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Прочитайте текст, где эксперт говорит о преимуществах древесины, и заполните таблицу



 

There are several advantages to timber frame construction but there are also disadvantages that you should be aware of before deciding if it meets your needs. Wood is a porous and very combustible material, susceptible to water, fire and bugs. Water can be absorbed into the material, causing it to rot and mould, which can compromise the strength and cause adverse health effects. This can be a major problem in humid or damp climates. Wood is also very flammable, which makes the material a fire hazard. Ants and termites eat wood framing, with serious effects on the strength of the construction. Logging for timber framing can have a major environmental impact. Producing boards and beams for timber frame construction requires cutting down trees. Large, old-growth forests are sometimes clear cut to produce wood for timber construction, which can lead to other problems such as soil erosion and destruction of wildlife habitats. Wood is an excellent transmitter of sound waves so any noise inside or outside is easily heard throughout the home. This can be a major problem if there are several people living in the house or if it is located near a noisy street as sounds are transmitted very clearly. Timber frames are quite strong up and down but not as strong as other materials horizontally. So if your building design has a large room with a long span, it will be difficult for timber frame construction to handle the weight. You may need to have a post in the middle to absorb some of the weight.

 

water   fire bugs environmental impact   sound   strength Water can be (1)_____ into the material causing it to rot and mould. Wood is very (2)__________ Ants and termites eat wood (3) __________ Producing boards and beams for timber frame construction requires (4) __________trees. Wood is an excellent (5)_______ of sound waves so any noise inside and outside is easily heard. Timber frames are quite strong up and down but not as strong as other materials (6) _______

IV. STONE

Назовите а) свойства камня, б) преимущества, в) недостатки, г) применение камня (мозговой штурм).

2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста.

TEXT 1. STONE

Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest days. Almost of all famous buildings of classic times, of the medieval and Renaissance periods and of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were erected of stone masonry. In some places stone was used because of the scarcity of timber, bin in other places stone was preferred because of its durability.



The stones which are usually used for masonry work are as follows:

1) Granite is very hard, strong and durable. It is used particularly for basements base courses, columns and steps and for the entire facades. Its colour may be gray yellow pink or deep red.

2) Sandstone. Sandstone is composed of grains of sand or quarts cemented together. Sandstones form one of the most valuable materials. The durability of sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material.

Thus, there are different kinds of sandstones. Many sandstones are exceptionally hard and are selected for steps, sills etc. The excellent state of preservation of many ancient buildings built of this stone is evidence of this. But city buildings constructed of sandstone often assume a drab appearance owing to the dark colour. It is an excellent material for concrete aggregate.

3) Marble is a crystalline stone chiefly used for decorative purposes

White and black marbles are used for ornamental decoration where the beauty of the marble is shown to its best advantage.

 

1. since 2. early 3. famous 4. medieval 5. erect 6. prefer 7. because of 8. particular(ly) 9. entire 10. compose 11. depend on 12. exceptional(ly) 13. excellent 14. preserve 15. evidence 16. assume   17. drab 18. appearance 19. purpose 1. с тех пор как, с 2. ранний 3. известный 4. средневековый 5. сооружать, воздвигать 6. предпочитать 7. из-за 8. особенный (особенно) 9. весь, целый 10. состоять 11. зависеть 12. исключительный(исключительно) 13. отличный 14. сохранять 15. свидетельство 16. принимать,допускать, предполагать 17. тускло-коричневый; темный 18. внешний вид 19. цель

3. К каждой данной паре слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское (работа в парах):

1. structure 2. base 3. form 4. cement 5. select 6. column 7. steps 8. aggregate 9. ornamental 10. decoration a) сооружение, здание, конструкция b) основание, фундамент; основывать c) составлять, являться d) цементировать, скреплять цементным раствором e) выбирать f) колонна g) шаги, ступени h) заполнитель i) фигурный, декоративный j) украшение

4. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах):





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