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was alone. (V. Pritchett) , .

When in its non-modal formal meaning, the verb dare is translated with the help of these same \1\' He longed to read his stories , to Ruth but he did not dare. (Lon- / . don)

In colloquial English the verb dare is often used either in a phrase form or as a composite word with the verb say: dare say/ daresay.

Most people would say so. .

dare/say they would. /, -

(Christie) .

The verb daresay in the last sentence may also have the meaning , , / . Hence, a correct translation depending on its contextual environment may also be /, , .

The meaning of dare say/daresay in Ukrainian may be conveyed, therefore, as , , , , , ; / , etc. Besides, the verb dare is often used to express indignation as in the following sentences:

How dare you talk to me like 쳺

this. (Maxwell) .

Let him come back, if he dare! cried Valencia. (Kingsley) ! -

.

The above-mentioned and other meanings of both the modal form and the regular finite form of the verb dare/daresay are to be found in the sentences cited in the exercise below.

 

Exercise II. Identify the meanings of the verb dare/daresay in the given sentences and translate them info English.

1. How dare she come here! cried Davidson indignantly. 2. I simply dared not think what he meant. 3. I dare say you'd like to think it over a little. 4. I dressed in a hurry I dare say. 5. I dare say there's a great deal about human nature that I don't know. (Maugham) 6. I dare say he'll be happy enough. 7. I dare say he'll make a very good husband, said Tarrell patronizingly. (W.Jacobs) 8. Dare not say that man forgets sooner than woman. (J.Austen) 9. No conquistador dared to move without a royal licence. (J.Heming) 10. How dare he say such a thing? (B.Shaw) 11. He dared not go near Ruth's neighbourhood next in the day time. (London). 12. He did not dare to travel after dark. (London) 13. I dare not be alone at night. (Voynich) 14. Margaret did not dare to define her feeling. (Gaskell)

English Modal Verbs Having not Aways Modal Verb Equivalents in Ukrainian

Apart from the afore-mentioned there are four more modal verbs in English, which practically lack direct lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. These modal verbs are: shall, will, would and partly should, the latter being only historically the past form of shall, which, like the modal verb iv/7/and would, may sometimes have implicit meanings but lacking explicit lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. This is partly explained by the complicated nature of shall, will, would and should, which mostly combine their modal meanings with that of the auxiliary one, pertained to some of these verbs.



A. Shall in its modal meaning is most of all used with the second and third persons plural and sometimes (though mostly in interrogative sentences) with the first person singular and plural. Depending on the intention of the speaker, the modal verb shall may express in combination with the notional infinitive the following main meanings:

1. Will or intention which can be conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the verbxom/mu or through the logical stress on the verb that implicitly expresses this meaning plus the corresponding intonation (prosodic means) of the sentence. Cf.:

Shall I tell you how I felt as , ,

mate of my high school stu- ,

dents ? (. Schimmels) ?

The principal clause shall I tell in this sentence has the im-

 

plicit contextual meaning corresponding to the Ukrainian / , ...?

A similar meaning of wish or will of the person addressed has the modal verb shall with the infinitive in the following sentence:

Their eyes met. Shall , serve ? said Doris. (Maugham) () ? - .

Shall I serve? can also be translated as /, ? or /  ?

The modal meaning of the verb shall may often incorporate some other meanings inherent in the lexical meaning of the infinitive with which it is used. Hence, different explicit variants may sometimes be suggested in the target language for one and the same modal word-group. The modal verb sha//with the infinitive may also express in the simple or composite sentences some other meanings:

2. Promise or promised assurance, consent:

You shall entertain as much ... ,

as you please. (B.Shaw) ,

.

Shall we say four pounds ()

week? (D.Lessing)

?

3. Warning, threat or resolute demand which is usually conveyed in Ukrainian through the imperative verb forms. Cf.:

I shall want your account of , how this happened. (B. Sha w) .

You shall not have it - not ͳ -

ever. I will take care of that. .

(Ibid.) .

4. Compulsion, obligation, order or demand (both in simple and composite sentences), which is also often conveyed through the imperative mood forms of the Ukrainian verb:

You shall not run away be- He ,

fore you answer. (Ibid.) . / ,

.

You shall not stay another hour in my house. Get out! . ! (Dreiser)

 

The modal verb shall, expressing compulsion or obligation according to law or a prearranged agreement, is mostly used in texts of different regulations, proclamations, charters, treaties, contracts, etc. The verb srta//forms with the infinitive a sense unit, which is conveyed in Ukrainian through the verb-predicate forming a logical centre in the sentence. For example:

' .

