Concept of sustainable development
The Concept of Sustainable Development was proposed in 1987 and adopted as Strategy of Development at the Conference of UNO on Environment and Development at the Earth Summit in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1992.
Sustainable development – the development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Commission, 1987).
In order to meet this requirement, a “sustainable development” policy ensures the durability of natural resources (water, air, soil and biological diversity) by incorporating environmental protection into other policies.
Ecological Sustainable Use – use of natural resources in such a way as to ensure the durability of those resources for future generations.
Earth Summit in Rio-de-Janeiro, 1992:
Some important documents:
· Agenda 21st century – global plan of action for environment and development.
· Rio Declaration on Environment and Development – stress the importance of Environmental law as a necessary instrument for the delivery of the benefits of sustainable development.
International environmental law –anessential tool for the governance and management of sustainable development. It provides the foundation for governmental policies and actions for the conservation of the environment and ensuring that use of natural resources is both equitable and sustainable.
The political and conceptual break-through achieved at Rio has not, however, proved decisive enough to break with business as usual. We will have to assess the risk associated with globalization of global markets.
World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, 2002 (Rio + 10):
The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburgcan and must lead to a strengthened global recognition of the importance of achieving a sustainable balance between nature and the human economy. The responsibilities that flow from this recognition are not identical, since the nations of the world are at very different levels of development. Such differences notwithstanding, all of us should understand not only that we face common threats, but also that there are common opportunities to be seized if we respond to this challenge as a single human community.
Strategies for Sustainable Development:
- to reinvigorate the fight against abject and dehumanization poverty
- to assess the risk associated with globalization of global markets
- to breathe life into agreements the international community to save biodiversity, protect forests, guard against climate change, and stop the march of desertification.
- to reinvent national and global governance
- to need new and additional financial resources
- to need string partnerships among governments, nongovernmental organizations, NGO, the private sector, and others in a position to contribute, such as the academic and scientific communities
- to need to do all of this while adhering to the principles of equity and solidarity found in the UN Charter and other guiding documents of international affairs.