (hurt). (Fitzgerald) 8. John, it was you who initiated the Joe Black Memorial Award. (B. Glanville) 9. I do apologise, Madam. I feel so... I would not have troubled. (S.Hill) 10. Now I caught you! she said. Now you can't get away! 11. It (music) seems to be right in them. 12. Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams, she said. 13. Why don't you have another concert, some time? 14. Well, I'll be there. be there, if I possibly can. You can count on me. 15. I just caught myself in time. (D.Parker) 16. You think so? Why not. I said. (Hemingway) 17. I'm not hungry. Dave. I wouldn't lie to you. (Caldwell)

Exercise II. Identify the modal meaning of can/could, to be able to (physical ability, mental ability, etc.) and translate the


sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Anyone can be a fisherman in May. (Hemingway) 2. Can you draw? 3. I could wash the floors. (Dreiser) 4. Suleman-ibn-Daoud could hardly speak for laughing. (Kipling) 5. You have done everytning you could for me. (Hemingway) 6. ... but I can't make head and tail of it. (Maugham) 7. She couldn't bear the sight of him. (Christie) 8. I was able to do the commissioner a favour once, and he sends me a Christmas card every year. (Fitzgerald) 9. Dorian seemed to be able to exercise whenever he wished. (Wilde) 10. Still there are many individuals who have never been able to work. (D.K.Stevenson) 11. A man can do no more than he can. 12. No man can serve two masters. (Proverb) 13. Can't I go with you, Holden? Can't I? (Salinger) 14. It could scarcely be said that he did this in a fatherly spirit. (Dreiser) 15. And there followed, of course, squeals and gaffaws of delight - so loud that they could be heard for half a mile. (Dreiser) 16. As for Mrs.Gerhardt, one could better imagine than describe her feeling. (Ibid.) 17. For a moment the set of his face could be described in just that fantastic way. (Fitzgerald) 18. He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy) 19. You cannot burn the candle at both ends. (Proverb) 20. I suppose, Joe, there couldn't be any doubt about that blood test on Mrs.Alexander? (Hailey) 21. All that could be truly said of him now. (Dreiser) 22. How could it have mattered then? 23. How could she have been like that? (Fitzgerald) 24. I couldn't have missed that. 25. I could have forgiven it if fallen desperately in love with someone and gone off with her. 26. That's just why they couldn't have had the key. 27. She could have gone back to Strove, he said irritably. (Maugham) 28. Oh, cried Fleur. You could not have done it. 29. There could not have been such relentless unforgiveness. (Galsworthy) 30. We could have stayed in Paris or gone elsewhere. (Hemingway)

Exercise III. Choose the most fitting meaning of the two pertained to the modal verb can/could and translate the sentences faithfully into Ukrainian.

1. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrasing situation. (Stevenson) 2. I don't think I can stand it. 3. I'd send you a certain sum of money and you could give it him gradually, as he needed it. 4. Even now I can hardly believe it's true. 5. I can tell you why he left his wife - from pure selfishness and nothing else whatever. 6. Why can't you write yourself? 7. I could not hear what he said. 8. Why can't he go to a hospital? 9.


May I speak now? (Maugham)

May I offer you some fruit? (E.Bates)

I could not tell how they were getting on. (Maugham) 10. It's more than he's worth, I know, but it can't be helped now. (Dreiser) 11. If it wasn't for the mist, we could see your home across the bay. 12. Neitner of them can stand the person they're married to. Can they? (Fitzgerald) 13. He couldn't say the word dead. (W.Trevor) 14. You'll have no trouble. I can assure you. (Christie) 15. Pardon, but could you tell me if a Mr. or Mrs.Kobinson resides here? (Ibid.) 16. I couldn't take the chance of letting it be known that there was doubt. (Hailey) 17. I can't bear the look of that horrible muzzle. (C.S.Lewis) 18.1 could not believe that Strickiand had fallen in love with Blanche Stroeve. (Maugham) 19. I could think of no excuse. (Christie) 20. You can't expect me to think it's a very good system. (Hemingway) 21. I couldn't expect you to understand it. (Maugham) 22. What's your opinion, Joe? It could be a bone tumor? (Hailey)