³

.

The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations. (Charter of the United Nations)

The Journal of the General

Assembly shall be used in the working languages. (Ibid.)

 

It should be added in conclusion that in other cases the use of the modal verb shall is restricted to formal or even archaic speech style. In some context the meaning of shall may coincide with that of the modal verb dare as in the following sentence:

After such a picturesque ϳ

love affair in high society, who

shall say that romance is dead? .

(Dreiser) ?

. Will as a modal verb together with the infinitive, with which it forms a word-group, may also express different meanings, the main of which are volition, insistence, determination, intention. The modal verb will is used with all persons in singular and plural, never losing its auxiliary function (to express the future tense). In a number of cases the modal meanings of will may coincide with those expressed by its past form would. As a result, their lexical equivalents in Ukrainian may be close or even identical as well.

The modal verb will may be endowed in different contextual environment with various meanings, the main of them being the following:

1. Volition, demand or assurance which is expressed in Ukrainian through the corresponding verb, stative or logical/emphatic stress: I will not have these re- / , pealed scenes within hearing of

the servants. (B.Shaw)

will be another kind of president, said Constantinescu. (Kyiv Post)

/ /. / , - .

 

2. Will as well as assurance or promise:

Mrs. Warren: And you'll be Miccic :

good to your poor old mother for

it, won't you? 

. ?

Vivie: I will, dear. (B.Shaw) ³: , .

Trench: I will save you the :

trouble. (Ibid.) .

The answer of Vivie / will contains assurance and promise for the future, because of which its explicit form in Ukrainian is only . A similar construction is displayed in the second sentence in which Trench assures (promises) the poor man (Sartorius) to relieve him of his trouble.

3. Determination, perseverance or promising threat which

is often rendered through lexically explicit Ukrainian verbs, express

ing also the future tense at the same time:

I will examine them (- (

counts and money) and settle ) .

with you presently. (.Shaw)

will prosecute you myself. . (Ibid.)

I will survive. I will escape. .

will not give in. (Dreiser) , .

4. Willingness, consent (in conditional clauses after fol

lowing the conjunction if):

IfyouwillJeJlmeallaboutit in a chatty way, I can communi- , cate it to Lady Roxdale (Ibid.) ''.

The meaning of the modal verb will (will tell) in the sentence above may also be expressed in Ukrainian through a logical or emphatic stress laid upon the notional verb (predicate) : / , ...

As has been pointed out, the modal meaning of the verb will may go parallel with that of its past form would. This is observed when iv/7/and would are used to express the following meanings:

5. Polite request which may be expressed as follows:

Will you walk into my /-

parlour? (Dreiser)  ?

 

I want you to do a most terrible favour. Will you? Will you please? (D.Parker)

When would you like to come over? (Galsworthy)

 

, . ?, ?

() /?

 

6. Supposition which is usually expressed in Ukrainian with the help of modal words or by means of the subjunctive mood of the predicate verb:

expect he will have had his tea. (Smith)

This will be the place where they reposed. (W.Maken)

Well, this would interest you. (Fitzgerald)

... /

/ , . / .

7. Habitual volitional actions which are conveyed as follows:

After this accident he will ϳ

lock himself and not show off.

(Ibid'.) .

 

In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours. (Galsworthy)

 

ϳ , , .

 

8. Resistance to an action referring to the present or to the future, which is observed only in English. Consequently, it has no corresponding modal expression in Ukrainian. Cf.:

.

... , ( ).

Help him, please. The door , , , will not unlock. (Jacobs) ... it (rain) blinded the wind screen and the wiper wouldn't

work. (Greene)

9. Condition which is equivalently expressed in Ukrainian through the subjunctive or conditional mood forms in subordinate clauses of real and unreal condition:

If he wouldn't mind. I would (

love to come. (Maxwell) ),

. You may go, if you will, but / ,

 

no one will follow you. I'm sure.> (Hudges)

 

, , .

 

10. Determination or persistence, which is expressed with the help of set constructions like / (he, we) won't/would not. This modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian by means of the verb / , / as well:

Ten or eleven, the Sheriff said, I won't stand for it. (Saroyan)

Several times Eckerman tried to get away, but Gothe would not let him go. (Maugham)

 

, - , - .

