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Турбореактивные двигатели



Задание 1.Прослушайте, повторите и запомните слова:

1. turbojet - турбореактивный

2. turbofan - турбовентиляторный

3. turboprop - турбовинтовой

4. turboshaft - турбовальный

5. to derive - извлекать, получать

6. thrust - тяга

7. nozzle - сопло, форсунка

8. to rise - повышать, увеличивать

9. to deliver - поставлять, доставлять

10. to feed (fed, fed) - снабжать, подавать

11. to expand - расширять(ся)

12. to provide - снабжать, обеспечивать

13. auxiliary - вспомогательный

14. to eject - выбрасывать

15. amount - количество, величина

16. excess - избыток

17. afterburner - форсажная камера

 

Задание 2.Прочтите и переведите предложения.

1. The turbojet, turbofan and turboprop engines are gas turbine engines.

2. Engines produce thrust.

3. Every turbojet has nozzles.

4. The diffuser delivers the air to the compressor.

5. Fuel nozzles provide fuel.

6. The gases are expanded.

7. The gases are ejected from the nozzle.

8. The auxiliary apparatus is necessary for the work.

9. Afterburner provides additional thrust.

Задание 3.Прочтите предложения, вставляя недостающие слова.

1. Every engine produces ….. .

2. The gases ….. the turbine.

3. The gases are ejected through the …..

4. The main ….. of the turbine is to provide power for the compressor.

5. Turbojets are ….. into two groups.

to classify, thrust, nozzle, function, to enter

 

Задание 4.Подберите слова, одинаковые по значению.

1. speed 1. exhaust

2. aft 2. movement

3. propulsion 3. increase

4. feed 4. velocity

5. eject 5. back

6. rise 6. deliver

7. produce 7. develop

Задание 5.Подберите слова, противоположные по значению.

1. provide 1. leave

2. constant 2. low

3. downstream 3. consume

4. high 4. upstream

5. enter 5. inconstant

6. aft 6. main

7. auxiliary 7. forward

Задание 6.Переведите следующие словосочетания:

derives its thrust by …; accelerating a small mass of air; at approximately constant pressure; high temperature and high pressure gases; exhaust nozzle; auxiliary apparatus; velocity greater than the flight velocity; turbine material limitations; the exhaust products downstream of the turbine; the centrifugal-flow compressor; the axial-flow compressor.

Задание 7.Прочтите и переведите интернациональные слова:

turbine; classify; mechanical; compressor; function; transform; diffuser; temperature; absorb; gas; material; product; type; operation.

Задание 8.Прослушайте, прочтите и переведите текст.

 

Turbojet Engines

Gas turbine engines may be classified into the following groups: turbojet engines, turbofan engines, turboprop engines, turboshaftengines.



A turbojet derives its thrust by highly accelerating a small mass of air, which goes through the engine. This engine consists of a diffuser, a mechanical compressor, a combustion chamber, a mechanical turbine and an exhaust nozzle.

The function of a diffuser is to transform the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static pressure rise. The diffuser delivers its air to the mechanical compressor which further compresses the air and delivers it to the combustion chamber. There fuel nozzles feed fuel continuously, and continuous combustion takes place at approximately constant pressure. The high temperature and high pressure gasesthen enter the turbine, where they expand to provide power for the turbine.

The turbine is directly connected to the compressor, and all the power developed by the turbine is absorbed by the compressor and the auxiliary apparatus. The main function of the turbine is to provide power for the mechanical compressor. After the gases leave the turbine, they expand further in the exhaust nozzle and are ejectedwith a velocity greater than the flight-velocity to produce thrust for propulsion.

Because of turbine material limitations, only a relatively small amount of fuel can be burnt in the combustion chamber. The exhaust products downstream of the turbine still contain a considerable amount of excess oxygen. Additional thrust can therefore be obtained from the turbojet engine by providing an afterburneraft of the turbine. There additional fuel can be burned. Afterburning greatly increases the temperature and hence the velocity of the exhaust gases, providing greater thrust.