Exercise IV. Find appropriate Ukrainian equivalents forthe explicitly and implicitly expressed meanings of can/could in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Thus, you can keep rubbing the wounds of the day a little sorer even while he is on his knees ... (C.S. Lewis) 2. There are lots of fellows who would be delighted to have your chance, I can tell you. (Dreiser) 3. It can't possibly be Walter. (Maugham) 4. Vivian could see he was puzzled, not knowing what to make of it. (Hailey) 5. Love cannot be compelled. (Proverb) 6. You can't wait in the dining-room, Miss. (Mansfield) 7. She could not help giving ear to the sounds surrounding her. (Dreiser) 8. I wish I could see him. (Hemingway) 9. How weakened she was I had not been able to imagine until I saw her at the railway station ... (Buck) 10. You could see they were being careful as hell not to drink up the minimum too fast. (Salinger) 11. Your sister? I can't believe it. (Greene) 12. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrassing situation. (D.K.Stevenson) 13. I'm sorry, Granger. I wish I could help. (Greene). 14. Can it really be true, then, that a non-commercial, nonprofit public network is the largest. (D.K.Stevenson) 15. ... you can't expect me to believe a word you say. (Galsworthy) 16. I can't bear it. (Christie) 17. She used to be able to understand. (Fitzgerald)

18. We had an awful time getting back, I can tell you. (Fitzgerald)

19. Oh. If only I could return back to my flower basket. (B.Shaw)

20. I cannot have you call on me here. (Dreiser) 21. I can't say anytning in this house, old sport. (Fitzgerald) 22. You can't talk to me like that. (Ibid.) 23. You can't live on air, you know. (Christie) 24. Love and cough cannot be hid. (Proverb) 25. ...compare her


with that poor Mrs. Osborne who could say boo to a goose. (W.Thackeray) 26. A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan. (Proverbs) 27. He was not old, he could not have been more than forty. (Galsworthy)

2. The modal verb may/might with its lexical equivalents to be permitted I to be allowed has also some peculiarites of use and expression of meaning. The latter predetermines the use of its Ukrainian lexical equivalents. Thus, when the modal verb may/might expresses permission it is usually translated into Ukrainian as the stative . For example:

a) Now may I go? (Christie) To , ?

At the hospital they told me ,

might wait. (Ibid.) .

This meaning of may, as can be seen below, coincides with the meaning of the modal verb can in the indefinite personal or impersonal sentences as in One can count it/It could be counted on the fingers of one hand - ( ) .

b) The meanings of permission expressed by the modal verb may/might can equally be conveyed by the Ukrainian verbs , :

/ ?

/ ?

) When the verb may/might expresses possibility (coinciding with the verb can/could) or probability, assumption, uncertainty, admonition, advice, etc., it is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the polysemantic verb .

This verb is therefore homonymous in its meaning incorporating in Ukrainian the meanings of can and may wnich can be seen from the following sentence:

I think I may, remind him of /

time he prefers to forget. , ,

(Christie) Ѳ 0 ; /





pelled from the organisation by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. (Charter of the United Nations)

d) When expressing assumptio.ri,^rQ^!:|J||:^,.:.p)i^sumability, wish, advice, etc., the verb may andI its^ pasf ^o^subjunctive) form might often acquires some additional modal meaning.which is mostly rendered into Ukrainian with the help of different modal particles. The most frequently employed of them are , / , , etc.

Let's wait a little more, she ,

might return in a couple of min- ( )

utes. (Bailey) .

Bass said we might get some ,

of the laundry of the men at the ^

hotel to do. (Dreiser) ( ).

We shall never be married. .

Some time-we might, said , -

Dorothea in a trembling voice, ,

(Seghal) .

e) When expressing wish, the subjunctive meaning of may is conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the particles or , initiating the sentences:

May they live a long life. Xmi .

May damnation take him. ./


f) Some modal meanings (supposition, assumption, desire, etc.) expressed in English by may/might are rendered into Ukrainian through modal particles and a peculiar logical word order:

May He (God) support me .

too. (H.Hawthome) ( )

Between the cup and the lip a He ,

morsel may slip. (Proverb) ( ,


Might he not, later, be pun- /

ished for a thing like this? ?( _

(Dreiser) ?)

g) The-modal verb may is often used in the language of documents to express polite though severe warning:

A Member of the United Na- - ' tions which has persistently vio- ' , lated the Principles contained in the present Charter may_be ex- ,


. ( ' ' ).

h) The modal verb may/might followed by a perfect infinitive often expresses supposition, desire, uncertainty, probability, etc., of actions which might not have been carried out. When isolated from a contextual environment, the construction of may/might with the perfect infinitive may be treated as polysemantic and consequently offered different interpretatations in Ukrainian. Thus, the sentence She may have forgotten, you know; or got the evening mixed. (Galsworthy) may have the following five faithful (from the translator's point of view) interpretetions/variants:

1) , .

2) .

3) , .

4) ֳ , .

5) , . ) There appears still more uncertainty while conveying the meaning of may/might with the negated perfect infinitive as in the sentence The aircraft might not have been downed in the action. (USA Today) The lexical ambiguity of the construction can be seen from the following possible variants of its interpretation in Ukrainian:

1) ˳ .

2) ˳ .

3) ֳ , .

4) .

5) .

These meanings of may/might are naturally realized through the infinitive forming the content core of the modal predicate in the sentence.