, (_ ) .

 

11. Preference choice and other meanings as in the set expressions I'd rather/I would/I'd sooner, which are usually rendered into Ukrainian with or without the help of the subjunctive mood forms plus such adverbs of manner as , /:

So we had better go to supper, said Mary. (Joyce)

Mother said she would much rather watch him fish and not try to fish herself. (Leacock)

He will/would never set the Thames on fire. (Proverb)

He will die as he lived. (Ibid.)

He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. (Ibid.)

 

, - .

, . , .

³ ./ ³ .

() .

- ./- , .

 

. Will and would are used in many set/idiomatic expressions having both subjunctive and non-subjunctive meaning:

He would give a penny for the young fellow's thoughts. (Galsworthy)

You'd make a saint swear. (Ibid.)

 

³ . , .

/ .

 

The range of modal meanings, which the modal verbs will and would may express, is not exhausted by those enumerated above.

 

There may be some others, as for example: 12. To express favour, benevolence:

He wants to know ... if you'll ³ ...

invite Daisy to your house some

afternoon ...(Fitzgerald) ...

D. Should as a modal verb is very often used both in reference to present and to future (and to express the subjunctive meaning). It conveys a variety of meanings some of which may be close to the meanings of the modal verbs ought to, have to, to be to, must. Thus, the sentence I'm sorry. /shouldn't have said that. (Cusack) may be translated, when out of its broader context, as follows:

1) : /

: .

2) : .

3) : .

There may be one more variant of the sentence with the intonational/supersegmental expression of this modal meaning: /, / .

The most common direct meaning of the modal (non-subjunctive orfuture-in-the-pastform) verb should'in Ukrainian corresponds to the statives , , or to the modal word and phrase / . These equivalents (depending on the contextual environment) are also mostly employed in order to express the following meanings of the modal verb should:

1. Obligation/moral obligation, necessity.

"What do you think he should \ , -, /

do? (Trevor) ?

You should have told me so /

before. (. Sha w) .

2. Regret, grief, sorrow:

"/ shouldn't have said that. /

(Cusack) .

The structure of the Ukrainian sentence here may also be different and not correspond to its English original above: ?/ .

3. Advice/recommendation, admonition:

You shouldn't have consulted /

, Esme. (S.Hill) , .

 

You shouldn't talk bitter like

that, Albert, Miss Jackson re- , ,--

proved. (K. C. Prichard) .

The meaning of the modal verb should in this sentence may also be rendered through the imperative sentence: He , ...

4. Supposition/suggestion, which can be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of modal words or particles, as in the following sentences:

Perhaps I should introduce

friend Cocane to you. ?.../

(. Sha w)

.

Itshould be about five now. /

(Cusack) ' .

The modal verb should in the first sentence may also be translated through the particle : , ?

5. Doubt, indignation and some other emotions expressed

through the modal verb should may be also rendered with the help

of some Ukrainian particles and the implicit meaning of the sentence:

Sartorius: I don't know. How .

should I? (B.Shaw) / ?

Why should I wait? (Ibid.) ?

6. Surprise, indignation or pleasure (with the indefinite or

perfect infinitive following the modal verb should). These meanings

of the modal verb should are mostly rendered in Ukrainian through

the logical emphatic stress, intonation, particles or through some

modal verbs:

God forbid that /should ever /

say a good word for you! -

(L. P. Hartley) !

don't know why should I He ,

think about him. (W. Trevor) .

/shouldn't have done that. () .

(B.Shaw) ( .)

The modal verb shouldIn these same sentences above may

 

also be understood and conveyed, when taken isolated from the text, in some other ways. For example, in the second sentence (under point 6) the meaning of should may also be expressed in Ukrainian through the modal verb :

I don't know why should I He ,

think about him. (Trevor) .

The modal verb should In the third (last) sentence above may also be translated with the help of the modal word :

/ shouldn 't have done that.

(B.Shaw) .

7. The modal verb should may also express reproval or protest, disappointment, etc., which may be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of the modal words or statives, , or with the help of some modal particles. Cf.:

I don't know why sometimes He ,

should be sneered at. /

(Galsworthy) .

She really should have worn /

the coat. (Cusack) .