According to the type of compressor used turbojets are classified into two general types. These types are the centrifugal-flow compressor and the axial-flow compressor.

According to this principle the turbojets’ names are centrifugal-flow turbojets and axial-flow turbojets, respectively. The operation of both types is basically the same.

Since introduction of turbojets the performance of aircraft engine has been increased phenomenally. They are best for high-speed, high-altitude, long-distance flights. The turbojet engines are now in mass production for various aircraft.

Задание 9.Переведите вопросы на английский язык и ответьте на них.

1. Какие типы газотурбинных двигателей вы знаете?

2. Из каких компонентов состоит турбореактивный двигатель?

3. Какова функция диффузора?

4. Где сжимается воздух?

5. Какая форсунка подает топливо?

6. Какие газы поступают в турбину?

7. Какова функция турбины?

8. Какое количество топлива может быть сожжено в камере сгорания?

9. Как может быть получена дополнительная тяга?

10. Как действует форсажная камера?

11. Какие типы турбореактивных двигателей вы знаете?

12. К чему привело создание турбореактивных двигателей?

Задание 10.Переведите письменно текст.

 

Turbojet engines have been built in many sizes, ranging from a few hundred pounds of thrust to many thousand of pounds. The smaller engines are suitable for liaison – and training type aircraft, while the large engines are installed in high-performance fighter aircraft, bombers, transport, tankers, and commercial air liners.

The turbine supplies the power that drives the compressor: that is its main function in this type of engine.

In practice, this simple system is modified for various reasons. The more the pressure of the air is raised by the compressor, the higher the efficiency of the engine. Engines designed for the greatest economy have therefore tended towards higher compression ratios. This has led to splitting the compressor and turbine into two groups: a low-speed compressor driven by a low-speed turbine, and a separate high-speed compressor driven by a high-speed turbine, the two driving shafts being co-axial. This arrangement incorporates what is called a two-spool compressor.

Контрольная работа

Задание 1.Найдите предложения с независимым причастным оборотом, напишите их переведите.

1. The first engines appeared in the 17-th century and people began using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented in 1825, a self-propelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars began in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a supply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began developing rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million, no other industry having ever developed so quickly.

Задание 2.Найдите герундий в следующих парах предложений. Предложения переведите.

1. Overcoming these difficulties is not so easy as it may seem. Overcoming these difficulties the designers can increase the fuel efficiency. 2. Setting a problem the scientist makes the first step to its solution. Setting a problem is the first step to its solution. 3. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow is less than two hours this superliner develops a speed five times above the speed of sound. Covering the distance between TOKYO AND Moscow on board a superliner requires about two hours. 4. Putting the discovery into practice the engineers will solve a complicated technological task. Putting the discovery into practice sometimes requires more effort than making it.

Задание3. Замените придаточные предложения причастными оборотами.

1. When the object is moving through the air, it pushes the air aside.

2. After they had obtained valuable information on aircraft with a pilot, they began to send up un-manned airplanes.

 

UNIT 6

Турбовинтовые двигатели

Задание 1.Прослушайте, повторите и запомните слова:

1. turboprop - турбовинтовой

2. propulsive thrust - тяга(как движущая сила)

3. exhaust nozzle - выхлопное сопло

4. reduction gear - редуктор

5. similar - похожий, подобный

6. provide - снабжать, обеспечивать

7. derive - выводить, получать

8. approximately - приблизительно

9. place - помещать

10. enable - делать возможным

11. rpm (revolutions per minute) - оборотов в минуту

12. shaft - вал

13. ratio - отношение

14. momentum - количество движения

15. overall - полный, общий

16. turboshaft - турбовальный

 

Задание 2.Подберите слова, одинаковые по значению.

1. power 1. velocity

2. part 2. different

3. various 3. to place

4. speed 4. portion

5. to locate 5. to operate

6. to function 6. currently

7. airscrew 7. energy

8. nowadays 8. propeller

Задание 3.Подберите слова, противоположные по значению.

