Самостійна робота № 11
Лексико-граматичні основи перекладу та вправи:Переклад газетної статті. Складання плану та написання анотації
Ex.1 Read the text, write down the unknown words, remember the theory about the annotation and make it to this text.
The riches of the cold continent
Antarctica is the continent surrounding the South Pole. It has an area of over 15 mln sq. km, about the size of the USA and Mexico put together. With an average temperature at the South Pole of - 50 °C, it is the coldest continent; it is so cold that a thick sheet of ice always lies over the land. Pack ice surrounds the shore of Antarctica and cliffs of ice form the coast; the mountain ranges which lie along the shore and island are always covered with snow. In fact, Antarctica contains 90% of all the snow and ice in the world.
However, Antarctica is not just a large, cold desert. It is rich in mineral deposits. Coal and minerals such as copper, iron, uranium, gold and platinum have been found there. Many oil companies have carried out surveys in the area for oil but it is not clear whether they have found any there, or, if they have, whether it could be successfully exploited in the conditions in and around that continent. Cold as it is, Antarctica is also rich in animal life but because of the temperature, the animals and birds found there are aquatic e.g. seals and penguins. The sea is also particularly rich in krill, which are small shrimp — like creatures that whales, seals and penguins feed on.
Captain James Cook on a voyage of exploration from England was the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle. This was in 1773. In 1837, a Frenchman, Dumont D'Urville, sailed in Antarctic waters, as did Charles Wilkes from the USA in the following year. But the first to set foot on the continent was an Englishman, James Clark Ross, who landed on Victoria Land in 1841. The Ross Sea is named after him.
At the end of the 19th century, interest in Antarctica grew, so that an increasing number of expeditions set out to explore the continent. The explorers came from many countries, including Sweden, Belgium, Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand. In December 1911 the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen became the first person to reach South Pole. His team crossed from the coast on skies with their supplies on sledges, pulled by dogs.
By the beginning of the Second World War in 1939, many countries had made claims of ownership on parts of Antarctica. These were based on either geographical nearness or on rights resulting from discovery. Among the countries claiming territory were Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway. In addition to disputes over territory, there was also some discussion over fishing and whaling rights in the area, which involved other countries as well.
The scientific experiments and expeditions in Antarctica of the International Geographical Year of 1957 aroused a lot of interest in the area and also a great deal of concern over its future. In 1961 the Antarctic Treaty was signed by 12 nations and the number of signatories had risen to 3 1 by I 984. The clauses of the treaty state that Antarctica should be used for peaceful purposes only. Scientific work carried out in Antarctica had to be done in accordance with United Nations scientific agreements, and scientific observations and results were to be exchanged and made public.
Over the past few years, there has been increased concern over the effect of all types of human activity on Antarctica. Shipping accidents cause oil spillages, while scientists and tourists leave their rubbish.
Environmental groups say that some governments have been building airstrips too close to areas where penguins nest, thus disturbing their habitat and threatening their breeding. The regulations state that all rubbish should be removed from Antarctica when scientific research has been completed, but plastics, rubber and batteries have been found, all of which are dangerous to the wildlife and to the land.
The future of Antarctica is still in doubt. Will it be preserved as an unspoilt wilderness for future generations or will it be changed for ever through mining and other human activity?