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ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите иписьменно переве­дите абзацы 1, 2, 5.

Tyumen

1. Tyumen, the first Russian town in Siberia, was Founded in 1586. It is situated on the banks of
the Tura-river at the formal place of the Tatar settlement Tchingy-Tura. In 1581 it was captured by
Ermak and Tyumen became the centre of the Russian colonisation in Siberia. It was called «the gate
of Siberia». The first road in the early 17-th century was built to Tyumen. It was at that time when the
famous Russian troikas with a couple of bells under the bow became the symbol

of Russia. Tyumen is also the first station of the Trans-Siberian Railway, built in the late 19-th century.

Ermak

2. Nowadays Tyumen — is a cultural, industrial and educational centre of
West Siberia with a highly developed industry. Its Machine-Building Plant, Electronic-Engineering Plant, Medical-Equipment Plant, Motor-Building Plant and others are well-known in Russia and abroad. There are also numerous Research Institutes, Oil and Gas Pipelines and Refineries. The introduction of new technologies and know-how in such branches of economy as wood-processing industry, chemical industry, food industry, textile industry allows Tyumen to be
among the leaders on the domestic and foreign markets.

3. A great number of Higher Educational Establishments in Tyumen
makes it possible to supply all the branches of regional economy with qua-
lified and educated specialists. It also allows to provide the widest range of educational services to
the neighbouring regions and many northern cities. It has two Universities, different Colleges;
Agricultural, Medical, Military, Building Academies, the Juridical Institute, the International In­
stitute of Economy and Law, the Institute of Culture and Arts. Tyumen State University is the
largest in the region, though it was founded only 35 years ago. Its graduates work in different
branches of economy in our country and abroad.

4. There are many Museums, libraries. Theatres, five magnificent Houses of Culture. Tyumen
has a splendid House for National Cultures, situated on the picturesque bank of the Tura river. Our
Puppet Theatre is popular all over Russia and CIS. The Drama Theatre and Concert Hall, named
after Yuri Gulyaev, are in the centre of the city. Many Famous singers and musicians come on their
concert-tours to Tyumen making cultural entertainment a real holiday for the Tyumenians. Tyumen
has a unique collection of masterpieces in its Picture Gallery. Many permanent Exhibitions of
Siberian national arts and skills attract tourists attention nowadays.



 


 


 

 

 


5. Tyumen is famous for its places of interest: the Museum of History and Ethnography was
founded in 1920 in the formal building of the municipal «Duma». Znamensky Church was built in
the middle of the 18th century, and it is still one of the most beautiful and famous churches in
Russia. The Trinity Monastery is the first stone building in the town. From 1741 till nowadays it
may serve as the memorial to the skills of the local builders and the mastership of its architect
Matvey Maksimov. One may remember that all the efforts to destroy it in post-revolutionary time
failed. The Blagoveschenskaya Church, made by Fyodor Tchaika and Kirill Shadrin, and a lot of wooden houses, bearing the Siberian architectural traditions, decorate our city.

6. The permanent multinational population of Tyumen is about 600 thousand. There are more
than 125 nationalities in Tyumen who are working and living hand-in-hand with respect to their
mutual historical and national traditions. Most of the Tyumen's streets in the historical centre are
narrow. It makes the traffic heavy. Modern highways in the new residential districts, beautiful parks,
public gardens, squares and historical memorials decorate the improving image of the ancient city.
Many new stylish buildings are constructed by foreign workers. There are several stadiums, many
gymnasiums, swimming-pools, the Sport Palace in Tyumen. Tyumenians are proud of their city
and its history.

 

2. Выпишите из абзацев 1,3,4,6 выражения, оформленные окончанием-s, и пере-­
ведите их на русский язык, указав, какую функцию выполняет это окончание:слу­-
жит показателем глаголов в 3 лице единственном числе в
Present Simple; показа­-
телем существительного во множественном числе;
показателем существитель-­
ного в притяжательном падеже.

3. Выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 4, 5 словосочетания, в которых определениявыра-­
жены существительными,и переведите их.

4. Выпишите из абзацев 3, 5, 6 выражения, содержащие форму сравнения,и пере-­
ведите их на русский язык.

5. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,3,5 и переведите предложения с местоимениями «it»
и«опе».