1. similar 1. efficiently

2. maximum 2. internal

3. low 3. to increase

4. external 4. minimum

5. inefficiently 5. last

6. to reduce 6. different

7. first 7. high

Задание 4. Прочтите и догадайтесь о значении следующих слов:

mechanical compressor, diffuser, helicopter, marine application, propeller, to extract power, rotation speed, to operate efficiently, dual momentum change, internal momentum increase, total thrust, to adapt, single-engine aircraft, a variation of the turboprop engine.

Задание 5.Прочтите предложения, вставляя пропущенные слова. Предложения переведите.

1. The …. engine is very similar to the turbojet engine.

2. In the turboprop engine one of the turbines drives the ….., while the other drives the ….. .

3. The shaft rotation is 12,000 ….. .

4. The turboprop engine derives most of its ….. from the propeller.

5. In the turboprop engine the turbine .…. much more power than it does in the turbojet engine.

6. The .…. rotation speed of gas turbine engines is very high.

7. The propeller increases the air ….. .

shaft, rpm, turboprop, momentum, propeller, to extract, propulsive thrust, compressor.

 

Задание 6.Прочтите и переведите предложения.

1. A turboprop engine is a gas turbine driving a propeller.

2. The diffuser delivers air to the mechanical compressor.

3. The compressor compresses the air and delivers to the combustion chamber.

4. The reduction gear must be placed between the turbine shaft and the propeller.

5. Little power is derived from the exhaust nozzle.

Задание 7.Прочтите и переведите текст.

 

Turboprop Engines

In principle, this engine is very similar to the turbojet engine, differing only in that it uses a propeller toprovide most of thepropulsive thrust.

The engine consists of a diffuser, a mechanical compressor, a combustion chamber, a turbine, an exhaust nozzle, areduction gear and a propeller. The diffuser, mechanical compressor and combustion chamber function in the same manner as in the turbojet engine. However, in theturboprop engine, the turbineextracts much more power than it does in the turbojet engine, because the turbine provides power for both the compressor and the propeller. When all of this energy is extracted from the high temperature gases, there is little energy left for producing jet thrust. Thus, the turboprop enginederives most of its propulsive thrust from the propeller and derives only a small portion (10 to 25 % depending on the flight velocity) from the exhaust nozzle.

Since theshaft rotation speed of gas turbine engines is very high (approximately 12,000rpm), a reduction gear must be placed between the turbine shaft and the propeller to operate efficiently. The turboprop engine is essentially a gas turbine power plant because, as pointed out before, little power is derived from the exhaust nozzle; still as flight speeds are increased, theratio of nozzle power to propeller power for maximum thrust tends to become higher. The propulsive thrust is provided by a dualmomentum change of the air. First, the propeller increases the air momentum, and second, theover-all engine from diffuser to nozzle, provides an internal momentum increase. The sum of these thrusts is the total thrust developed by the engine.

The turboprop engine is often used in transport aircraft, but can be adapted for use in single-engine aircraft. A variation of the turboprop engine known as theturboshaft engine, is a gas turbine power plant in which all delivered power is in the form of shaft power. Turboshaft engines are currently used both to power helicopters and for various land and marine applications.

Задание 8.Дайте английские эквиваленты:

в зависимости от скорости полета, как указывалось выше, мощность на валу, раскаленный газ, во-первых, известный как, в настоящее время, как ... так и.

Задание 9.Согласитесь или опровергните утверждение. Начинайте предложения с фраз: I’m afraid that’s wrong. You are quite right/ you are not quite right (you are wrong). That’s not quite so. I think you are mistaken. As far as I know. I think so. According to the text.

