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Name and define the most common cardio-vascular diseases

The cardio-vascular disease are the most common killers in nowadays. The widespread diseases are

- Hypertension – is characterized by high blood pressure. Redness is the main symptoms of hypertension

- Hypotension – is characterized by low blood pressure

- Angina pectoris develops when there is a lack oxygen supply to the heart muscle. The main symptoms are: chest pain, difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, weakness

- Atherosclerosis – is the condition when fatty deposits buildup in the lining of the blood vessels. Usually fatty plagues contain lipids, calcium, cellular debris. They are hard on the external side and soft in the internal part. These fatty deposits brakes the abstraction occurs.

- Ischemia results from inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle, causing to the death cardial cells. Is caused by atherosclerosis

- Thrombosis – is the formation of blood clots

- Arrhythmia – is abnormal heart rhythm

The grade of the heartbeat is pulse. Normocardia is normal grade of heartbeat, between 60 and 100 beats for minute. Tachycardia develops when the rate of the heartbeat is exceeding 100 beats for minute. The pulse is rapid/accelerated. Bradycardia develops when the grade of the heartbeat is less than 60 beat for minute. The pulse is slow.

- Myocardial infarction or the heart attack is number one killer nowadays. It develops when the requirements of the heart muscle exceed the ability of coronary arteries to supply nutrients and oxygen. These may be due to atherosclerosis, thrombosis, ischemia, angina pectoris, and hypertension.


22. What is myocardial infarction? What may be cause of it?

Myocardial infarction may arise whenever the nutritional requirements of the heart muscle exceed the ability of the coronary arteries to supply the nutrients. Myocardial ischemia causes the pain of angina pectoris, and is directly responsible for the various pathophysiologic conditions occurring in that disease. Myocardial infarction or the heart attack is number one killer nowadays.

The causes of it are atherosclerosis, thrombosis, ischemia, angina pectoris, hypertension. The risk factors are diabetes, obesity, alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking.

The other type of MI is silent heart attack. Patients with these disease have no symptoms of MI. these hearts attacks usually have people with diabetes.

Complications of MI are: heart failure, aneurysm/rupture of myocardium, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, heart block. There is a risk of the second MI.


23. What are the most characteristic complaints in myocardial infarction?

The characteristic complains in myocardial infarction include severe chest pain, which described by the patient as a sensation squeezing and pressure. The pain radiates to the left arm, sometimes to the right arm, lower jaw, upper part of the back and epigastrium. That`s why the patient may have nausea, vomiting, hiccups, shortness of breath or dyspnea, abdominal distension. Extreme weakness and fear of impending death sometimes occur.

The blood pressure falls at first and then gradually rises. In hypertensive patients blood pressure sometimes becomes permanently normotensive or less hypertensive. The pulse is weak and thready, the rate usually exceeds 100/minute.

The heart sounds generally are feeble, but occasionally loud and sharp. There is often a gallop rhythm.

24. What are the most prominent symptoms of hypertension?

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a chronic medicine condition in which systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated / increased. There are such types of hypertension: primary or essential, secondary and malignant.

The primary hypertension affects 90-95% of the patients. No medical cause can be found for this type of hypertension.

The secondary hypertension affects 5-10% of the patients. The secondary hypertension is caused by the disease of the kidneys, heart, arteries and endocrine system.

The malignant hypertension affects 1% of the patients. The diastole pressure is over 140.

The general signs are chest pain, shortness of breath or dyspnea, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, fear, weakness…

25. What are the most frequent complications of hypertension?

The most frequent complications of the hypertension are angina pectoris and MI, cardiac hypertrophy and cerebral vascular accidents (stroke). The other complications include nose bleeding (epistaxis), menorrhagia, retinal abnormalities, convulsion, mental changes due to cerebral edema. The persistent hypertension affects the work of the kidneys, resulting in polyuria (increased volume the urine), nocturia (frequently urination at night), proteinuria (presents protein in the urine), cylindruria (presents cylinders in the urine), nitrogen retention (accumulation nitrogen in the blood).

The treatment of hypertension requires life-style changes, proper diet, physical exercise and weight loss. The doctor prescribes α-blockers, β-blockers, diuretics (to excrete excessive urine from the body) and calcium-channel blocker.


26. What is the difference in clinical picture of MI and angina pectoris?

In case of myocardial infarction the blood pressure falls, in case of angina pectoris it raises. The heart attack is accompanied by knife-like pain; in case of angina pectoris the pain is less severe. In case of angina pectoris the pain suspends with nitroglycerin, fresh air and rest. In case of myocardial infarction the pain arrests only with a help with opiates. In case of MI the attack lasts from 30 minutes to several hours, in case of angina pectoris the attacks last from 3 to 5 minutes.


27. What measures should one take to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases?

To prevent the development of cardio-vascular diseases people should have healthy lifestyle, physical activity (exercise), proper nutrition or diet.

The obese people must control their weight. People should take care of their mental and physical health by avoiding overexertion, overheating, emotional upset and stress. People should abstain from alcohol, smoking and drugs.

+++ high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes are risk factors for heart diseases, and managing them is an important step in reducing your risk of heart disease.