6. Выпишите из абзацев 1, 2, 5 и переведите предложения, содержащие формугла-­
гола в
Present Simple Passive и Past Simple Passive.

7. Поставьте общий и специальные вопросы к следующему предложению, указав
видовременную форму глагола:

Many permanent Exhibitions of Siberian national arts and skills attract tourists' attention nowadays. 8. Прочитайте следующие предложения, перепишите и переведите письменно
предложение, которое правильно передает содержание текста

1). Tyumen becomes the centre of the Russian colonization in Siberia in the early 17-th century. 2). The first road in the early 17-th century was built to Tyumen.

 


ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 2.3,6.

Moscow

1. Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is situated in the centre of the European part of Russia on the Moskva-river between the Volga and the Oka rivers. Moscow has a population of about 9 mil­lion people. Its territory covers 1000 square kilometres. Moscow is more than eight centuries old:its foundation dates back to 1147. It is the largest city in the country and one of the most important industrial, political, cultural and scientific centres in the world.

2. Moscow is famous for its places of interest, such as: the Red Square, the Kremlin — the seat of the Russian government, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. One
may remember that the Kremlin Georgicvsky Hall was
for centuries the scene of Czarlst celebrations — espe­-
cially of the military victories. It is here that prominent
people are honoured and the most important assemblies

are held. Many beautiful monuments and parks, fashionable shops and modern hotels, theatres and churches decorate the city.

3. There are also many historical memorials and monuments, beautiful buildings and avenues

in Moscow. The monument of Yury Dolgoruky, the Founder of Moscow, stands opposite the Moscow City House of Officers. The «Ukraina» hotel overlooks the Moscow river. The Bolshoi Theatre attracts more and more people from all over the world for the mastery of its cast and beauty of the theatre. Tourists from our country and abroad come to see the famous Avenue dedicated to the heroes of the Cosmos, the Tri­umphal Arch, commemorating victory in the 1812 Waragainst Napo­leon.

4. The Lenin Hills give a fine view over the Moscow river. There stands the famous Moscow State University named after Lomonosov. The architecture of the ancient Monasteries and Churches is unique and has world fame. Many foreigners visit the Donskoy, the Novodevichy, the Andronnikov monasteries and admire the beauty of the Kuskov, the Ostankino, the Czaritsino architecture assem­blies.

5.Moscow is a motherland of Russian science and cul­-
ture. There are more than 80 Higher Educational Establish-­
ments including 5 Universities. It has 64 professional The­
atres and 74 Museums. The Tretyakovsky Gallery, (the His­
torical Museum, the Museum of Painting Art named by
Pushkin brought the world fame to the capital of Russia.

6.Moscow has multi-economic industry. Its main branch­
es are: machine-building and metal-processing industries. Th«re is a highly developed automo-­
bile -building industry with its gigantic Automobile- Plants «ZIL» and «Moskvitch». The construc-­
tion-materials, equipment-building, cotton-and-silk production industries are also developed in
Moscow. Thousands of Moscow citizens work at the plants and enterprises of these industries.
And new residential districts are built for them. Moscow preserves the beauty of its rich historical
past and creates a new image of the modern nowadays.

2. Выпишите из абзацев 1.2,5,6 выражения, оформленные окончанием -s, и пере­ведите их, указав, какую функцию выполняет это окончание: служит показателем глаголов в 3 лице единственном числе в Present Simple; показателем существи­тельного во множественном числе; показателем существительного в притяжа­тельном падеже.

3. Выпишите из абзацев 3, 4, 6 словосочетания, в которых определения выражены
существительными, и переведите их на русский язык.

4. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,3, 5 выражения, содержащие форму сравнения, и пе­-
реведите их на русский язык.

5. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,6 предложения с местоимениями «it» и «опе» и пере­
ведите их.

6. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,6 и переведите предложения, содержащие форму гла­гола в Present Simple Passive и Past Simple Passive.

7. Поставьте общий и специальные вопросы к следующему предложению, указав
видовременную форму глагола:

 

The monument of Yury Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, stands opposite the Moscow City House of Officers.

8. Прочитайте следующие предложения, перепишите и перепадите письменно
предложение, которое правильно передает содержание текста:

1. Moscow is more than 850 years old.

2. Moscow foundation dates back to the eleventh century.


ВАРИАНТ 3

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 1,4, 5.