1. In principle, the turbojet engine is similar to turboprop engine.

2. In the turboprop engine the turbine extracts less power than it does in the turbojet engine.

3. The turboprop engine derives most of its propulsive thrust from the exhaust nozzle.

4. The shaft rotation speed of gas turbine engines is not very high.

5. The turboprop engine is seldom used in transport aircraft.

6. The turboprop engine is often used in single-engine aircraft.

Задание 10.Не глядя в текст, дополните предложения.

1. The turboprop engine consists of .…. .

2. The diffuser, mechanical compressor and combustion chamber of the turbojet engine function ….. .

3. The turboprop engine derives most of its propulsive thrust from ….. .

4. A reduction gear is placed .…. .

5. The propulsive thrust is provided by .…. .

6. The turboprop engine is used ….. .

7. The turboshaft engine is ….. .

Задание 11.Переведите на английский язык:

1. Турбовинтовой двигатель находит в авиации широкое применение.

2. Что общего имеют турбовинтовые и турбореактивные двигатели?

3. Основное отличие состоит в том, что турбина приводит во вращение воздушный винт. Только незначительная часть тяги создается за счет реактивной струи.

4. Турбовинтовой двигатель используется для полета на скоростях до 900 км в час.

Задание 12.Расскажите по-английски тему “Turboprop Engines”.

Задание 13.Письменно переведите текст:

 

Turboprop engines having two independently rotating turbines have proved quite successful. One of the turbines drives the compressor, while the other drives the propeller. The independent turbine has some advantages over the direct connected type. Both the propeller and the compressor may be operated at rotational speeds that produce the best respective efficiencies. This allows the propeller to operate at high speed during take-off and climb, thus reducing the tendency of the propeller to stall. Propeller speed can be lowered at altitude, with a subsequent reduction in tip compressibility losses.

 

Контрольная работа

I.Чтение.

Задание 1.Прочтите текст и поймите его содержание. Заполните пропуски словами из рамочки:

 

amount, placed, propeller, similar, thrust, promising, shaft power, turboprop, reduction gear, essential, approximately.

 

A gas turbine driving a ...1... , called a ...2... engine, is a ...3... power plant for the propelling of aircraft intended to operate at speeds up to ...4... 500 mph. The ...5... features of the turboprop engine are ...6... to those of the turbojet engine, the major difference being that the turbine is designed so that it develops ...7... for driving a propeller and only a small ...8... of jet ...9... is produced. The ...10... must be ...11... between the turbine shaft and the propeller.

Задание 2.Вам даны ответы. Задайте к ним вопросы.

1. Approximately 500 mph.

2. For driving a propeller.

Задание 3.Расположите предложения в логической последовательности.

1. The turbine drives the propeller.

2. Little energy is left to produce jet thrust.

3. Turboprop engines propel the aircraft intended for speeds up to about 500 mph.

4. The main difference between the turboprop and turbojet engines is the design of the turbine.

5. A turboprop engine is a promising power plant.

6. A turboprop engine is essentially a gas turbine power plant.

7. Turboprop engines are similar to turbojet engines.

II Грамматика.

Задание 1.Определите функцию инфинитива и переведите предложения:

1. To land the airplane at night is rather difficult.

2. Our task is to determine the shape of the fuel tank.

3. To find the answer to these questions a number of research rockets were sent into space.

4. There are a number of problems still to be considered.

5. The Russian scientist K.E.Tsiolkovsky was the first to understand the use of rockets in space travel.

Задание 2. Укажите номера предложений, которые переводятся, начиная со слов: «Говорят, что ...», «Известно, что ...».

1. Wood is said to be one of the oldest materials.

2. He said that the principle of jet propulsion is based on the reaction principle.

3. My chief is said to have finished his experiment last week.

4. The engineer said he had finished the experiment.

5. We know this machine very well.

 

 

UNIT 7

Турбовентиляторный двигатель

(двухконтурный турбореактивный двигатель)

Задание 1.Прослушайте, повторите и запомните следующие слова?

