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Styles of Management



1. In the past two centuries managers of industry have taken, in general, two broadly different
positions regarding management's social responsibilities. They are: «the laissez-faire» and the
«paternal». The laissez faire style of management is characterized by a devotion to the rigorous of
the free market. Such managers feel no obligation to their employees outside the workplace, since
the primary aim of a firm has been the maximization of profit. The paternal style of management,
however, assumes the firm has obligations to its workers outside the workplace and to the larger
community.

2. The laissez-faire style of management represents a sort of combination of laissez-faire eco­
nomic theoiy and the Protestant ethic. In this view the owner or manager lias no responsibility for
the welfare of the workers outside the immediate working situation and a person's situation in life
is a reflection of his intrinsic merit in the eyes of God. The wages and other labour costs incurred by
the firm are the result of competitive market conditions. In this view, then, the manager's respon­
sibility to his employees begins and ends with operating the firm in such an efficient manner that it
is able to meet competition in the market place.

3. If all business managers similarly followed a policy of intelligent sell-interest, the broad
social interests of society would be better served than by any other policy. Paternalism begins with
ihe assumption that management has a social responsibility to the communities in which its plants
has been located. It means social responsibility management should take. In the early part of the
19"' century, the industrialist and social reformer Robert Owen was the first manufacturer to back
up words about management's social responsibilities with a program of action.

4. Owen was concerned with the social and economic conditions of workers and believed that
liie economic success of an enterprise did not have lo depend upon exploitation of labour. In the
mill town of New Lanark, Scot., Owen built workers' housing, schools, and a store that had been
far superior to contemporary standards for workers' communities. The philosophy Robert Owen
developed had been influential in the development of the cooperative movement in England.

5. When Henry Ford started the industrial world with his announcement of the $5-a-day wage
in 1914, he followed it with steps designed to help workers make good use of their increasing
affluence. The company already had a small legal department set up to help workers with the com­
plicated problem of home buying, and then Ford established what he called a sociology depart­
ment. It was staffed with social workers who made home visits to workers' families to provide ad­
vice and help on family problems.



6. The rise of unions in the mass production industries of the United States in the 1930s
helped to persuade executives that a paternalistic approach to labour and community relations was
no longer feasible one. Extensions of management's social responsibilities were now achieved
through collective bargaining. Still, these broader benefits, such as pensions and health insur­
ance, were limited to the workers and their immediate families. There was a tendency to assume
that any responsibility for the welfare of the community as a whole should be assumed by government.

 

2. Выпишите из 3, 4, 6 абзацев предложения, содержащие форму глагола в страдательном залоге Passive Voice,определите в каждом из них временную форму. Переведиme предложения на русский язык.

3. Выпишите из 3,4, 6 абзацев текста предложения с it, that, one,обращая внимание разницу в переводе этих слов. Предложения переведите.

4. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,4 предложения, содержащие глаголы tо be, to do, to have обращая внимание на различные функции их употребления. Определите функции глаголов (смысловой глагол, вспомогательный глагол, модальный глагол, глагол-

связка), предложения переведите.

5. Выпишите из абзацев 1,3,4 предложения, содержащие бессоюзное подчинение,

и переведите их.

6. Выпишите из абзацев 3, 4, 5 предложения, содержащие инфинитив,и переведите их. Определите функцию инфинитива в предложении.

 


ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите абзацы 2, 5. 6.





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