Organizational Relations in Management
1. One may look at professionals and the other higher white-collar groups, as coming to form
a specific class, the «professional managerial class». The degree of division between them and
white-collar workers, however does not seem either deep or clear-cut enough to make such a
position defensible. The psychological factors of organizational or industrial relations are the sub
ject of study concerned with the behaviour of workers in organizations in which they earn their
living. The emphasis on the influence such relations have on an organization's productivity is the
main subject of investigation.
2. Special attention has been paid to the psychological motivation that is a prime determinant
of employee productivity and managerial success. The benefits that have arisen from the greatly
improved productivity in modern society made possible by mass production techniques have been
shared by employees, investors, and customers. But similarly the complexities of management
have increased substantially. And the investment requirements and risks faced by owners and in
vestors have become much greater. Scholars in this field attempt to explain variations in the con
ditions of work, the degree and nature of worker participation in decision making. They tend to
show the role of labour unions and other forms of worker representation, and the patterns of coop
eration and conflict resolution that occur among workers and employers.
3. These patterns of interaction will then be related to the outputs of organizations. These
outputs span the interests and goals of the parties to the employment relationship, ranging from
workers' job satisfaction and economic security to the efficiency of the organization and its effects
on the community and society. Perhaps the value we most closely identify with American culture is
individualism. The importance of individualism can be seen in organizational systems of authority
and conflict resolution, where subordinates are expected to question orders of superiors and at
tempt to resolve differences in a one-on-one fashion.
4. The expected response to individual ambition and achievement is reward and promotion,
and individuals normally turn to collective actions only when frustrated with organizational re
sponses to individual efforts. The broader economic and political context in which organizational and industrial relations developed has been one that places a high value on the role of the free
market and keeps government intervention in private enterprise to a minimum. This ethos was particularly strong during the period of rapid industrialization between the late 1800s and the 1920s.
5. The economic and social shock of the Great Depression, however, modified this position
considerably. And since then the American public has expected the government to play a more
active role in regulating economic policy and industrial relations practices. Still, the view favouring
decentralized institutions, industrial self-governance, and free enterprise has kept industrial rela
tions focused at the level of the firm.
6. Given these values, it is not surprising that the greatest conflicts in American industrial
relations tend to arise over efforts to unionize a company and over negotiation of the specific terms
of an employment contract. The value Americans place on individualism and mobility also helps to
explain why turnover rates tend to be higher in American firms than in many other countries. This
is also the reason why cooperative labour-management relations are difficult to sustain.
2. Выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 4 предложения, содержащие формуглагола в стра-
дательном залоге Passive Voice,определите в каждом из них временную форму. Пере-
ведите предложения на русский язык.
3. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,4,6 текста предложения с it, that, one,обращая вни-
мание на разницу в переводе этих слов. Предложения переведите.
4. Выпишите из абзацев 1,2,5 предложения, содержащие глаголы to be, to do, to
have,обращая внимание на различные функции их употребления.Определите функ-
ции глаголов (смысловой глагол, вспомогательный глагол, модальный глагол, глагол-
связка), предложения переведите.
5. Выпишите из абзацев 1,3,6 предложения, содержащие бессоюзное подчинение.
и переведите их.
6. Выпишите из абзацев 1, 3, 5 предложения, содержащие инфинитив,и переведите их.
ВАРИАНТЫ С 1-го ПО 5-й к КОНТРОЛЬНОМУ ЗАДАНИЮ № 4
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст.