Задание 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. During the period when the rock formations on the coast of north-east Africa pushed up against the south-west coast of Asia.
2. The completion of the petroleum trap consists of rocks originally created by evaporation.
3. Crude oil reserves which could not have been reached before this operation started.
4. The rock formation here is much older than nearly all other oil and gas fields in the world.
5. The rock is very salty and the company is trying to find ways to make it less so.
6. Previous efforts to exploit the area failed because of the cold temperatures, the age of the rock formation and because there were no roads.
Task 4. Find the answers to these clues:
Задание 4. Подберите слова, соответствующие определениям:
1. A geological feature where oil and gas can be contained.
2. On a map, an indication of the distance represented by the map.
3. What hydrocarbons do when they move through a layer of sedimentary rock.
4. In seismic, an acoustic receiver used in land exploration.
5. The area of rock where petroleum originally comes from and the origin of sound in a seismic survey.
6. An example of a stratigraphic trap, a bend in a layer of sedimentary rocks.
7. A flat surface that can be shown on a map or in a mathematical figure.
8. The most common sedimentary rock, found in riverbeds and seabeds, etc.
9. A piece of electrical equipment filled with measuring devices and used in wireline logging.
10. This means that the oil and gas in a reserve is getting less and less.
11. A sedimentary rock consisting mostly of grains of sand.
12. With holes which allow hydrocarbons to migrate.
13. The dense layer of rock which prevents petroleum from escaping from a trap.
14. This describes a hill with very small gaps between the contour lines.
15. The physical characteristics of a rock formation.
16. The speed of, for example, a sound wave as it travels through rock.
17. The flow of electricity or water.
Task 5. Prepare your own “Anatomy of an oil field” on a field of your choice, researching as necessary to find as much geological and geophysical information as possible.
Задание 5. Проведите исследование и подготовьте сообщение о любом нефтяном месторождении на ваш выбор, используя геологическую и геофизическую информацию.
Практическое занятие 25
plug забивать, заливать цементом
set pipe вставлять трубу
frac pack система для гидравлического разрыва пласта
proppant расклинивающийся агент
bonded seal уплотнение между обсадной трубой и стеной скважины
perforate бурить, делать отверстия
detonation взрыв, детонация
sand screen песочный фильтр
hydrostatic effect гидростатический эффект
cement slurry цементный раствор
casing обсадная труба
tongs ключ для труб, щипцы
wiper plug верхняя цементировочная пробка
filter cake фильтрационная корка бурового раствора
Christmas tree фонтанная арматура
wellhead устьевое отверстие скважины
casing head головка обсадной колонны
Task 1. Read an extract from the BJ Services company's web page about completion services. Underline the positive phrases used to sell the service that they offer:
Задание 1. Прочитайте отрывок с сайта компании BJ Services об услугах по освоению скважин. Подчеркните выражения, которые используются для предложения услуг:
BJ Services offers a complete line of completion systems for all applications, including conventional completions and horizontal wells in both gravel-packed and conventional configurations. Products range from conventional Permanent Packer Systems to high-performance Retrievable Gravel Pack Systems (10,000 psi). These systems have been field tested and proven to work in the most demanding environments. BJ’s tool systems are specifically designed to handle the increased demands of today’s high rate, high pressure frac-pack completions.
All tool components are designed for maximum erosion resistance, allowing rates up to 35 barrels per minute at proppant volumes up to 400,000 pounds, and all are 10,000 psi differentially rated. Bonded seals are used at all critical points for positive sealing integrity.
The concept of a reliable one-trip perforating and Gravel Pack/Frac Pack system has long been the goal of operators and service companies. One of the main problems has been the extreme force generated during perforating gun detonation, which has been the cause of damaged packers, twisted screens, premature packer setting, and other types of failures. BJ Services’ solution to the problem is the ComPlete Re leasable Single Trip (RST) System.
Task 2. Read and translate the text. Answer the questions:
Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы:
After drilling and casing the well, it must be ‘completed’. Completion is the process in which the well is enabled to produce oil or gas.
In a cased-hole completion, small holes called perforations are made in the portion of the casing which passed through the production zone, to provide a path for the oil to flow from the surrounding rock into the production tubing. In openhole completion, often ‘sand screens’ or a ‘gravel pack’ is installed in the last drilled, uncased reservoir section. These maintain structural integrity of the wellbore in the absence of casing, while still allowing flow from the reservoir into the wellbore. Screens also control the migration of formation sands into production tubulars and surface equipment, which can cause washouts and other problems, particularly from unconsolidated sand formations in offshore fields.
