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Figure 3.2 Service composition

Service Design must consider all these aspects when designing service solutions to meet new and evolving business needs:

  • Business process: to define the functional needs of the service being provided, e.g. telesales, invoicing, orders, credit checking
  • Service: the service itself that is being delivered to the customers and business by the service provider, e.g. e-mail, billing
  • SLAs/SLRs: the documents agreed with the customers that specify the level, scope and quality of service to be provided
  • Infrastructure: all of the IT equipment necessary to delivery the service to the customers and users, including servers, network circuits, switches, PCs, telephones
  • Environment: the environment required to secure and operate the infrastructure, e.g. data centres, power, air conditioning
  • Data: the data necessary to support the service and provide the information required by the business processes, e.g. customer records, accounts ledger
  • Applications: all of the software applications required to manipulate the data and provide the functional requirements of the business processes, e.g. ERM, Financial, CRM
  • Support Services: any services that are necessary to support the operation of the delivered service, e.g. a shared service, a managed network service
  • Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) andcontracts: any underpinning agreements necessary to deliver the quality of service agreed within the SLA
  • Support Teams: any internal support teams providing second- and third-line support for any of the components required to provide the service, e.g. Unix, mainframe, networks
  • Suppliers: any external third parties necessary to provide third- and fourth- line support for any of the components required to provide the service, e.g. networks, hardware, software.

The design activities must not just consider each of the components above in isolation, but must also consider the relationships between each of the components and their interactions and dependencies on any other components and services, in order to provide an effective and comprehensive solution that meets the business needs.


The main goals and objectives of Service Design are to:

  • Design services to satisfy business objectives, based on the quality, compliance, risk and security requirements, delivering more effective and efficient IT and business solutions and services aligned to business needs by coordinating all design activities for IT services to ensure consistency and business focus
  • Design services that can be easily and efficiently developed and enhanced within appropriate timescales and costs and, wherever possible, reduce, minimize or constrain the long-term costs of service provision
  • Design efficient and effective processes for the design, transition, operation and improvement of high-quality IT services, together with the supporting tools, systems and information, especially the Service Portfolio, to manage services through their lifecycle
  • Identify and manage risks so that they can be removed or mitigated before services go live
  • Design secure and resilient IT infrastructures, environments, applications and data/information resources and capability that meet the current and future needs of the business and customers
  • Design measurement methods and metrics for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of the design processes and their deliverables
  • Produce and maintain IT plans, processes, policies, architectures, frameworks and documents for the design of quality IT solutions, to meet current and future agreed business needs
  • Assist in the development of policies and standards in all areas of design and planning of IT services and processes, receiving and acting on feedback on design processes from all other areas and incorporating the actions into a continual process of improvement
  • Develop the skills and capability within IT by moving strategy and design activities into operational tasks, making effective and efficient use of all IT service resources
  • Contribute to the improvement of the overall quality of IT service within the imposed design constraints, especially by reducing the need for reworking and enhancing services once they have been implemented in the live environment.

Balanced design

For any new business requirements, the design of services is a delicate balancing act, ensuring that not only the functional requirements but also the performance targets are met. All of this needs to be balanced with regard to the resources available within the required timescale and the costs for the new services. Jim McCarthy, author of Dynamics of Software Development, states: ‘As a development manager, you are working with only three things’:

  • Functionality: the service or product and its facilities, functionality and quality, including all of the management and operational functionality required
  • Resources: the people, technology and money available
  • Schedule: the timescales.

These are shown in Figure 3.3.

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