: 3

9. Outside the narrow street fumed, the sidewalks swarmed with fat stomachs (J.R.).

10. The owner, now at the wheel, was the essence of decent self-satisfaction; a baldish, largish, level-eyed man, rugged of neck but sleek and round of face-face like the back of a spoon bowl (S.L.).

11. His fingertips seemed to caress the wheel as he nursed it over the dark winding roads at a mere whispering sixty (L.Ch.).

12. We plunged in and out of sun and shadow-pools, and joy, a glad-to-be-alive exhilaration, jolted through me like a jigger of nitrogen (..).

13. These jingling toys in his pocket were of eternal importance like baseball or Republican Party (S.L.).

Exercise VI. State the function of the following cases of morphemic repetition:

1. She unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door (A.B.).

2. It was there again, more clearly than before: the terrible expression of pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain (D.U.).

3. We were sitting in the cheapest of all the cheap restaurants that cheapen that very cheap and noisy street, the Rue des Petits Champs in Paris (H.).

4. Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi's people brought him home in triumph (H.C.).

5. The procession then re-formed; the chairmen resumed their stations, and the march was recommenced (D.).

6. We are overbrave and overfearful, overfriendly and at the same time frightened of strangers, we're oversentimental and realistic (P.St.).

7. There was then a calling over of names, and great work of signing, sealing, stamping, inking, and sanding, will exceedingly blurred, gritty and undecipherable results (D.).

8. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol f its purpose, and had returned to the planets or to the stars (A.C.).

9. Sit down, you dancing, prancing, shambling, scrambling fool parrot! Sit down! (D.).

Exercise VII. Analyze the morphemic structure and the purpose of creating the occasional words in the following examples:

1. The girls could not take off their panama hats because this was not far from the school gates and hatlessness was an offence (M.Sp.).

2. David, in his new grown-upness, had already a sort of authority (I.M.).

3. That fact had all the unbelievableness of the sudden wound (R.W.).

4. Lucy wasn't Willie's luck. Or his unluck either (R.W.).

5. She was waiting for something to happen or for everything to un-happen (..).

6. You asked him.
I'm un-asking him, the Boss replied (R.W.).

7. She was a young and unbeautiful woman (I.Sh.).

8. Mr. Hamilton, you haven't any children, have you?
Well, no. And I'm sorry about that, I guess. I am sorriest about
that (J.St.).

9. To think that I should have lived to be good-morninged, by Belladonna Took's son! (A.T.).

Reference list:

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. Part IV. P. 166177; 187189.

2. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. P. 2328; 7073; 108113; 115118.




Seminar 4

Within the language as a system there establish themselves certain definite types of relations between words, word-combinations, sentences and also between larger spans of utterances. The branch of language science which studies the types of relations between the units enumerated is called syntax.

In the domain of syntax, however, as it has been justly pointed out by L.A.Bulakhovsky, it is difficult to distinguish between what is purely grammatical, i.e. marked as corresponding to the established norm, and what is stylistically marked, i.e. showing some kind of vacillation of these norms.

Generally speaking, the examination of syntax provides a deeper insight into the stylistic aspect of the utterance.

Stylistics takes as an object of its analysis the expressive means and stylistic devices of the language which are based on some significant structural point in an utterance, whether it consists of one sentence or a number of sentences.

The structural syntactical aspect is sometimes regarded as the crucial issue in stylistic analysis, although the peculiarities of syntactical arrangement are not so conspicuous as the lexical and phraseological properties of the utterance. However there are 2 general principles on which most of the syntactical means are built:

1. The juxtaposition of different parts of the utterance.

2. The way the parts of the utterance are connected with each other.

In addition to these two large groups of expressive means and stylistic devices two others may be singled out:

3. Those based on the peculiar use of colloquial constructions.

4. Those based on the use of structural meaning.

Unlike the syntactical expressive means of the language, which are naturally used in discourse in a straight-forward natural manner, syntactical stylistic devices are perceived as elaborate designs aimed at having a definite impact on the recipient.

Essential Terms:

inversion the reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence, for the sake of emphasis (in prose) or for the sake of the metre (in poetry): Dark they were and golden-eyed (Bradbury).

The stylistic inversion has the following patterns:

1) the object is placed at the beginning of the sentence (before the subject);

2) the attribute is placed after the word it modifies;

3) the predicative is placed before the subject;

4) the predicative is placed before the link-verb and both are placed before the subject;

5) the adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence;

6) both the adverbial modifier and the predicate are placed before the subject.