Tobolsk

1. Tobolsk, the ancient Siberian capital, was founded in 1587. Long ago it was the main trade centre and the largest town in Siberia. Tobolsk was known as an inter­section station for the merchants, salesmen, ambassadors, travelers, explorers and discoverers, moving to the East. The famous white-stone Tobolsk Kremlin is Ihe only one in Siberia. The first schools and a theatre were built in Tobolsk. Besides, Tobolsk is a birthplace of book-printing in Siberia.

2. Nowadays, behind the walls of the most famous Tobolsk Kremlin one may find new residential districts comprising kinder­gartens, schools, hospitals, public catering outlets. Modern House of Culture, central stadium and oilier sport and cultural facilities are situated there. More than 110 000 people live in this town now­adays. Unique architectural monuments and the rich

historical legacy of the town of Tobolsk, the formal centre of a huge Siberian Region, continue to attract intellectuals, scientists and tourists.

3. Tobolsk has several Special Educational Establishments and some branches and
departments of Higher Educational Establishments, such as Tyumen State University
and Omsk Polytcchnical Institute. A lot of specialists arc trained at their Faculties
and Colleges lo meet the needs of its economy and industry. It has also a Pedagog­ical Institute with very qualified teachers and the constantly updating curriculum.

4. World-famous «Tobolsk Petrochemical Integrated Works», a joint stock
company, contributes greatly to the prcservation of the antique legacy and construction of a new town. A great variety of products, current demands on the safety
of production processes, coupled with the urgency of social problems, promote the expansion of the Integrated Works, including mutually profitable cooperation dealing with for­eign circles. The plant engages in foreign trade activity, including direct export transactions, barter deals and license transactions.

5. Tobolsk was the place for exiles. It happened so that many famous names are connected
with this ancient Siberian town: the composer Alyabiov, the author of the poem «Ermak» K. Ryleev,
the mathematician V. Bradis, the writer Chemishevsky were among them. It is well known that the
chemist D. Mendeleev and «Decemberist» Batenkov were born in Tobolsk. One may be surprised
to learn that the fairy-story teller Ershov was the director of Tobolsk Gymnasium.

6. Along with them there were such outstanding people who visited, lived or worked in

Tobolsk. They are: the first Russian portrait-painter Ivan Nikitin, famous for his portraits of Peter the First; Vasily Perov — the world-known «Troyka's» author; Vasily Kandinsky — the founder of abstract art. Tobolsk was visited and described by such world-famous persons as A, P. Chekhov, Nansen, Bremm, Surikov, Zhukovsky.

2. Выпишите из абзацев I,4,5, 6 выражения, оформленные окончанием -s, и переведите их на русский язык, указав, какую функцию выполняет это окончание: служит показателем глаголов в 3 лице единственном числе в Present Simple: показателем существительного во множественном числе; показателем существительного в притяжательном падеже.

3. Выпишите из абзацев 1,3,4 словосочетания, в которых определения выражены
существительными, и переведите их.

4. Выпишите из абзацев 1, 2, 3 выражения, содержащие форму сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

5. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,5 предложения с местоимениями «it» u «one» u переведите их.

6. Выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 5,6 и переведите предложения, содержащие форму
глагола в Present Simple Passive и Past Simple Passive.

7. Поставьте общий и специальные вопросы к следующему предложению, указав
видовременную форму глагола:
More than 110 000 people live in this town nowadays.

 

8.Прочитайте следующие предложения, перепишите и переведите письменно
предложение, которое правильно передает содержание текста:

1.Tobolsk Petrochemical Integrated Works contributes to the preservation of antique legacy.

2.The famous white-stone Tobolsk Kremlin contributes to the preservation of antique legacy.

 

 


ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 1,2,6.

Surgut

1. Surgut was founded as a fortress at the end of the 16-th century according to the decree of Tsar Feodor Ioannovich. Since 1594 it has served as a stronghold of the Russian State, an advance post for all the pioneers. One may know, that they ventured out to make West and East Siberia into their home. But it also had another use — as a place for exiles.

2. The town's development was boosted In the 1960-s by the discovery of oil and natural gas deposits here. Nowadays Surgut is the industrial centre of Sredneye Priobye (the mid-stream Ob river area). It covers

21,000hectares and has a population of 260,000 people. Surgut is a

multiethnic town; it has a Russian orthodox church and a mosque. The

average age of the citizens is 30.

