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look and say: I will guard your cave. 9. I will come, I will be your

servant for the sake of the wonderful grass. 10. I will do so, said

the Woman- but I will not thank you for it. 11. I will ever be grate

ful to you. Now we will make our bargain. 12. I will hunt you till I

catch you. I will bite you. I will be kind to the Baby while I am in the

Cave. (Kipling) 13. None are so blind as those who will not see.

(Saying) 14. As you sow, so will you reap. (Saying) 15. Say, will you

do me a favour? Will I? 15. I will prove that he lied. (Kipling)

16. I will now read you a little tale that I wrote last night. (M.Twain).

17. I will never marry without my father's warrant, she added.

(Leacock) 18. Will you be going to the dance tonight? he asked.

(Macken). 19. Get this prescription made up and come and see

me. Thanks, Doc, I will. (Maugham) 20. But I think I will say no,

if you don't mind. 21. I am an Englishman, and I will suffer no

priest to interfere in my business. 22. They're crazy. The Sheriff

won't let them. (Saroyan) 23. I am perfectly willing to wait. 24. I

will go out of the room if you do. 25. Then I will not marry him. I will

not go abroad. (B.Shaw) 26. Tomorrow I will be a man, For Tomor

row I shall fight, And Tomorrow I will die. (Olga Oddes) 27. I will,

Leister, I will, she exclaimed, I will tell you everything when I come

back. (Dreiser). 28. We will let him go to school next year if we

can. (Ibid)

B. Read carefully the Release Form below. Identify the

meaning of the modal verb will in it and translate the document

into Ukrainian.



I agree that during this trip I will not smoke cigarettes nor use alcohol or drugs. I will not visit relatives and friends living in the United States, nor arrange or participate in private or public business or activities unrelated to the program of the International Leadership Conference. I will not engage in any promiscuous relationships or dating relationships during my entire stay in the United States. I will follow the program as scheduled and I will return to Ukraine on the scheduled date of departure. I will take full personal and legal responsibility for all my actions while in the United States.

C. Find an appropriate equivalent for each modal verb in the articles from a contract and translate them faithfully into Ukrainian.


10.1. Company shall set up a capital fund, a reserve fund and such other funds that are required by the effective Ukrainian law or stipulated by the Company's Statutes, or considered necessary by a decision of the Participants Meeting.


11.1. The Participants shall set up a capital fund of the Com

pany to the value of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the cur

rency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at

the date of this Agreement (1 Deutsche Mark [?] Hryvnias).

11.2. The Participants' contributions to the capital fund of the

Company may consist of monetary means in Ukrainian and foreign

currency, buildings, erections, equipment and other material valu

ables, securities, rights to use land, water and other natural resources,

as well as other proprietary rights, including rights to intellectual


11.3.1. The Ukrainian Participant shall contribute to the capital fund of the Company monetary means in Ukrainian currency, [material valuables and proprietary rights] to the aggregate value of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the currency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at the date of this Agreement equals to [?] 1 Deutsche Mark, and his share shall constitute [?%] of the Company's capital fund, including: Monetary means in Ukrainian currency in the amount of [?] Hryvnias, which sum according to the currency exchange rate established by the National Bank of Ukraine at the date of this Agreement equals to [?] Deutsche Marks.


15.5. A Participant's share, after he has made his contribution to the capital fund in full, may be acquired by the Company itself. In such a case the Company must transfer the share, if so acquired, to other Participants or to third parties in no later than 1 year of the date of acquisition. Within that period distribution of Company's profits, determination of quorum and voting at the Meeting of Participants shall be made without regard to the share acquired by the Company.


16.1. In case of reorganization or liquidation of a Participant (a

legal entity) or death of a Participant (natural person) their succes

sors (heirs) shall have the priority right to join the Company.

16.2. In case the successors (the heir) refuses to join the Com

pany or the Company objects to his admission to the Company, such

a successor (the heir) shall be given in cash or in any kind a part of

all of the Company's property, owing to the reorganized or liquidated

entity (died person), evaluated as on the date of reorganization or

liquidation or death of the respective Participant. In such a case the

Company's capital fund shall be decreased.