Various types of stylistic inversion are aimed at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface meaning of the sentence.

* Note: It is important to draw a line of demarcation between grammatical inversion and stylistic inversion. Stylistic inversion does not change the grammatical type of the syntactical structure. Compare the following:

They slid down.
Didthey slide down? (grammatical inversion).
Down they slid (stylistic inversion).

** Note: The sphere in which all sorts of inversion can be found is colloquial speech. Here it is not so much a stylistic device as the result of spontaneity of speech and the informal character of the latter.

PARENTHESIS (PARENTHETIC WORDS, PHHRASES AND SENTENCES)mostly evaluate what is said or supply some kind of additional information. Parenthetic elements comprising additional information are a kind of protest against the linear character of the text. Parenthetic segments perform a number of stylistic functions, such as:

(a) the creation of a second plane, or background to the narrative;

(b) the creation of a mingling of voices of different speech parties

(c) focusing on the information in parentheses.

Special punctuation marks the usage of parenthesis. It usually includes using dashes or brackets; commas are possible but infrequent. Besides, parentheses are independent enough to function as exclamatory or interrogative segments of declarative sentences.

DETACHED CONSTRUCTION (detachment) one of the secondary parts of the sentence is detached from the word it refers to and is made to seem independent of this word. Such parts are called detached and marked off by brackets, dashes or commas or even by full stops or exclamation marks: I have to beg you for money! Daily!

parallel construction (or SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM) a figure based on the use of the similar syntactic pattern in two or more sentences or syntagms:

1) When the lamp is shattered
The light in the dust lies dead
When the cloud is scattered
The rainbow's glory is shed.
When the lute is broken.
Sweet tones are remembered not;
When the lips have spoken,
Loved accents are soon forgot (P.B. Shelley);

2) I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison and ye came into me (St. Matthew).

chiasmus (reversed parallel constructions) a figure of speech based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern with a reverse word-order (see: SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM):

1) Let the long contention cease:
Geese are swans, and swans are geese (M. Arnold);

2) Beauty is truth, truth beautyt that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know (Keats);

3) But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first
(St. Matthew).

SUSPENsE (retardation) is a deliberate delay in the completion of the expressed thought. What has been delayed is the main task of the utterance, and the reader awaits the completion of the utterance with an everincreasing tension. A suspence is achieved by a repeated occurrence of phrases or clauses expressing condition, supposition, time and the like, all of which hold back the conclusion of the utterance: Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend was obliging enough to read and explain to me, for the firsteventy thousand ages ate their meat raw (Ch.L.).

I. Speak on the following:

Compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement:

1) inversion;

2) parenthesis;

3) detachment;

4) parallel constructions;

5) reversed parallel constructions (chaismus);

6) suspense.

II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and comment upon their structure and stylistic function.

III. Do the following exercises:

Exercise I. Find and analyse cases of detachment, suspense and inversion. Comment on the structure and functions of each:

1. She was crazy about you. In the beginning (R.W.).

2. Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes of all the living and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me (D.).

3. On, on he wandered, night and day, beneath the blazing sun, and the cold pale moon; through the dry heat of noon, and the damp cold of night; in the grey light of morn and the red glare of eve (D.).

4. Benny Collan, respected guy, Benny Collan wants to marry her. An agent could ask for more? (T.C.).

5. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must (J.C.).

6. Out came the chase in went the horses on sprang the boys in got the travellers (D.).

7. Then he said: You think it's so? She was mixed up in this lousy business? (J.B.).

8. And she saw that Gopher Prairie was merely an enlargement of all the hamlets which they had been passing. Only to the eyes of a Kennicot was it exceptional (S.L.).

Exercise II. Find and analyse cases of detachment, parenthesis, and suspense. Comment on the structure and functions of each:

1. I regarded us as lost souls, condemned by the Fates (Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos I remember looking them up, and weeping at the justice of their names) never to consummate our love, separated by prior commitments and by barriers of position and caste (be sure I never mentioned this to her!), et cetera, et cetera (B.).

2. She narrowed her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked exactly like Celia Briganzas boy. Around the mouth (S.).

3. He observes it all with a keen quick glance, not unkindly, and full rather of amusement than of censure (V.W.).

4. It was not the monotonous days uncheckered by variety and uncheered by pleasant companionship, it was not the dark dreary evenings or the long solitary nights, it was not the absence of every slight and easy pleasure for which young hearts beat high or the knowing nothing of childhood but its weakness and its easily wounded spirit, that had wrung such tears from Nell (D.).