3. Surgut is both the industrial and the cultural centre of Sredneye

Prio­bye. Modern architecture and comfort are its distinguishing features. There are 46 High Schools, 80 Nursery Schools, 9 specialised Educational Estab­lishments, 19 Houses of Culture and Clubs in the town. Surgut University was opened in 1993. Built on the banks of the great Ob-river and located in the centre of Western Siberia, Surgut is the most important transport centre, an intersection point for air, automobile, rail and water routes. The two-kilometre railway bridge in Surgut is one of the longest in Russia.

4. Oil and gas production, transportation and natural gas conversion are the main industrial sectors in the town. There are more than 6,000 enterprises of all types. The major enterprises are: the joint-stock companies «Surgutneftegas», which produced 894,6 million tons of oil for the country’s economy and «Surgutgasprom», which transported via its pipelines over 1,200 billion cubic meters of natural gas.

5. The oil and gas industries are developed hand in hand with other industries: the town has two Power Stations with an aggregate capacity of 8,000 megawatts of electricity. One of these Stations – the Surgut GRES-1 put into use in 1972 – is the first over to make use of gassing-head gas. In 1984 there was opened GRES-2. The Station supplies electricity to the whole northern region and the industrial centres in the Urals.

6. The construction industry in Surgut is on of the best in Russia: its House Construction Plants are capable of producing annually one million cubic meters of reinforced concrete. The processing industry started developing about ten years ago. Now it has a Natural Gas Refinery and a Gas Condensate Stabilisation Plant. Reforms under way it the country gave a new impetus to the town’s development. Many foreign firms and joint ventures carry out projects in communications, hotel business, hydrocarbons processing, etc. Surgut both ancient and young confidently faces the future.

 

 

2. Выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 4, 6 выражения, оформленные окончанием – s, и переведите их, указав, какую функцию выполняет это окончание: служит показателем глаголов в 3 лице единственном числе вPresent Simple; показателем существительного во множественном числе; показателем существительного в притяжательном падеже.

3. выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 5, словосочетания, в которых определения выражены существительными, и переведите их.

4. Выпишите из абзацев 3, 4, 6, выражения, содержащие форму сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

5. Выпишите из абзацев 1, 2 предложения с местоимениями «it» и «one» и переведите их.

6. Выпишите из абзацев 1, 2, 3, 5 и переведите предложения, содержащие форму глаголов в Present Simple Passive иPast Simple Passive.

7. Поставьте общий и специальные вопросы к следующему предложению, указав видовременную форму глагола:

The processing industry started developing about ten years ago.

 

8. Прочитайте следующие предложения, перепишите и переведите письменно предложение, которое правильно передает содержание текста:

1. Surgut is an ancient Siberian town with a highly developed agriculture.

2. Surgut is famous for its construction industry, oil and gas industries and has two power- stations.

 

Варианты с 1-го по 5-й Контрольного задания № 2.

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 1, 2, 6.

Alfred Nobel

1. Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21,1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. His father invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean war, bul went bank­rupt soon after. The family returned to Sweden and in 1863 Alfred Nobel began his own study at explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university, but was able to receive excellent education, studying privately. By the time he was twenty he had been an experienced chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English.

2. Alfred Nobel had better luck in business and showed more
financial sense. He was quick to see industrial openings for his
scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different
countries. He combined the qualities of an original scientist with
those of a forward -looking industrialist. But Nobel's main concern was never making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning of life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. He cared deeply about the whole of mankind, he was always generous to the poor.

3. The great Swedish inventor and industrialist was a man of many contrasts. He was a son of
a bankrupt, but has become a millionaire. He was a scientist with a love of literature; being an
industrialist he has managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and
although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. Patriotic son of his native land, he died
alone on foreign soil. On inventing a new explosive — dynamite to improve the peace-time indus­-
tries in mining and road-building, he saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow
men and suffered much.

4. World-famous for his works he was never personally well-known. For throughout his life he
avoided publicity, but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others. His world­
wide interests in explosives, in addition to large holdings in the Baku oil fields of Russia, brought
him an immense fortune but required him lo travel almost constantly. Having not been ever mar­-
ried, Alfred Nobel was a lover of mankind. Though he was essentially a pacifist and hoped that the
destructive powers of his inventions will have to help bringing an end to wars, his view of mankind
and nations was pessimistic.