In many sentences the modal verb might adds a subjunctive meaning to the predicate, which it is a part of, as in the following example:

Mrs.Gerhardt thought of all

the places to which she might ,

apply. (Dreiser) .




Exercise I. Before translating the sentences into Ukrainian, state the meaning (supposition, probability, assumption, uncertainty, permission, etc.) expressed by the modal verb may/ might. Suggest the use of the stative or the adverb (with or without a modal particle) where necessary.

1. They may not like it. 2. She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to me. (Dreiser) 3. Erik says that you may be coming to New York. (M.Wilson) 4. He may have to go to Monte Carlo with his father. (O.Wilde) 5. There may be a number of benefits. 6. Many non-Americans may be aware of the geographical size of the United States. 7. Other aspects of America may be a far more serious challenge to our experts. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. The hospital might receive money now or it might not. 9. I suppose I might be difficult to live with. (Hailey) 10. Anything might happen. (G.Greene) 11. We might dine together. (Christie) 12. She was afraid he might die before she had done so. (H.James) 13. I thought you might be glad to learn of my good fortune. (O.Henry) 14. Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away and you feel lonely, you might like to come up to these rooms and sit here. (Du Maurier) 15. You may know one of them to be a great warrior on the Enemy's side. (C.S.Lewis) 16. ... her heart might be lonely, but her lips continued to sing. 17. Yes, he might be called a successful man. (Dreiser) 18. You might see nothing in him. (O.Wilde) 19. There's one thing that might work, might give us a better pointer. That's X-ray. If there's a tumor, X-ray might show it. 20. It might be dangerous, if we get a disease carrier at the hospital. (Hailey) 21. This may be the reason of their refusal to join us. (J.F.Cooper) 22. She might be a duchess. 23. I may be very stupid, but I can't make head or tail of what you're saying. (Maugham) 24. You might as well ask for a reflection without a mirror. 25. You may or may not be right on that point, Hastings. (Christie) 26. Perhaps I may keep the handkerchief. (C.S.Lewis) 27. I told her she might fool me but she couldn't fool God. (Fitzgerald) 28. ... but you may as well get what you can out of it. (Maugham) 29. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. (Proverb) 30. If I may introduce myself, I am Mr.Chou's manager. (Greene) 31. She might come-this afternoon if she wants to. 32. They might all be wrecked by such fast driving. (Dreiser).

Exercise II. Offer the most fitting lexical equivalents for the modal verb may/might with the perfect infinitive in each sentence below and after that translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


1. They may not have said anything about it. (H.Munro) 2. If they had been in the room then, she might have murdered them. (J.Cheever) 3. That may not have occured to you that it would be rather a shock to a girl to find out that her husband had lived for ten years with another girl and had three children. (Hemingway) 4. She may have had no particular feeling for him. 5. For all, we know they may have settled down into a most domestic couple. (Christie) 6. Miss Matfield might have been very sorry for him. (J.Priestley) 7. Well, he might have been murdered by the Vietminh. (Greene) 8. He looked at Hilda; he might have been looking at a stranger. (Bennett) 9. You might have told me earlier - what you told me on Wednesday night. 10. It may have been a healthy wind, but the effect on the nerves was evil. (Bennett) 11. Wolf too had disappeared, but he might have strayed away after a squirrel or a partridge. (W.lrving) 12. You might have told us that half an hour ago. (B.Shaw) 13. Of course, there were many things, I might have answered to this. (Christie) 14. If I had remained a rich man, I might have lost it for good and all. 15. And we might have been so happy. (Maugham) 16. Catherine, who might have said anything didn't say a word. 17. Of course, she might have loved her for a minute. (Fitzgerald)

3. The modal verb must has also some peculiar features of its own. Borrowed by Ukrainian from German through Polish, this verb in English and Ukrainian expresses strong obligation, duty, necessity. In these meanings must has for its direct lexical equivalents the strongest Ukraininan modal verb of this same meaning .

a) Now I really must get back

to my tasks. End of term in sight, . ,

you know. (Murdoch) .

We must eat, we must drink, , and we rnust be merry. (Saying) .

b) Not without the long influence of the Russian language, which was for some centuries a dominant political factor in Ukraine, the modal verb has been more often substituted by urban Ukrainians for its almost as strong semantically Ukrainian synonym or for the modal stative . convey the meaning of necessity, duty or obligation, expressed by the modal verb must. whose direct Ukrainian equivalent is still often avoided on the aforenamed grounds, present-day Ukrainians often resort to the ad-


ditional use of the modal adverb ':

I must sit down. This leg gets / ,

tired. (Greene) .

You must certainly send it ' -

(picture) next year to the

Grosvenor. (. Wilde) .

The meaning ofmi/sfin both English sentences above directly corresponds to our Ukrainian , which is also proved by the use of the intensifying modal adverb ' in the last sentence.

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