5. Here is a long passage what an enormous perspective I make of it! leading from Peggotys kitchen to the front door (D.).

6. I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me not so much for my own sake (since I am used to the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake of criticism in general (Mgh.).

7. he was struck by the thought (what devils whisper? what evil hint of an evil spirit?) supposing that he and Roberta (no, say he and Sondra no, Sondra could swim so well, and so could he) he and Roberta were in a small boat somewhere and it should capsize at the very time, say, of this dreadful complication which was so harassing him? What an escape! What a relief from a gigantic and by now really destroying problem! On the other hand hold not so fast! for could a man even think of such a solution in connection with so difficult a problem as this without committing a crime in his heart, really a horrible, terrible crime? (Dr.).

8. The main entrance (he had never ventured to look beyond that) was a splendiferous combination of a glass and iron awning, coupled with a marble corridor lined with palms (Dr.).

That bit of gold meant food, life power to go on writing and who was to say? maybe to write something that would bring in many pieces of gold (J.L.).

Reference list:

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. Part V. P. 191193; 202219.

2. .. . . IV. . 217223 .

3. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. P. 8990; 9395.




Seminar 5

Essential Terms:

repetition is based upon a repeated occurrence of one and the same word-group. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her (A.B.). Depending upon the position a repeated unit occupies in the utterance there are several types of repetition:

Anaphora the beginning of some successive sentences, syntagms, lines, etc. (with the same sounds, morphemes, words or word-combinations) is repeated a, a, a. The main stylistic function of anaphora is not so much to emphasize the repeated unit as to create the background for the nonrepeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.

Epiphora repetition of the final word or word-group especially in poetry when some stanzas end with the same line a, a, a. The main function of epiphora is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.

Anadiplosis(Catch Repetition) a figure which consists in the repetition of the same word at the end of one and at the beginning of the following sense-groups (or lines). Thus the two or more parts are linked a, a. Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a more modest level.

Chain Repetition a string of several successive anadiplosis: a, ab, bc, c . It smoothly develops logical reasoning.

Framing the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the frame for the non-repeated part of the sentence (utterance) a a. The function of framing is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was introduced in the beginning, so that by the time it is used for the second time its semantics is concretized and specified.

Successive Repetition is a string of closely following each other reiterated units a, a, a . This is the most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.

Ordinary Repetition emphasizes both the logical and the
emotional meanings of the reiterated word (phrase). In this type of repetition the repeated element has no definite place in the sentence or utterance.

prolepsis (syntactic tautology) a figure of syntactic anticipation, the use of words not applicable till a later time. In prolepsis the noun subject is repeated in the form of a corresponding personal pronoun: Miss Tilly Webster, she slept forty days and nights without waking up (OH.).

CLIMAX (gradation) is a figure based upon such an arrangement of parts of an utterance which secures a gradual increase in semantic significance or emotional tension: I dont attach any value to money, I dont care about it, I dont know about it, I dont want it, I dont keep it, it goes away from me directly.

The increase in significance may be: logical, emotional or quantitative.

Logical the relative importance of the components is looked from the point of view of the concepts embodied in them. Every successive word or word-combination in logical climax is semantically more important than the previous one.

Emotive climax is based on the relative emotive meaning. It is mainly found in one sentence as emotive charge cannot hold long. It is usually based on repetition of the semantic centre, usually expressed by an adjective or adverb and the introduction of an intensifier between the repeated items.

Quantitative is an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts: numerical increase, concepts of measure and time.

ANTICLIMAX (BATHOS)is the reverse of climax. It is the descent from the sublime to the ridiculous. In this figure of speech emotive or logical importance accumulates only to be unexpectedly broken and brought down. The sudden reversal usually brings forth a humorous or ironic effect. Many paradoxes are based on anticlimax: America is the Paradise for women. That is why, like Eve, they are so extremely anxious to get out of it!

Very close to Bathos stands Paradox, a stylistic device presenting a self-contradicting idea, which nonetheless seems true (in the words of Yu. Skrebnev, it is a seemingly absurd though in fact well-founded statement). The slogans from 1984 by George Orwell illustrate this.