After a flow path is made, acids and fracturing fluids are pumped into the well to fracture, clean or otherwise prepare and stimulate the reservoir rock to optimally produce hydrocarbons into the wellbore. Finally, the area above the reservoir section of the well is packed off inside the casing and connected to the surface via a smaller diameter pipe called tubing. This arrangement provides a redundant barrier to leaks of hydrocarbons, as well as allowing damaged sections to be replaced. Also, the smaller diameter of the tubing produces hydrocarbons at an increased velocity in order to overcome the hydrostatic effects of heavy fluids, such as water.
In many wells, the natural pressure of the subsurface reservoir is high enough for the oil or gas to flow to the surface. However, this is not always the case, especially in depleted fields where the pressures have been lowered by other producing wells, or in low permeability oil reservoirs. Installing a smaller-diameter tubing may be enough to help the production, but artificial lift methods may also be needed. Common solutions include downhole pumps, gas lift or surface pump jacks. Many new systems in the last ten years have been introduced for well completion. Multiple packer systems with frac ports or port collars in an all-in-one system have cut completion costs and improved production, especially in the case of horizontal wells. These new systems allow casings to run into the lateral zone with proper packer/frac port placement for optimal hydrocarbon recovery.
1. What is the difference between an 'openhole completion' and a 'cased-hole completion'?
2. How is the flow of hydrocarbons into the well improved?
3. What artificial ways of bringing oil and gas to the surface are used?
Task 3. Rearrange the steps described below into the most logical order, under each of the three stages: Preparing the well, Running casing, Cementin:
Задание 3. Распределите следующие стадии в логическом порядке под заголовками: Подготовка скважины, Установка обсадной трубы, Цементирование:
1. A cementing head is attached to the wellhead to receive slurry through a line from the pumps.
2. A temperature log is run to locate the top of the setting cement from the heat it gives off.
3. A wet slurry is prepared by mixing together sacks of dry cement and water.
4. Casing string is guided down the well using a guide shoe and centralizers.
5. Cement additives, for example, to retard or accelerate setting time, are added.
6. Mud is circulated for a period of time to remove any remaining cuttings.
7. One by one, each casing joint is stabbed into the casing string already in the hole.
8. The cement is allowed to set (waiting on cement, WOC) for 8 to 12 hours.
9. The cement slurry is pumped down the hole.
10. The joints are screwed together using casing tongs.
11. The threads of the joints are sealed tight with a thread compound.
12. The well is conditioned by running a drillstring with a used bit into the well.
13. The wiper plugs, guide shoe and any cement at the bottom are drilled out.
14. Two wiper plugs are run into the hole to force the slurry through the guide shoe and up into the annulus of the well.
15. Wall scratchers are run up and down or rotated in the well to scrape filter cake off the well sides.
Task 4. Read and translate the sentences into Russian. Do you think these sentences refer to openhole or cased-hole completions?
Задание 4. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите, относится ли информация, данная в каждом предложении, к освоению открытой или обсаженной скважины:
1. There is no casing in the producing formation.
2. It is more expensive because more casing is used.
3. It can only be used where the formation is clearly defined.
4. It cannot be used in soft formations which might cave into the well.
5. The casing is set before the pay is drilled.
6. In sand formations, an under reamer is run to make a cavity in the pay zone.
7. A gravel pack can be used to consolidate the soft formation.
8. Fluids can flow through a screen or slotted liner in the well.
9. Perforations are shot through the casing and cement and into the formation.
Task 5. Read about a Christmas tree. Give Russian equivalents to the highlighted words:
Задание 5. Прочитайте о фонтанной арматуре. Дайте русские эквиваленты выделенным словам:
Oil wells where oil can flow without artificial help (and gas wells which always flow naturally) are fitted with a Christmas tree - a series of pipes, fittings, valves and gauges. The Christmas tree is attached to the wellhead, the large steel fitting on top of the well, consisting of a tubing head on top of the casinghead. Sticking out of the lower section of the Christmas tree is the master valve, to turn off the well in an emergency. Above that, there is one, or sometimes two, wings, depending on the number of producing zones being controlled. Each wing has a valve to regulate flow. At the top of the Christmas tree is a pressure gauge to measure tubing pressure.
Task 6. Design a PowerPoint slide entitled “Key Elements of a Completion System”, comprising a list of the key elements and a short explanation of each, listed with a bullet points.