1. fan - вентилятор

2. turbofan - турбовентиляторный двигатель

3. feature - особенность, признак,

характерная черта

4. performance - летные данные (качества,

характеристики

5. to comprise - включать, заключать в себе,

состоять из …

6. duct - канал, труба, трубопровод

7. bypass duct - воздухопровод второго контура

8. to convert - превращать, преобразовывать

9. to split (split, split) - разделять, раскалывать

10. portion - часть

11. remainder - остальная часть

12. ratio - отношение, соотношение

13. bypass ratio - коэффициент двухконтурности

14. to define - определять

15. to add - увеличивать, добавлять

16. additional (thrust, energy) - добавочные, дополнительный

17. to derive - получать, производить

18. to locate - располагать

to be located - располагаться

19. to install - устанавливать

20. installation - установка

 

Задание 2.Подберите синонимы:

1. performance 1. to be situated

2. to comprise 2. to increase

3. to convert 3. characteristics

4. to split 4. relation

5. portion 5. to consist of

6. to be located 6. to transform

7. ratio 7. part

8. to add 8. to separate

Задание 3.Подберите антонимы:

1. to enter 1. high

2. low 2. to stop

3. down-stream 3. uneconomic

4. to continue 4. to leave

5. efficient 5. heavier

6. to expand 6. inefficient

7. lighter 7. to compress

8. economic(al) 8. up-stream

Задание 4.Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения.

1. The turbofan engine combines features of both the turbojet and turboprop engines.

2. A gas turbine comprises 3 main sections: the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section.

3. The size of the combustion chamber often defines the maximum diameter of the engine.

4. The function of a diffuser is to convert kinetic energy of the entering air into a pressure rise.

5. The combustion chamber is located on the outside of the engine behind the compressor.

6. In turbofan engines the entering air flow is split into two portions: one portion enters the bypass duct and the remainder flows through the compressor, combustion chamber and turbine.

7. In a turboprop engine a portion of the potential energy is derived by additional turbine engines.

8. The bypass ratio is the ratio of the air flow through the bypass duct to the air flow through the gas generator.

9. The turbofan engine has performance characteristics somewhere between the turbojet and turboprop engines.

10. The turbofan engines can practically be used for most types of airplane installations.

Задание 5.Прочтите предложения, вставляя пропущенные слова. Предложения переведите.

1. In the turbofan engine the fan may be ….. behind the gas generator turbine.

2. The exhaust gases are expanded in the ….. to a velocity greater than the …..

3. The function of the diffuser is ….. the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static ….. rise.

4. The ….. provides the power for both the fan and the compressor.

5. The propulsive thrust of the engines is derived from the high velocity exhaust of both the ….. and the gas generator.

fan, turbine, located, pressure, exhaust nozzle, flight velocity.

 

Задание 6.Переведите следующие словосочетания:

airplane installations; propulsive thrust; transport type aircraft; high velocity exhaust; gas generator turbine; compared with the turboprop; bypass ratio; performance characteristics.

 

Задание 7.Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:

transport; generator; diffuser; front; compressor; turbine; function; to convert, kinetic energy; static; portion; to locate; efficient; economical.

Задание 8.Прослушайте, прочтите и переведите текст.

Turbofan Engines

The turbofan engine combines features of both the turbojet and turboprop engines. It has performance characteristics somewhere between the other two engines.

The engine comprises a diffuser, a fan, a mechanical duct, and an exhaust nozzle. The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static pressure rise. The diffuser delivers its air to a fan which further compresses it. Then the air flow is split and a portion enters the bypass duct, while the remainder continues into the mechanical compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. The ratio of the airflow through the bypass duct to the air flow through the gas generator is defined as the bypass ratio. The turbine provides the power for both the fan and the compressor. However, there is still considerable energy in the gases down-stream of the turbine. The exhaust gases are therefore further expanded in the exhaust nozzle to a velocity greater than the flight velocity, producing thrust for propulsion. The bypass air is also expanded to a velocity higher than the flight velocity, producingadditional thrust for propulsion. Thus the turbofan engine derivesits propulsive thrust from the high velocity exhausts of both the bypass air and the gas generator gases.