In the last sentence above the meaning of should have worn. when under logical or emphatic stress, may be expressed in Ukrainian via the modal words / and the particles , : - /- . Hence, before rendering the meaning of the modal verb should or any other modal verb belonging to those of indistinct or polysemantic contextual meaning, as shall, will, would, the following factors have to be taken into account:

1) the meaning and nature of the modal verb itself;

2) the lexical meaning of the infinitive with which this modal

verb forms a predicative unit;

3) the contextual environment of the predicative unit and

4) the traditional preference/choice of the modal verb in the

national/target language.

Consequently, in case of the modal verb should preference may often be given not to its seemingly closer Ukrainian equivalent , as it could naturally be expected, but to its stronger modal word/stative , (cf. , , ), which is more common in our language.

 

TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION

1. Expand on the nature of modality and the main means of

expressing it in English and Ukrainian.

2. Enumerate the modal verbs common in both languages

and define their possible lexical and contextual equivalents in Eng

lish and Ukrainian.

3. Comment on the meanings expressed by the construc

tions of the modal verbs can, may, must plus the perfect infinitive.

4. Enumerate the English modal verbs which have not always

direct modal verb equivalents in Ukrainian. In which speech styles are

they mostly used?

5. Identify the cases when the modal verbs must and may/

might express assumption, presumability, probability, suggestion,

etc. and give their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

6. Differentiate the modal verbs ought to and should'in Eng

lish and their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian.

7. Differentiate the modal verbs need and dare/daresay, their

double nature and ways of expressing their meaning in Ukrainian.

8. Explain the peculiar nature of the modal verbs shall, will

and would in English and ways and means of expressing their func

tions and lexical meanings in Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Identify the meanings of the modal verb shall and translate the following sentences containing it into Ukrainian:

A. 1. Shall we all go in my car? suggested Gatsby. 2. '"Well, shall I help myself? Tom demanded. (Fitzgerald) 3. Shall I ask the man here to cut you with his rope? (Kipling) 4. They shall be called the Malazy - the lazy people. 5. By their fruits ye shall know them. (Saying) 6. If the blind leads the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. (Saying) 7. Father, she cried, father, are you ill? Shall I ring? (Leacock) 8. Since you have acted so handsomely, you shall have no cause to complain of me: you shall entertain as much as you please. (B.Shaw) 9. Shall I tell you about it? (M.Spark) 10. I'll take care that you shall be well off when I'm gone. (Ibid.) 11. Shall we go away? (B.Shaw) 12. "You certainly shall not go till you have

 

told me all," I said. (Bronte) 13. Shall we take anything to drink? (Fitzgerald) 14. Shall I give you some coffee? (Galsworthy) 15. I will sing the Baby a song that shall keep him asleep for an hour. 16. I will throw these five things at you, wherever I see you, and so shall all proper Men do after me. 17. Hence, forward I will go out seven times a day and the waters shall never be still." (Kipling) 18. It won't take you long, and then you shall have your tea." (Maurier)

B. Translate the articles of The Charter of the United Nations below. State the way in which the meaning of the modal verb shall is to be expressed in Ukrainian.

Article 9.1. Each Member shall have no more than five representatives in the General Assembly. Each Member of the General Assembly shall have one vote. 2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. Article 21. The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 22. The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

Competence of the Court

Article 32. 1. Each member of the Court shall receive an annual salary. 2. The President shall receive a special annual allowance. 3. The Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for every day on which he acts as President. 4. The salary of the Registrar shall be fixed by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Court. 5. The official languages of the Court shall be French and English.

Article 34. 1. Only states may be parties in cases before the Court.

Article 15. 1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or takei to maintain international peace and security. 2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

Article 16. The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it in Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

Article 17. 1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization. 2. The expenses of the Or-

 

ganization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

C. Translate the following articles from the Ukrainian Constitution into English. Be careful to express the modality of each article.

IJ II ֲ , '

21: . .

22: , , .

.

.

23:  , , ' , .

24: .

, , , , , , , , .

г : - , , ; ' , ; , ; , , .

25:

 

.

.

, .

Exercise II. Identify the meanings expressed by the modal verb will in the sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.

A. 1. - we will now seriously devote ourselves to a little high

tension. 2. Now I know you're tortoise. You thought I wouldn't. Now

I will. 3. I've never seen a Jaguar ... An' I 'spose I never will.

4. ...but we, Best Beloved, will call himTegumai. 5. We will still

call her Taffi. 6. I will go away and get help for him from his tribe.

7. I will make a Magic and I will play your play. 8.1 will go up and





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