5. He had spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896.
Generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies, he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to
establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international rewards, the Nobel Prize.
According to his well-known will he lefl money to provide prizes for оutstanding work in Physics,

Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace. And this is the best memorial to his inter­ests and ideals.

6. Thf Nobel Prize Distribution was begun on December 10, 1901, the fifth anniversary of the
death of the founder, whose will specified that awards should he annually made “to those who,
during the preceding year, shall conferred the greatest benefit on mankind”. The sixth award for
Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was set up in l968 by the bank of Sweden. Each
award consists of a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money, the amount
depending on the income of the foundation. The prizes are open to all, irrespective of nationality,
race, creed or ideology and they can be awarded more than once to the same recipient.

2. Выпишите из 1,2,4,6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречаются Participle I, Participle 2 и функции определения.

3. Выпишите из 1, 4, 6 абзацев текста предложения, к которых сказуемое упо-
требляется в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени страдательного залога изъ­-
явительного наклонения (The Present Simple Passive, The Past Simple Passive).

4. Выпишите из 1, 4, 6 абзацев текста предложения, и которых есть модальные
глаголы и их заменители.

5. Выпишите из 1, 4, 5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречается гла­гол в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect. Предложения переведите.

6. Выпишите из 3, 4 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть Герундий (Gerund) и Причастие I Перфектное (Participle I Perfect). Определите функцию в пред­ложении.

7. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

Why do wе call Alfred Nobel “a man of many contrasts?


ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 1,4,6.

Andrey Sakharov

1. Andrey Sakharov, the outstanding nuclear physicist, was born in Moscow, Russia on May
14.He was a son of a physicist and his exceptional scientific promise was recognised early.He won
a doctorate at the age of 26 and was admitted as a full member of the Soviel Academy of Sciences
at age 32. By that time he had worked for several years with Igor Tamm as a theoretical physicist to
develop the Soviet Union's first hydrogen bomb. He has also devised with Tamm the theoretical
basis for controlled thermonuclear fusion.

2. Having invented the deadly weapon, nevertheless, Andrey Sakharov was an outspoken advocate of human rights, civil liberties and reforms in the country. As a prominent Soviet scientist, he was accorded luxuries and honours. But in 1961 he went on record against the plan to test a
lOO-megaton hydrogen bomb in the atmosphere, fearing the effects of widespread radioactive fallout. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace, but in 1975 the Soviet scientist had to overcome many obstacles in his way for world recognition and awards.

3. In 1968 Sakharov published in the West his essay «Progress, Co­existence and Intellectual Freedom», in which he called for nuclear arms reductions, predicted and endorsed the eventual integration communist and capitalist systems in a form of democratic socialism, and criticized the increasing repres­sion of Soviet dissidents. Being world-known as «a father of hydrogen bomb», now Andrey Sa­kharov is called «the human rights defender».

4. After marrying the human-rights activist Yelena G. Bonner in 1971, they continued their
mutual work for human rights and against political repression. As a result Andrey Sakharov was
isolated and became the target of official censure. In December 1979, with his denunciation of the
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and his call for a world boycott of the Moscow Olympic Games, he
was silenced. He was not able to publish his works in his country, and did not have to meet with
certain people, scientists, public figures.

5. A year later, the Soviet government stripped him of his honours and exiled him to the closed
city of Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod). Soon after, Yelena Bonner was convicted of anti-Soviet
activities and was likewise confined to Gorky. Andrey Sakharov has been very popular in our coun-­
try and abroad so many people were eager to meet with the prominent scientist and highly intellec­-
tual person. In spite of all difficulties he continued to work and had managed to publish some of his
notes abroad.

6. Michail S.Gorbachev in 1986 released Sakharov and Bonner from their exile and let them
return to Moscow. Having been elected to the Congress of People's Deputies three years later,
Sakharov had his honours restored. He saw many of the causes for which he had fought and suf-­
fered become official policy under Gorbachev. His last years Sakharov spent in deserved honour
and intensive work after all of this ignorance and moral attacks from persons not understanding
the great genius of his mind and humanitarian essence of his soul. Sakharov's memoirs, translated
by Richard Lourie, were published in 1990.