28. How to arrest angina pectoris attack?

(Angina pectoris develops when there is a lack oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Pain is location, distribution, duration and relation. The distress usually is localized behind the sternum, and only rarely in the apical region or left anterior axillary line. Occasionally it is located in the neck, shoulder, then down the left arm to the elbow. The pain may be called more appropriately a feeling of oppression or distress, and usually as squeezing, crushing, or viselike. The intensity varies from mild, substernal discomfort to severe and incapacitating distress. The typical seizure lasts only a few minutes. The patient usually relates the attack of exertion, overeating, or an emotional upset, and notes disappears with rest. Other symptoms at ties are palpitation, faintness, dizziness, dyspnea, and digestive disturbances.

Risk factors for angina pectoris are basically the same as risk factors for coronary artery disease.)

The treatment of angina pectoris includes nitroglycerin, vasodilators (which makes the blood vessels wider), calcium-channel blockers (they regulate the force of heartbeat), diuretics (to reduce the blood pressure by removing excessive fluid from the body).

The main three components are nitroglycerin, fresh air, and rest.


29. What is the treatment of myocardial infarction?

The treatment of myocardial infarction: the patient requires immediate doctor attention, oxygen and nitroglycerin and administrated. Morphine is used when nitroglycerin is not effective.

Doctors prescribe these remedies:

- Oxygen – to reduce shortness of breath

- Beta-blockers – to regulate the blood pressure

- Aspirin – is an anticoagulant. Because thrombosis is one of the causing factors

- Morphine – used, when nitroglycerin doesn’t work

- ACE inhibitors – to regulate blood pressure

- Statins – to reduce cholesterol level. Because atherosclerosis is one of the causing factors

- Intravenous heparin – used to normalize clotting of blood

- Nitroglycerin


30. What is anemia? What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative anemia?

Anemia develops when red blood cells or hemoglobin on red blood cells are below normal levels. The symptoms of anemia are weakness (fatigue, prostration), dizziness, fainting (loss of consciousness), pale skin, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, chest pain, headaches, coldness and numbness in the extremities.

There are 3 factors that can causes anemia:

- Blood loss

- When the body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells

- When the body removes too many red blood cells from the blood

Hydraemia is abnormally watery blood, when the blood is abnormally diluted. Oligohaemia – when the reduction of the total volume of blood, e.g. immediately after a profuse hemorrhage. Normovolaemia – the total mass of circulating blood is normal. Hypervolaemia - the total mass of circulating blood is increased.

Types of anemia are:

- Vitamin-deficiency iron-deficiency anemia – these types are mild. The patient may be cured.

- Hemolytic anemia is caused by premature destruction of red blood cells

- Sickle-cell anemia – the cells become sickle shape. The cells become stiff and the cant squeeze through the blood vessels

- Aplastyc anemia results from the failure bone marrow to produce all type of blood cells. The fat cells replace the bone marrow.

Qualitative anemia means changes in the structure and shape of red blood cells. Quantitative anemia means changes in the number and composition of red blood cells.


31. What are the symptoms of anemia? How is it treated?

The symptoms of anemia are weakness (fatigue, prostration), dizziness, fainting (loss of consciousness), pale skin, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, chest pain, headaches, coldness and numbness in the extremities.

In mild cases the patient condition maybe quickly improve with vitamins (C, BB12 and folic acid) and supplements, foods rich in iron and vitamins.

In severe cases of anemia oxygen, antibiotics, drugs to fight infections, pain-killers and cancer-drugs together with steroids can be prescribe. The surgical intervention is also performed when bone marrow transplantation or removal of spleen is necessary. Blood transfusion is also used.


32. What is haemoblastosis? What factors can provoke it?

Haemoblastosis is proliferation of the haemopoetic tissue, it can be diffuse and focal.

Haemoblastosis can be provoke by cancerogenic substances and radiation.


33. What are the main theories explaining the etiology of haemoblastosis?

There are three theory of the etiology of haemoblastosis.

1). Virus theory – 20 virus were isolated. Thy can cause haemoblastosis in animals. But the attempts to isolate the virus that can cause haemoblastosis was failed.

2). Genetic theory – haemoblastosis develops due to the genetic damage to the chromosome structures of the cells of the haemopoetic process.

3). Clone theory – haemoblastosis develops due to primary chromosome mutation in one of the haemopoetic cells with its further multiplication and formation of a clone of blast cells.


34. What does the digestive system consist of?

The digestive system/gastrointestinal tract/alimentary system consist of the organs and glands responsible for the ingestion (or swallowing) and digestion the food. The gastrointestinal tract begins with mouth (oral cavity). It contains 32 teeth, tongue, two gums (upper and lower), soft and hard palate and salivary glands. There is pharynx (throat), esophagus (gullet), stomach (it consist of 3 parts: fundus, body and an antrum. There is cardiac sphincter between esophagus and stomach), small intestine (consist of three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. There is pyloric sphincter between stomach and duodenum), large intestine (consist of three parts: caecum with vermiform appendix, colon, which divided into ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid, rectum). The terminal part of the digestive tract is anus (internal and external muscle sphincter).

The glands of the digestive system are: salivary glands (are responsible for production of saliva), gastric glands (are responsible for the production of gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid), liver (the softest and the largest gland of our body, production bile), pancreas (is responsible for the production of pancreatic juice)


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