18.1. The Company's governing bodies shall be: Meeting of

Participants; Director; Auditing Committee.

18.2. The Meeting of Participants shall be the highest govern

ing body of the Company. Each Participant shall have at the Meeting

the number of votes proportionate to his share in the Company's

capital fund.

18.3. The Director shall be the one person executive body of the

Company and shall manage the Company's current activity. The Direc

tor shall be appointed by a decision of the Meeting of Participants.

18.4. The Auditing Committee shall be the body for maintaining

control over activities of the executive body. Members of the Auditing

Committee shall be appointed by a decision of the Meeting of Partici


18.5. Powers, responsibilities and procedures of functioning of

the Meeting of Participants, the Director and the Auditing Committee

shall be determined by the company's Statutes and the effective law

of Ukraine.

Exercise III. Identify the meaning of the verb would in the sentences below and then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Would you rather put it off for a few days? I asked. 2. Well, this would interest you. It wouldn't take much of your time.


3. You wouldn't have to do any business with the Nolfsheim. (B.Shaw)

4. I wouldn't look like Giraffe not for even so. 5. How would you like

to spank somebody? 6. I wouldn't drink that water because I 'd know

you said it was bad. 7. I wouldn't look like Zebra, - said the Leopard.


8. Then great Mr. Lloyds would come with a wire and drag him home.

9. "But Balkis talked to a butterfly as a man would talk to a man.

(Kipling) 10. I would willingly offer up my political life on the altar of my

dear state's wheel and I would be glad and grateful to do it. 11. Would

you ever imagine what is a human volcano? I would not. (M.Twain)

12. You'd like some tea, would you? (B.Shaw) 13. Without hope the

heart would break. (Saying) 14. I don't know about things like that. I

wouldn't know what to do. 15. I would remember it only as a day that

was rather funny. (Trevor) 16. Reporters came, television and all, but

I wouldn't see them. (D.Garnett) 17. William... William... he would

have to look back to find the surname. (LP.Hartley) 18. I wouldn't have

her now, not if she asked me on her bended knee. (W.W.Jackobs)


19. I don't talk about such things: whatever would they think of us.

20. She is not like my mother; the same treatment wouldn't do for

both cases. 21. So that was why he would not touch the money.

(B.Shaw) 22. The honour would be entirely Gatsby's... if you would

attend his little party that night. (Fitzgerald) 23. When would you

like them to come over? (Galsworthy)

Exercise IV. Identify the meaning of the verb should in the sentences below and then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. You shouldn't look a gift horse in the mouth. (Saying) 2. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. 3. Why should she not (see her)? (B.Shaw) 4. He knew what he should do.

5. He should get down soon on to the white road. (Macken) 6. I do

not know what we should do without the pulpit. (M.Twain) 7. I should

very much like to see it done. 8. Why should I not go too?

9. How would you like to spank somebody - but I should not like it at

all. 10. I should like it very much indeed. 11. I should call it Arma

dillo...and I should leave it alone. (Kipling) 12. You should be more

careful. (J.London) 13. You should go to a healthy spot. (M. Spark)

11. Well, for God's sake, get him attended to, Margo. You think I

should? (Trevor) 15. Why shouldn't you pass (the examination)

then? (D.Lessing) 16. People should know their place and stick to

it. 17. You should be saying these things to him. 18. Are you

sorry you didn't do it? I should have been a perfect fool if I had.

(Maugham) 19. That's what you should have done. 20. Why

shouldn't you marry me? 21. Why should I have done it? 22. There


shouldn't be better opportunities forwomen. (B.Shaw) 23. You should go back and finish grammar school. (London) 24. I don't see why we shouldn't get on very well together. (B.Shaw) 25. I shouldn't be sorry if you thought ill of me. (Maugham) 26. Well, we'd better telephone for an axe. 27. You'd better try and sit quiet till morning. (Fitzgerald) 28. I think we'd better draw a picture of them. 29. You'd better get off there, Charlie said. (D.Lessing) 30. May be I'd better sell it somewhere else. (Macken)

D. Ways Of Conveying the Meanings of Subjective Modality

The relation of content to reality expressed by subjective modality is viewed upon as hypothetical. The speaker considers the event or action mentioned as assumptive or suggestive (desirable, possible, impossible, doubtful, certain /uncertain, etc.), i.e., as likely or unlikely to take place. That is why this type of modality is often referred to as subjective modality. It is expressed in English and Ukrainian with the help of common means: a) modal words, modal expressions or sentences; b) with the help of parenthetic words/expressions or parenthetic sentences; c) with the help of modal particles. The latter are a characteristic feature of the Ukrainian language where this feature acquires definitely semantic characteristics.

