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International Advertising



1. Marketing includes the whole collection of activities the firm performs in relating to its market, advertising to be seen as the most visible of the promotional marketing functions. Promo­tion may be defined as the communication by the firm with its various audiences, with a view to informing and influencing them in order to achieve curtain goals. Differing in means of communi-


cation, audience, and company goals in different countries, international promotion has the fol­lowing major elements: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, the marketing mix, and blic relations. Advertising is the paid communication of company messages through impersonal :dia, these messages to be classified as audio (radio advertising), visual (billboards or rmign-ics) or audio-visual (in television or cinema advertising).

2. Advertising is used to achieve various marketing goals of the firm, including paving the way for
salesmen, gainingdistribution forthe firm's products, sales of the firm's products, improving brand image
and increasing brand recognition, and so on. There are two sets of constraints on international advertising
program of a company: one posed by the internal situation of the company, and the other by the internatio-
nal environment of the company. When the international marketer deals with foreign buyers, he will
have to take into consideration such constraints as: language difference, government controls, media
availiability, economic differences, local distributors, tastes and attitudes, agency availability.

3. International advertising having been defined, language differences need special attention.
Construction of the Tower of Babel stopped when the workers could no longer communicate with
each other. The manager of international advertising will feel that he is in a similar situation when

he faces the diversity of languages in world markets. The international advertiser does not have to know all the languages of all markets, but the firm's advertising must communicate in these languages. There is no communication unless a message has been received and understood. To achieve this understanding, the international advertiser needs local help in each market. After ensuring technical accuracy or perfect translation, persuasive messages must speak the «language of the heart». The local help available to the firm is of two kinds: national personnel in countries where it has subsidiaries, and the advertising agency located in the market.

4. In either case, the company gets the benefit of employees in whose native language the
company wants to advertise. In a sense, the language problem in foreign markets is beyond the
capabilities of the international advertiser; it can be solved only with the help of local expertise.
One constraint on the international advertiser is the different role advertising plays in each coun-
try. In some nations advertising is very prominent, about half of the entire world's advertising ex-
penditures having been in the United States. The roleof advertising varies roughly with the level of
economic development. If richer countries have better media availability and more discretionary
income, poorer nations will have more illiteracy which can be enticed by advertisers.



5. The main trend today in both industrialised and developing countries is increasing govern-
ment regulation of advertising. Government regulation can affect the product, the media, the mes-
sage and the advertising budget. For example, cigarette advertising is banned in some or all media
in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Italy, Sweden, Russia etc. Some media are not available for
commercial use, as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had no commercial TV or radio. In 1981,
Indonesia abruptly cancelled advertising on TV after earlier restricting the amount of advertising
in newspapers. Advertising messages can be restricted in a variety of ways. Mexico and France
regulate the languages that can be used in ads. The United Kingdom made attack on the arlvertis-
ing budgets of Unilever and Procter and Gamble.

6. In different markets the advertising competition may be pure national or an international
one. The approach of the international company will provoke different kinds of reactions. In some
countries, the international company causes national competitors to follow its course of action.
For example, Procter and Gamble's entry into Western European countries caused national com-
petitors to increase their advertising. In another case, British American Tobacco's (BAT) entry
intо the Dutch market led to a strong defensive advertising attack by a local Dutch firm. The adver-
tising battle finally ended up in the Dutch courts where BAT won a judgement.

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обpamume внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1.Differing in means of communication, audience, and company goals in different countries, international promotion has the following major elements: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, the marketing mix, and public relations.

2. International advertising having been defined, language differences need special
attention.

3. In some nations advertising is very prominent, about ha If of the entire world's advertising
expenditures having been in the United States.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.
Помните, что объектный, именительный и абсолютный инфинитивный обороты со­-
ответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1.Marketing includes the whole collection of activities the firm performs in relating to its
market, advertising to be seen as the most visible of the promotional marketing functions.

2.Advertisingis the paid communication of company messages through impersonal media,
these messages to be classified as audio (radio advertising), visual (billboards or magazines)
or audio-visual (in television or cinema advertising).

3.To achieve this understanding, the international advertiser needs local help in each market.

4.For example, Procter and Gamble's entry into Western European countries caused
national competitors to increase their advertising.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные пред­-
ложения. Обратите внимание на перевод обстоятельственных предложений усло­-
вия и времени.

1. When the international marketer deals with foreign buyers, he will have to take into
consideration such constraints as: language difference, government controls, media
availability, economic differences, local distributors, tastes and attitudes, agency availability.

2. The manager of international advertising will feel that he is in a similar situation when
he faces the diversity of languages in world markets.

3. If richer countries have better media availability and more discretionary income, poorer
nations will have more illiteracy which can be enticed by advertisers.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, содержащие герундий.
Обратите внимание на функцию герундия в предложении.

1. Advertisingis used to achieve various marketing goals of the firm, including paving the
way for salesmen, gaining distribution for the firm's products, sales of the firm's products,
improving brand image and increasing brand recognition, and so on.

2. After ensuring technical accuracy or perfect translation, persuasive messages must
speak the «language of the heart».

3. The main trend today in both industrialised and developing countries is increasing
government regulation of advertising.

4. In 1981, Indonesia abruptly cancelled advertising on TV after earlier restricting the
amount of advertising in newspapers.

 


CONTROL WORK N 1





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