In the framework of the Inner Partys perverted logic there still is a certain sense in this nonsense: the less you know the stronger you are, as you will be unable to commit thoughtcrime; being a slave, you do not have to be responsible for decisions made, which is a true way to freedom; to avert the danger of an inner war the country must be exhausted by a continuous and fruitless war with equally omnipotent neighbours.

antithesis(a variant of Syntactic Parallelism) a figure of speech based on parallel constructions with contrasted words (usually antonyms):

1) Yet each man kills the thing he loves,
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword! (O. Wilde);

2) God made the country, and man made the town (Cowper).

nonsense of non-sequencerests on the extension of syntactical valency and results in joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence, as in: Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome (E.). Two disconnected statements are forcibly linked together by cause/effect relations.

I. Speak on the following:

Compositional pattern of syntactical arrangement:

1) repetition;

2) prolepsis (syntactic tautology);

3) climax / anticlimax;

4) antithesis;

5) nonsense of non-sequence.

II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and comment upon their structure and stylistic function.

III. Do the following exercises:

Exercise I. From the following examples you will get a better idea of the functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and chiasmus:

1. I wake up and I'm alone and I walk round Warley and I'm alone; and I talk with people and I'm alone and I look at his face when I'm home and it's dead (J.Br.).

2. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams (J.Br.).

3. I really don't see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal (O.W.).

4. I wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot, give him the boot, give him the boot I drew a deep breath (J.Br.).

5. On her father's being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure (D.).

6. Now he understood. He understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a black man or a white man (P.A.).

7. Obviously-this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously (W.D.).

8. And everywhere were people-People going into gates and coming out of gates. People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing (P.A.).

9. Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (Dr.).

10. Living is the art of loving.
Loving is the art of caring.
Caring is the art of sharing.
Sharing is the art of living (W.H.D).

11. I notice that father's is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that father is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me (D.).

Exercise II. Discuss the semantic centres and structural peculiarities of antithesis:

1. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband (S.L.).

2. I like big parties. They're so intimate. At small parties there isn't any privacy (Sc.F.).

3. There is Mr. Guppy, who was at first as open as the sun at noon, but who suddenly shut up as close as midnight (D.).

4. His coat-sleeves being a great deal too long, and his trousers a great deal too short, he appeared ill at ease in his clothes (D.).

5. It is safer to be married to the man you can be happy with than to the man you cannot be happy without (E.).

6. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way-in short the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only (D.).

Exercise III. Indicate the type of climax. Pay attention to its structure and the semantics of its components:

1. He saw clearly that the best thing was a cover story or camouflage. As he wondered and wondered what to do, he first rejected a stop as impossible, then as improbable, then as quite dreadful (W.G.).

2. Is it "shark"? said Brody. The possibility that he at last was going to confront the fish-the beast, the monster, the nightmare-made Brody's heart pound (P.B.).

3. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it was everything else of that sort in the highest degree (D.).

4. I shall be sorry, I shall be truly sorry to leave you, my friend (D.).

5. After so many kisses and promises-the lie given to her dreams, her words, the lie given to kisses, hours, days, weeks, months of unspeakable bliss (Dr.).

6. In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man (Ev.).

7. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except the obvious (O.W.).

Exercise III. Read the following well-known poem by Rudyard Kipling and say why it is called If? What ensues adhering to the premises listed? What other title for the poem can you think of?

Ifyou can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can dream and not make dreams your master,
If you can think and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it all on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: Hold on!

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much,
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And which is more you'll be a Man, my son!

By Rudyard Kipling

Answer the following questions:

1. By what means is the poem made cohesive and coherent?

2. Identify cases of repetition and their types. How do they contribute to the structure of the poem?

3. Find other syntactical stylistic devices and comment on the role they play in the poem.

Reference list:

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. Part V. P. 211225.

2. .. . . IV. . 244250.

3. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. P. 55; 8892; 103107.


Seminar 6

Essential Terms:

ASYNDETON a deliberate avoidance of connectives where they are expected to be: The audience rolled about in their chairs; they held their sides, they groaned in an agony of laughter.

POLYSYNDETONis an insistent repetition of a connective between words, phrases or clauses of an utterance: They were all three from Milan and one of them was to be a lawyer, and one was to be a painter, and one had intended to be a soldier, and after we were finished with the machines, sometimes we walked back together (H.).

attachment (the gap-sentence link) is mainly to be found in various representations of the voice of the personage dialogue, reported speech, entrusted narrative. In the attachment the second part of the utterance is separated from the first one by a full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong. The second part appears as an afterthought and is often connected with the beginning of the utterance with the help of a conjunction which brings the latter into the foregrounded opening position: It wasn't his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan't beg. I shall simply starve (S.L.); Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent (T.C.).

apokoinu constructions Here the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective creates a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one: He was the man killed that deer (R.W.).

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