 

2. Выпишите из 1, 2, 5, 6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречаются
Participle I, Participle 2 в функции определения и переведите.

3. Выпишите из 1,2,4 абзацев текста предложения, в которых сказуемое упо-­
требляется в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени страдательного залога изъ-­
явительного наклонения (The Present Simple Passive, The Past Simple Passive). Предло-­
жения переведите.

4. Выпишите из 2, 4 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть модальные гла­-
голы и их заменители.

5. Выпишите из 1, 5, 6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречается гла-­
гол в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect. Предложения переведите.

6. Выпишите из 2, 4, 6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть Герундий
(Gerund) и Причастие I Перфектное (Participle I Perfect). Определите их функции в предложении.

7. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

For what merits Andrey Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1975?

ВАРИАНТ 3

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 2, 4, 6.

Henry Ford

1. Henry Ford has spent most of his life making headlines, good, bad, but never indifferent. Celebrated as both a technological genius and a folk hero, Ford was the creative force behind an industry of unprecedented size and wealth that in only a few decades permanently changed the economic and social character of the United Stales, When a young Ford left his father's farm in 1879 for Detroit, only two out of eight Americans lived in cities, when he died at age 83, the pro­portion was five out of eight. Once Ford realised the tremendous part his Model T automobile had played in bringing about this change, he wanted nothing more than to reverse it, or at leasl to recapture the rural values of his boyhood. Henry Ford, then, is known to be a symbol of the transi­tion from an agricultural to an industrial.

2. Henry Ford was one of eight children in the family of a Detroit farmer, born on July 30,
1863. At age of 16 he walked to Detroit to find work in its machine shops. After returning to the
farm three years later, he was acquainted with the internal-combustion engine and was able to
build a small «farm locomotive». It was a tractor that used an old mowing machine for its chassis
and a home-made steam engine for power. Ford moved back to Detroit nine years later as a mar­-
ried man and a month later Ford was made chief engineer at the main Detroit Edison Company. By
1896 he had completed his first horseless carriage, the «Quadricycle», so called because the chassis
of the four-horsepower vehicle was a buggy frame mounted on four bicycle wheels.

3. Unlike many other automotive inventors Ford had to sell his sell-powered vehicles to fi-­
nance work on his next models. In 1903 Ford was ready to market his automobile and the Ford
Motor Company was incorporated with $ 28 000 in cash put up by ordinary citizens. In 1908,

having announced the birth of Model T, Ford proclaimed that he would build a motor-car for the great multitude. The motor age arrived owing mostly to Ford's vision of the car as the ordinary man's utility rather than as the rich man's luxury. Once only the rich had travelled freely around the country, now millions could go wherever they pleased. The model T was the chief instrument of one of the greatest and most rapid changes in the lives of the common people in history, and it effected this change in less than two decades.

4. It was Ford, who introduced in 1913-1911 a new system of labour organisation: his plant at
Michigan was able to deliver parts, subassemblies and assemblies themselves built on subsidiary
assembly lines with precise timing to a constantly moving main assembly line, where a complete
chassis was turned out every 93 minutes. The minute subdivision of labour and the coordination of
a multitude of operations produced huge gains in productivity.

5. In 1914 the Ford Motor Company announced that it would henceforth pay eligible work­-
ers a minimum wage of $5 a day and would reduce the work day from nine hours to eight, there­-
by converting the factory to a free — shift day. Overnight Ford became a world-wide celebrity.
People either praised him as a great humanitarian or excoriated him as a mad socialist. He set
the lowest prices for his Model T in order to capture the widest possible market and then met the
price by volume and efficiency. Moreover each worker of his company could afford himself to
have Model T.

6. The development of mass production techniques, which enabled the company eventually to
turn out a Model T every 24 seconds; the frequent reductions in the price of the car made possible
by economies of scale; and the payment of a living wage that raised workers above subsistence and
made them potential customers for, among other things, automobiles — these innovations changed
the very structure of society. Ford died at home on April 7, 1947, exactly 100 years after his father
leaving Ireland for Michigan. Those, who worked with Ford used to say, that Ford had been «a
genius business manager».

 

2. Выпишите из 1,2,4 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречаются
Participle I, Participle 2 в функции определения и переведите.

