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International Marketing



1. The International Marketing Manager has a three-fold responsibility: international marketing — marketing across national boundaries; foreign marketing — marketing within foreign countries; and multinational marketing — co-ordinating marketing in multiple markets. Marketing being defined in several ways, broadly we may define it as the collection of activities undertaken by the firm to relate profitability to its market. Marketing involves all of these activities: market intelligence, product planning and development, buying, storage, selling, crediting, pricing, traf­fic, distribution, advertising, promotion and marketing research.

2. Marketing management is the planning and co-ordination of these activities in order to
achieve a successful, integrated marketing program, international marketing to be defined as the
performance of one or more of these activities across national boundaries. The activities and goals
of international marketing are the same as those of domestic marketing, implementation of the
firm's marketing programs having been considered very different. That is, managing international
marketing can be significantly different from managing domestic marketing. If one tries to define
personal selling as the major promotional tool, it will appear to be even more important in interna­-
tional marketing than domestically.

3. Personal Selling is commonly known to take a greater percentage of the promotional bud­-
get abroad than at home. There may be two reasons for this: restrictions on advertising and media
availability will limit the amount of advertising the firm can do, and low wages in many countries
allow the company to hire a larger sales force. This second reason will be especially applicable
when personal selling takes place in less developed nations. Personal selling involves personal
contact and is more culture-bound than impersonal advertising. That is why personal selling in the
linn's foreign markets cannot really be considered international personal selling, to be compared
with international campaigns and international media in discussing advertising. So, personal sell­-
ing is national, not international.

4. The role of personal selling having been decided, the actual administration of the sales force
in a market will be similar to that in the home market. The same general functions must be per-­
formed: recruitment, selection, training, motivation, supervision, and compensation. Training of
salespeople is done primarily in the national market. The demands of the job and the previous
preparation of the sales force will determine the nature of the training program. Indeed, if motiva­-
tion and compensation of the sales force are closely related, attractive compensation will be often
the chief motivator.



5. Motivation can be more of a challenge abroad than at home for two reasons: the low esteem
in which selling is held, and the cultural reluctance of prospective sales representatives to talk to
strangers. On defining these two essential elements of selling, the firm must try to overcome this
handicap, especially in countries where selling has low status. Training, titles, perquisites, and
special recognition of salesperson's self-image are all helpful. The licensee's or distributor's sales
force is important in making the quality of sales force a major criterion in choosing the distributor.

6. In joint ventures the international marketer may have a small or a big voice in selling, de­-
pending on the capabilities of both partner. The greater the control given to the international firm
in the marketing of the joint venture, the more the situation resembles that of a wholly owned
subsidiary. The less the control, the more the situation resembles that in a licensing or distributor
agreement. With sales force management being largely decentralised, personal selling is related
to the peculiarities of the local market. Nevertheless, international marketers should play some
role. On contributing expertise in every aspect of sales force management — recruitment, selec­-
tion, training, motivation, compensation and evaluation, — they serve as the clearinghouse bet­-
ween domestic and foreign operations, and among the foreign markets themselves.

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) при­частных оборотов.

1. Marketing being defined in several ways, broadly we may define it as the collection of
activities undertaken by the firm to relate profitability to its market.

2. The activities and goals of international marketing are the same as those of domestic
marketing, implementation of the firm's marketing programs having been considered very
different.

3. The role of personal selling having been decided, the actual administration of the sales
force in a market will be similar to that in the home market.


3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный, именительный и абсолютный инфинитивный обороты соответствуюm придаточным предложениям.

1. Marketing management is the planning and co-ordination of these activities in order to
achieve a successful, integrated marketing program, international marketing to be defined
as the performance of one or more of these activities across national boundaries.

2. Personal selling is commonly known to take a greater percentage of the promotional
budget abroad than at home.

3. That is why personal selling in the firm's foreign markets cannot really be considered
international personal selling, to be compared with international campaigns and
international media in discussing advertising.

4. Motivation can be more of a challenge abroad than at home for two reasons: the low
esteem in which selling is held, and the cultural reluctance of prospective sales
representatives to talk to strangers.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод обстоятельственных предложений условия и времени.

1. If one tries to define personal selling as the major promotional tool, it will appear to be
even more important in international marketing than domestically.

2. This second reason will be especially applicable when personal selling takes place in
less developed nations.

3. Indeed, if motivation and compensation of the sales force are closely related, attractive
compensation will be often the chief motivator.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, содержащие герундий. Обратите внимание на функцию герундия в предложении.

1. Training of salespeople is done primarily in the national market.

2. On defining these two essential elements of selling, the firm must try to overcome this
handicap, especially in countries where selling has low status.

3. The licensee's or distributor's sales force is important in making the quality of sales
force a major criterion in choosing the distributor.

4. On contributing expertise in every aspect of sales force management — recruitment,
selection, training, motivation, compensation and evaluation, — they serve as the
clearinghouse between domestic and foreign operations, and among the foreign markets
themselves.

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

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