The turbofan engine is somewhat more efficient than the turbojet at low speeds. Compared with the turboprop it is lighter, less economical at low speeds and more economical at high speeds. The turbofan engines are practically used for most types of airplaneinstallations, especially for transport type aircraft.

Задание 9.Согласитесь илиопровергните утверждения. Начинайте предложения с фраз: I’m afraid that’s wrong. You are quite right/ You are wrong. That’s not quite so. I think you are mistaken. As far as I know. I think so/ I don’t think so/ According to the text.

1. The turbofan engine has performance characteristics somewhere between air-breathing engines and rocket engines.

2. The function of the diffuser is to provide power for the mechanical compressor.

3. The ratio of the air flow through the bypass duct to the air flow through the gas generator is defined as the pressure ratio.

4. The diffuser delivers its air to a fan, which further compresses it.

5. The turbofan engine is somewhere more efficient that the turbojet at low speeds.

6. Compared with the turboprop it is heavier, more economical at low speeds and less economical at high speeds.

Задание 10.Прочтите и переведите предложения.

1. In the turbofan engine the fan mat be located either in front of the gas turbine or behind it.

2. The first generation of turbofan designs had a bypass ratio of approximately 1:1, that is, about 50 per cent of the air went through the engine as primary airflow and about 50 per cent went through the fan as secondary airflow.

3. The efficiency of the fan engine is increased over that of the jet by converting more of the fuel energy into pressure energy rather than the kinetic energy of a high-velocity exhaust gas stream.

4. Fan engines show definite advantages over the jet engines at speed below Mach 1, the speed of present-day commercial aircraft.

Задание 11.Переведите вопросы на английский язык и ответьте на них.

1. Какие характерные черты объединяет турбовентиляторный двигатель?

2. Каковы его главные компоненты?

3. Куда диффузор подает входящий (поступающий) воздух?

4. Как разделяется воздушный поток в турбовентиляторном двигателе?

5. Создает ли турбина мощность и для вентилятора и для компрессора?

6. Где дальше расширяются выхлопные газы, создавая, таким образом, тягу для движения вперед?

7. Откуда турбовентиляторный двигатель извлекает эффективную тягу (propulsive thrust)?

8. Является ли турбовентиляторный двигатель более эффективным на малой скорости, чем турбореактивный двигатель?

9. Турбовентиляторный двигатель легче, менее экономичен на малых скоростях и более экономичен на больших скоростях по сравнению с турбовинтовым двигателем, не так ли?

10. На каких самолетах устанавливается турбовентиляторный двигатель?

Задание 12.Письменно переведите текст без словаря.

In the turbofan, also called the bypass engine, the exhaust gases actually are expelled from the rear nozzle at a slower velocity than a turbojet engine. This decreased velocity would provide less thrust. But the amount of air passing through a turbofan engine is much larger than that passing through a turbojet, and results in a much greater push. Though the turbofan engine takes in much greater quantities of air, only about half of it is pumped into the combustion chamber, while the remainder is ducted, actually with a lower fuel consumption, than the turbojet engine.

 

Контрольная работа

Задание 1.Найдите в предложение ошибку и исправьте её. Предложения переведите.

1. The desire to flying is as old as humanity.

2. Much of the work to discussed here was carried out.

3. This method is known to be used as far back as the 18th century (as far back – ещё).

4. We want atomic energy being used for peaceful construction.

5. A material to be useful as a rocket propellant it must be combustible alone or in combination with another materials (other than air from atmosphere).

Задание 2.Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на неличные формы глагола.

1. Один из способов сделать самолеты как можно более экономичными – это облегчить самолет за счет использования композиционных материалов.

2. Сила, приложенная к телу, заставляет его двигаться по прямой.

3. Дирижабль, вероятно, будет использоваться для путешествий.

4. Считалось, что дирижабли были медленными и ненадежными.

5. Мы заем, что винтовые самолеты летают медленнее, чем реактивные.