English modals, as they are often referred to, have usually direct semantic and even structural equivalents in Ukrainian. Among these notional language units, which mostly function as syntactically independent elements in English and Ukrainian sentences, there can be singled out at least two clearly distinguishable groups: a) modals correlating with hypothetic or indirect modality and b) modals expressing a clearly evaluative or subjective functions. The former include modal words/expressions or parenthetical elements in the sentence expressing supposition, assumption, presumability, etc. (cf. maybe, possibly, presumably, it is likely/most likely, it seems, etc.). These and other modals of the type present the attitude of the speaker to an event/action as hypothetical, as likely to take(or as having taken place, etc.). These modals have mostly direct equivalents in both languages:

"Maybe you got some friend ,

that you can telephone for

George?" (Fitzgerald) ?

It was probably the first time /

in his adult life that he had ever

cried. (J.Cheever) , .


Semantically close to the above-cited are English modal words and expressions whose meaning is predetermined by the contextual environment. These modals have often a hypothetical meaning, which may correspond to that of some Ukrainian modal particles or parenthetical adverbs/phrases. They include: perhaps, evidently, scarcely, no/little possibility, etc. Their Ukrainian hypothetical modal equivalents in sentences may be: , , -, -, / , /. For example:

"Perhaps, you've seen her " portrait in the papers." (C. Doyle) ."

Jesus Christ is actually a Icvc Xoucmoc - name and a title. (J.McDowell) ' () ().

A separate large group constitute modal words/expressions and parenthetical words/phrases or sentences expressing general assessment of a statement. These lexical units clearly point to the subjective evaluation of the action or event by the speaker. The modals of this group include the following:

certainly, of course, surely, definitely, really, in fact, indeed, naturally, no doubt, without doubt, it is natural, etc. Their Ukrainian equivalents are: , , / , , , , , , and others. For example:

"Well, he certainly must have "³, , strained himself to get this , managerietogether."(Fitzgerald)


"Surely he is mad..." (Wilde) "³ '...'"

"This was no doubt due to his ' , .

cowardly behaviour in the after-

noon." (J. Collier) ."

Subjective modality may also be rendered in both languages via elliptical sentences:

Was it because he was afraid ,

of being lost in a bigger city?

Scarcely. (Hailey) ? .

The above-mentioned and other means and ways of expressing subjective modality can also be observed in several sentences of


the exercise below.

Exercise I. Identify the meanings (assumption, general assessment, assuredness, doubt, probability, supposition, etc.) expressed by the underlined modals below. Find equivalent Ukrainian modals or other semantic equivalents (e.g., particles) and translate the sentences. Model: "It was really a terrible break." (Salinger) " ." or: " - ."

1. Latin America, in fact, is a veritable laboratory of anti-corruption experiments. 2. Perhaps, in the end, the only universal cure for corruption is to quietnature democracy. (Newsweek) 3. Maybe they won't come? Maybe it was all a lie? Maybe. (Steinbeck)

4. Oh, I feel some concern for my future all right. Sure. Sure. I do.

5. I thought about it for a minute. But not too much, I guess.

(Salinger) 6. She was apparently indifferent to her two daughters...

(Fitzgerald) 7. The young fellow was obviously anxious to be well with

him. (J.Cary) 8. Really. she thought, I should come out more of

ten, really it is very pleasant here in summer... 9. The sand isn't so

soft here. Of course, of course. 10. She was very quiet for some

moments, as if, perhaps, shy of being alone with him. (Bates)

11. Yes, indeed, he's such a good watch-dog. 12. You did not

approve of paying such a sum, naturally. 13. I wanted to bring the

crab. All right, darling, all right. 14. I think I got a good picture of

Heidi. Indeed. Indeed. (Bates) 15. And today, most fortunately, is

a Thursday. 16. After all, three hundred pounds is three hundred

pounds. Certainly it is. 17. Unfortunately, when you opened it

contained only blank sheets of paper. 18. The builders' letter he kept

to the last. Some bill, probably. 19. I couldn't care less, frankly. 20.