3. Выпишите из 1, 2, 3 абзацев текста предложения, в которых сказуемое упо­требляется в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени страдательного залога изъ­явительного наклонения (The Present Simple Passive, The Past Simple Passive). Укажи­те время залога. Предложения переведите.

4. Выпишите из 2, 4, 5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть модальные
глаголы и их заменители.

5. Выпишите из 1,2,3 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречается гла­гол в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect. Предложения переведите.

6. Выпишите из 2,3,6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть Герундий
(Gerund) и Причастие I Перфектное (Participle I Perfect). Определите их функции в предложении.

7. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What allows us to consider Henry Ford be «a genius manager»?


ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 3,4,5.

Ohlin Bertil

1. Ohlin Bertil (Gotthard) is known as еhe founder of the modern theory of the dynamics of
trade. He was born in 1899 in Sweden and from his early childhood showed extraordinary capabil­-
ities. Having finished school at age of fifteen, Bertil entered the University of Lund where he was
specially interested in such subjects as economics, statistics and mathematics. Bertil has also
graduated from the Stockholm University under Eli Heckscher where he took special interest in
economics and business management. His interest in international trade developed early and he
presented in 1922 a thesis on trade theory.

2. Ohlin studied for a period at both the University of Oxford and Harvard University. After ob­-
taining his doctorate from Stockholm University in 1924, Ohlin became a professor at the University
of Copenhagen. In 1933 Ohlin published a work that won him world publicity, «Interregional and
International Trade», providing a theory of the basis of international trade. It is now known as Heck-­
scher — Ohlin theory and has become standard. It appeared also to be a basis for his later work on
the effects of protection on real wages. As a member of the «Stockholm school» of economists, Ohlin
developed, from the foundation laid by Knut Wicksell, a theoretical treatment of macroeconomic
policy and the importance of aggregate demand which anticipated that of Keynes.

3. The Heckscher-Ohlin theory focuses on the two most important factors of production: la-
bour and capital. Some countries are relatively well-endowed with capital; the typical worker may
have plenty of machinery and equipment at his disposal. In such countries, wage rates generally
are high. Products requiring much labour-such as textiles, sporting goods, and simple consumer
electronics — tend as a result to be more expensive than in countries with plentiful labourand low-
wage rates. On the other hand, goods requiring much capital and only a little labour (automobiles
and chemicals, for example) abundant capital should generally be able to produce capital-inten-­
sive goods relatively inexpensively, exporting them in order to pay for imports of labour-intensive
goods.

4. Despite its plausibility the Heckscher-Ohlin theory is frequently contradicted with the ac­-
tual patterns of international trade. As an explanation of what countries actually export and import,
it is much less accurate than the more obvious and straightforward natural resource theory. That is: countries having plentiful natural resources generally have a comparative advantage in prod­ucts using those resources. In the Heckscher-Ohlin theory it is not the absolute amount of capital that is important; rather, it is the amount of capital per worker.

5. A small country like Luxembourg has much less capital in total than India, but Luxembourg has more capital per worker. Accordingly, Ohlin theory predicts that Luxembourg will have to ex­port capital-intensive products to India and import labour-intensive products in return. The Unit­ed States should export capital-intensive goods and import labour intensive ones. But in reality U.S. exports are generally more labour-intensive than the type of products that the United States imports. This is known as Leontief Paradox.

6. By 1977 Ohlin had published many scientific papers on international trade and had investi­gated the nature of the world economical depression, had developed the capital market theory. And in 1977 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics, which he shared with James Meade. Ohlin served as head of the Liberal Party in Sweeden from 1944 to 1967, but he had only a brief stint in public office. He had been a member of the Riksdag — Swedish parlament — from 1938 to 1970 and a Minister of Commerce in Sweden's wartime government. He died in 1979 having been world recognised as a prominent scientist in the sphere of world economy and the Nobel Prize Awarder.

2. Выпишите из 2, 3, 4 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречаются
Participle I, Participle 2 в функции определения и переведите.

3. Выпишите из 1,3, 5,6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых сказуемое упо­требляется в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени страдательного залога изъявительного наклонения (The Present Simple Passive, The Past Simple Passive). Ука­жите время залога. Предложения переведите.

4. Выпишите из 3, 5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть модальные гла­голы и их заменители.