6. Решать тебе, который из двух методов использовать.

7. Известно, что метод записи информации на кристалл с помощью лазера, был создан русскими исследователями.

 

 

UNIT 8

Ракетные двигатели

 

Задание 1.Прослушайте, повторите и запомните слова:

1. propulsion - движение вперед

2. propellant - ракетное топливо

3. release - высвобождать

4. exhaust - истощать

5. exhaust gas - выхлопной газ

6. guide - направлять

7. vehicle - летательный аппарат

8. suitable - пригодный

9. missile - снаряд, ракета

10. primary - основной

11. auxiliary - вспомогательный

12. solid - твердый

13. liquid - жидкий

14. means - средство

15. remote - дистанционный

16. duration - продолжительность

17. intend - намереваться, предназначать

18. valve - клапан

Задание 2.Подберите синонимы:

1. propellant 1. direct

2. rapidly 2. wish

3. guide 3. main

4. velocity 4. work

5. primary 5. quickly

6. will 6. speed

7. operation 7. fuel

Задание 3.Подберите антонимы:

1. rearward 1. short

2. rapidly 2. main

3. start 3. impossible

4. auxiliary 4. slowly

5. possible 5. forward

6. primary 6. finish

7. long 7. secondary

 

Задание 4. Прочтите и догадайтесь о значении следующих слов:

jet-propulsion device, a large amount of energy, reactive force of propulsion, propulsive jet, within the vehicle itself, a possible means of propulsion, high-speed missiles, auxiliary power plant, liquid-propellant power plant, remote operation, control valve, long duration.

 

Задание 5.Прочтите предложения, вставляя пропущенные слова.

1. The ….. give a large amount of heat energy.

2. The rocket engine is ….. for our purpose.

3. A rocket is a jet-propelled …. .

4. The ….. is ejected with great velocity.

5. These engines are used for long ….. .

6. The rocket engine provides a possible ….. of propulsion.

suitable, means, exhaust gas, propellants, vehicle, durations.

 

Задание 6.Прочтите и переведите предложения.

1. An engine is a means of propulsion.

2. The exhaust gas is guided rearwards.

3. The propellants release much energy.

4. Rocket engines are suitable for interplanetary flight.

5. The auxiliary power plant is necessary in this case.

6. The propellants used in a rocket engine may be solid or liquid.

7. It is possible to use the remote control with this kind of engine.

 

Задание 7.Прочтите и переведите текст “Rocket Engines”.

 

Rocket Engines

A rocket is a jet-propulsion device, in which all the propellants are burned rapidly at great pressure and release a large amount of energy. The exhaust gas is guidedrearward at great velocity and produces the reactive force of propulsion.

In the rocket power plant all the propellants, as well as oxygen, which form the propulsive jet are within the vehicle itself, while other engines get oxygen from the atmosphere. Thus the rocket engine can be used in a vacuum and is able to provide a possible means of propulsion for interplanetary vehicles.

Besides, it is suitable for high-flying, high-speed missiles and as a primary or an auxiliary power plant of an aircraft.

Rocket engines are divided into two categories: solid and liquid.

The liquid-propellant rocket power plants can be started and stopped at will by the remote operation of the propellant control valves. This cannot be done with solid-propellant systems, because when they have once started, the fuel in the combustion chamber must continue to burn until it is exhausted.

Therefore the liquid-propellant rocket engines are used mostly for long durations and the solid-propellant rocket power plants are intended for short flights.

Задание 8.Дайте английские эквиваленты:

высвобождать энергию; выхлопной газ; назад; ракетная силовая установка; межпланетные летательные аппараты; кроме того; основная силовая установка; твердотопливные системы; предназначены для коротких полетов; по желанию.

Задание 9.Согласитесь или опровергните утверждение. Начинайте предложения с фраз: I’m afraid that’s wrong; you are quite right/ you are not quite right; that’s not quite so; I think you are mistaken; as far as I know; I think so; according to the text.