They can't possibly do it any more than they can prove, it won you.

(Hailey) 21. No doubt, if you were a good detective, you'd be able to

make it much clearer to me than it is. (Salinger) 22. An unpleasant

and dangerous looking young man, he thought, and not impossibly

a murderer. (Christie)

E. Grammatical Modality and Means of Expressing It

Grammatical or syntactic modality is of common nature in English and Ukrainian as well. It expresses actions viewed upon as real, unreal, optative, hypothetic, conditional, incentive, interrogative, etc. The principal means of expressing such actions are mood forms of the verb (indicative, imperative and subjunctive). These mood forms are realized respectively in declarative, interrogative and negative sen-


tences of wishful, hypothetical or conditional modality.1 As conveying the meanings, which are pertained to different verb forms in the indicative and partly in the imperative mood does not present any difficulty for our students, it is expedient to pay attention, at least shortly, to the means of expression and rendering in English and Ukrainian of optative or wishful (), incentive () and subjunctive () modality.

1. Ways of Expressing the Meanings of Optative Modality

Optative () modality in English and Ukrainian serves to express the wish of the speaker to establish the correspondence of content of the utterance to reality. The main ways and means of expressing this type of modality in English are syntactic. They include characteristic sentence structures, the use of auxiliary and modal verbs (to be, were, should, could, let, would, etc.), the ascending or descending utterance intonation. In Ukrainian apart from the modal verbs and intonation (prosodic means) some specifying modal particles are widely used. The most common of them are /, , /, //, , , , , , , , , and others Cf:

. might see her there (M.)

Would it not be better to ? (.) meet them halfway?

Optative modality is used in both languages in ample and composite sentences:

If only it could always be .

spring. (Galsworthy) / /.

Ah, I wish I were fifteen /

again. (Maugham) ' .

express wish with implied regret or unreal wish the stative or may be used in Ukrainian:

I wish I had met him when ,

he was younger.(Greene) , .

1 See more about grammatical/syntactical modality in: . . .. . - .: , 1972, . 125-137.


I wish I could gather knowl- / -

edge as carelessly... /

(Maugham) ...

Optative modality is very often used to express incentive () meanings which are expressed in English simple and composite sentences with the help of the so-called subjunctive I mood form (synthetic or analytical). In Ukrainian the imperative mood of the verb and the particles , , are mostly used for the purpose. They express the meaning pertained to the modal verb may in the subjunctive (I) mood as in the following sentences:

... my gates are open to real ... life, bring what it may. (B.Shaw) ,

./ .

May you both be happy. ./

(Hornby) ./


Some optative meanings expressed in Ukrainian through such modal particles as , for example, may not be easy to fully and completely express in English which has no such fine means (Confer the Shevchenkinian , .).

The Optative meaning of the concluding line was rendered by John Weir with the help of the modal verb may. The mansion, too, from far away - May nettle choke the cursed place!

Optative modality in both languages may have different forms of expression. Its formal means in Ukrainian include the corresponding mood forms of the verb (predicate) and the particle /. The particle identifies some subtypes of the subjunctive mood meanings (the suppositional, the conditional, etc.):

I would he were a tree or ,

flower. (H.S.Leigh) . (


If only you could make him ҳ

laugh. (. Twain) /


The last sentence, naturally, can be translated without any


structural transformation: .

The meaning of optative modality expressing desire is very close to incentive modality expressing non-categorical demand, requestor threat. Optative meanings are usually realized in English via the modal verbs should, would, may/might, could, and the semantically corresponding infinitive, whereas in Ukrainian the particles , , and the prosodic means (sentence intonation/stress) are mostly employed here:

' '. But no one should ever

(. ) know/learn anything about it.

' But you should (are to) be

'! (. ) here at daybreak!

2. Incentive () modality is more often expressed in English through the modal verb let. These meanings are usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the imperative mood forms of the verbal predicate and the particle /:

God said, "Let Newton be! :

and all was light. (A.Pope) !