5. Выпишите из 1, 2, 6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречается гла­гол в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect. Предложения переведите.

6. Выпишите из 1, 2, 6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть Герундий
(Gerund) и Причастие 1 Перфектное (Participle I Perfect). Определите их функции в
предложении.

7. Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

Why is Ohlin's theory frequently contradicted with the actual patterns of international trade?


ВАРИАНТ 5

1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переве­дите абзацы 1,4,5.

Sir Arthur Lewis

1. Sir William Arthur Lewis is known to be an outstanding British economist who was award­ed Nobel Prize for Economic Science in 1979. The main subject of his scientific research was world economy of the developing countries. Arthur Lewis has constructed an innovative model relating the terms of trade between less developed and more developed nations to their respective levels of labour productivity in agriculture. By the time he was awarded the Nobel Prize, he had published several scientific works on world economy, including The Principles of Economic Plan­ning, The Theory of Economic Growth, Development Planning, Tropical Development 1880— 1913 and Growth and Fluctuations 1870-1913.

2.Sir Arthur Lewis was born on January 23, 1915 in St. Lucia — the former British colony. So
his later instant scientific interest in the «third world economy» could be easily explained. Lewis
attended the London School of Economics and Political Sciences after winning a government schol-­
arship. Having graduated in 1937, Arthur Lewis received a Degree as a Bachelor of Commerce
and in 1940 was able to become a Doctor of Economy there. He was a lecturer at the school from
1938 to 1947.

3.After moving in Manchester he worked as professor of economics at the University of Manches-­
ter from 1947 to 1958, principal of University College of the West Indies in 1959—1962 and profes­-
sor at Princeton University from 1963 to 1983. Arthur Lewis served as adviser on economic develop­-
ment to many international commissions and to several African, Asian, and Caribbean governments.
He had helped to establish and later headed the Caribbean Development Bank.

4.Lewis has taken a special interest in the economy of the developing countries, their industrial
relations, business organisation, agricultural production management, human-factor engineering.
Although his scientific view of international trade was quite pessimistic. He suggested a «model of
economic growth» worked-out for the developing countries. According to his model economy have
to be divided into two segments: the agricultural (traditional) and industrial (modern).

5.Arthur Lewis has concluded that less developed countries might increases their revenues by
investing money in agriculture. Having taken as a sample of his model two typical products: coffee
and steel, Lewis concluded that coffee was a typical product for the South, steel was Northern
product and food was a typical product for both sides.

6.Suppressing the fact that these countries should, at first, give special attention to the in-­
crease of agriculture efficiency rather than investing capital in industry, Lewis used this method in
his historic economic theory. He was greatly interested in the history of world economy and made
a very important contribution in it as far as the developing countries economy is concerned. He
was highly appraised by the government for his merits and outstanding work as economist, scien-­
tist, economic adviser and in 1963 Sir Arthur Lewis was knighted.

2. Выпишите из 1,4,6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречаются
Participle I, Participle 2 в функции определения и переведите.

3. Выпишите из 1,2.6 абзацев текста предложения, в которых сказуемое упо­требляется в форме настоящего или прошедшего времени страдательного залога изъ­явительного наклонения (The Present Simple Passive, The Past Simple Passive). Укажи­те время залога. Предложения переведите.

4. Выпишите из 2, 4. 5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть модальные
глаголы и их заменители.

5. Выпишите из 3,4,5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых встречается гла­гол в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect. Предложения переведите.

6. Выпишите из 2, 3. 5 абзацев текста предложения, в которых есть Герундий
(Gerund) и Причастие I Перфектное (Participle I Perfect). Определите их функции в предложении.

 

7.Ответьте письменно на вопрос:

What was the main subject of Sir Arthur Lewis scientific research in the sphere of world economy?

 

 

Варианты с 1-го по 5-й к Контрольному заданию № 3

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите абзацы 2, 5, 6.

Words and Expressions

the laissez-faire style стиль управления по принципу социального

of management невмешательства

paternal style of management патернализм, социальная ответственность

менеджера

intrinsic merit внутренние, личные достоинства

to meet competition конкурентоспособность на рынке
in the market

standards for workers' стандарты рабочего городка
communities

to persuade executives убедить руководителей, исполнительную власть

collective bargaining заключение коллективных договоров

welfare of the community благосостояние общества





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