1. Rocket engines get oxygen from the atmosphere.

2. Rocket engines are suitable for high-flying high-speed missiles.

3. Rocket engines are divided into three categories.

4. Solid-propellant rocket power plants can be started and stopped at will.

5. Liquid propellant rocket engines are used for short flights.

Задание 10.Не глядя в текст, дополните предложения.

1. An engine is a means ….. .

2. The exhaust gas is guided ….. .

3. The propellants release ….. .

4. Rocket engines are suitable ….. .

5. The propellants used in a rocket engine may be ….. .

6. Liquid-propellant power plants can be ….. .

7. Once started the solid fuel must ….. .

Задание 11.Расскажите по-английски тему “Rocket Engines”.

Задание 12.Письменно переведите текст:

Undoubtedly the simpliest form of jet-propulsion power units is the rocket engine, but the rate at which it consumes fuel has prevented its adoption as a power plant for continuous operation over periods even as long as one hour. The main reason for this is that, unlike other types of engine, the rocket does not take the oxygen required to burn the fuel from its surroundings, but carries its own supply. A hydrocarbon fuel, such as petrol, requires about 3.5 times its own weight of oxygen to burn it completely; hence the weight of fuel that a rocket-propelled aircraft using fuel of this type would have to carry would be at least 4.5 times that for the equivalent air-consuming engine.

 

Контрольная работа

I.Чтение.

Задание 1.Прочтите текст и поймите его содержание. Заполните пропуски словами из рамочки:

 

rocket, vehicles, means, exhaust, thrust, propellants, auxiliary, combustion, atmosphere.

 

The rocket produces ...1... by means of the expansion of ...2... gases resulting from the ...3... of fuel. At present rocket engines can operate independently of the surrounding ...4... . When used in a vacuum the ...5... engine can maintain its ...6... to provide a possible ...7... of propulsion for interplanetary ...8... . Rocket fuels and oxidizers are called ...9... .

Задание 2.Вам даны ответы. Задайте к ним вопросы.

1. By means of the expansion of exhaust gases.

2. They are called propellants.

3. Only for the auxiliary purposes.

Задание 3.Закончите предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста:

1. Rocket engines can operate ... (independently of the surrounding atmosphere, in vacuum, in atmosphere).

2. The rocket produces thrust by means of (oxidizers, compression of air, expansion of exhaust gases).

3. When used in a vacuum the rocket engine can (accelerate the aircraft, maintain its thrust, expand the energy).

Задание 4. Укажите вопрос, на который нельзя найти ответ в тексте:

1. Are rocket engines used in aircraft only for auxiliary purposes?

2. Are there possibilities of using rocket propulsion in aircraft?

3. What are the disadvantages of rocket engines?

4. Can rocket engines be used in vacuum?

5. What engines can operate independently of surrounding atmosphere?

 

II Грамматика.

Задание 1.Укажите предложение, которое точнее передает смысл данного.

1. Pronin is said to be working at his new design.

a) They say that Pronin is working at his new design.

b) Pronin said that he was working at his new design.

c) They say that Pronin is to start working at his new design.

2. My chief is said to have finished his experiment last week.

a) My chief said that he had finished his experiment last week.

b) They say that my chief finished his experiment last week.

c) They say my chief is planning to finish his experiment next week.

Задание 2.Переведите на английский язык:

1. Известно, что радио было изобретено Поповым.

2. Мы знаем, что ракеты нашли применение в исследовании Вселенной.

3. Это вещество оказалось (to prove) элементом.

4. Известно, что в настоящее время строят (to be under construction) много электростанций.

5. Обнаружили (to find) , что этот металл вступает в реакцию (to react) с кислородом и азотом.

6. Работу, которую предстояло выполнить (to perform), считали (to consider) очень сложной.

7. Мы знаем, что он разрабатывает новый тренировочный самолет.

8. Писатель сообщил, что он опубликовал свою новую книгу.

 





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