Let him that earns the bread ,

eat it. (Bibl. Saying) , (.

, ).

Let each tailor mend his own

coat. (Saying) .

The meaning of the second sentence, for example, may have a fuller expression when it is rendered into Ukrainian antonymically: , ./ , .

Ukrainian incentive sentences introduced by the particle / are usually translated into English with the help of the modal verb let as well:

Let the old mother learn How

, such kind of children... must be

. (. ) cared for by her. (Transl. ByJ.Weir)

. Let once more our mother

. smile. Our tear-ridden mother.

(. ) (Ibid.)


Incentive modality may also be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of other modal particles. One of the often used for this purpose is /, the meaning of which is usually expressed in English through the modal verb let and the corresponding intonation:


, . Oh let us wander still, my fate...

(..) (Transl.byJ. Weir).

English incentive meanings can also be expressed through the combination of the particle long with the modal verb may, which together with the corresponding intonation of the sentence express the meaning close to the Ukrainian exclamatory sentences with the particlexafi or the particles : Long live and prosper our Motherland! May our Motherland live long! / !

3. The means of expression as well as those of rendering sub

junctive modality are mostly common with those employed to ex

press optative modality. They are in English the modal verbs could,

should, would, might or the expressions would rather, would

sooner. For example: / would rather come tomorrow than today.

He would sooner resign than take part in such dishonest business

deals. (Kerr) These modal verbs are also used to express the corre

sponding subjunctive meanings in Ukrainian simple and composite


ϳ . would go through thick

() and thin/through many trials.

You would perfectly suit for

. (Ibid) a hospital nurse.

4. The expression of subjunctive modality in the composite

sentence of the two languages does not differ from that in their simple

sentences. Allomorphism, i.e., divergence is observed only in the

already mentioned formal expression of incentive meanings with the

help of the so-called subjunctive I mood; the latter does not correlate

with its Ukrainian grammatical and partly semantic expression. For

example: It is necessary that you (should) come a couple of days

before the others. (Kerr) /,


The subjunctive I form should come or simply come (It is necessary that you come) used for any person in singular or plural has in Ukrainian the only equivalent verb form in the indicative mood ().


Other English synthetic and analytical subjunctive mood forms in simple and composite sentences have in Ukrainian their morphological and semantic equivalents. Constantly distinguishing among them is that same particle / or the conjunction , which help to render the meanings of the suppositional and the conditional mood forms into Ukrainian. The use of the modal particle or the conjunction is predetermined by the meaning of the Ukrainian verb and not by the mood or tense form of its English lexical equivalent, which may express actions referring both to present and to future as in the following sentences:

It would be madness to start in management unless one had , at least three plays. (Maugham) /


Should Carry come, ask her ,

to wait." (Dreiser) , '.

Similarly rendered are also meanings expressed by the subjunctive II and conditional mood forms of the verb, which may refer to present, past or future. These forms of the verbal predicate have their corresponding paradigmatic equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.:

But if they had been sent by

people to take me away, then , ,

should not hide." (O'Dell) .

If he had any sense, he^d .

shut his eyes. (Maugham) .

The clauses which express the subjunctive meanings in English and Ukrainian may have no introductory/connecting conjunction if (, ):

Were I less attached to you,

might pretend to gloss it over. ,

(Cronin) ./

... had any stranger been ... prowling round the house, he , would have been seen by the servant or the keepers. (Wilde) .

The past subjunctive II (had been prowling'] and the past conditional mood paradigm (wouldhave been seen) have in these sentences their corresponding verb forms in Ukrainian. These subjunc-




tive mood forms under the pressure of centuries long domination Russian in Ukraine are mostly substituted for simple past verb forms. Being lexically equivalent and structurally much like their English paradigms, these Ukrainian subjunctive mood forms present an excellent morphological means of expression and must not be neglected when rendering such type of meanings into Ukrainian.

Exercise I. Identify the type of modal meaning (incentive, suppositional, conditional, etc.) expressed by the modal verbs and mood forms in the English sentences below. Suggest the appropriate means and ways for faithful translating these sentences into Ukrainian.

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