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Sustainable development strategy of Kazakhstan

The tasks of the RK to improve the environment and achieve sustainable development including conservation of biodiversity. This strategy has four priorities:

· Creation of ecologically safe environment:

- stable improvement of the environment for it become favorable to live in and for the health of people;

- restoration of the violated natural ecological systems;

- creation of the system of adequate stable financing of natural protection programs by the subsurface users and social funds including international ones.

· Sustainable use of natural resources:

- control for status of environment and monitoring of it, control for nature managers;

- sustainable use, reproduction and protection of natural resources;

- transition to the resources saving technologies.

· Conservation of biodiversity of flora and fauna:

- monitoring, rational use, reproduction and protection of flora and fauna;

- development of the network of specially protected territories.

· Ecological education:

- public awareness and education of the society in the field of environment protection and rational use of natural resources

- social cultivation of conscious priority of environment protection problems.


2. Solutions at international level: International conventions

Convention – a binding official agreement made between a number of states and/or economic integration organizations (such as the European Community), whereby each state/organization (contracting party) accepts certain obligations.

Kazakhstan is a party to 24 multilateral environment agreements, 13 of which have been ratified. One of the Kazakhstan’s policy goals is to harmonize national environmental legislation with international standards norms and standards, particularly those to European Union.

Table International aggriments/conventions on environment protection:

Date Name Ratified in Kazakhstan*
(Ramsar) Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat 2007*
(Paris) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage   Acceptance,
(London) International Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea Accession, 1994
(London) Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) accession
(Washington) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES Accession, 1994
(London) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea Accession, 1994
(Geneva) Convention on Protection of Workers against Occupational Hazards from Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration 1996*
(Bonn) Convention of Migratory Species Accession, 2000
(Geneva) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)   Accession, 1996
(Geneva) Convention Concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment 1996*
(Vienna) Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Accession, 1998
(Montreal Protocol) on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Accession, 2001
(Basel) Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal Accession, 2003
(Rio) Convention on Biological Diversity 1994*
(New-York) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1995*
(Helsinki) Convention on the protection and Use of Transboundary Waters and International Lakes 2001*
(Helsinki) Convention on Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents 2001*
(Paris) Convention on the prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction 2000*
(Paris) Convention on Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa 1997*
(Lisbon) Energy Charter Treaty 1996*
(Lisbon) Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Aspects 1996*
(Kyoto) Protocol about Restriction Greenhouse Gases in Atmosphere 2009*
(Aarhus) Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters 2001*
(Rotterdam) Convention on the Prior informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade Accession, 2007
(Stockholm,) Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2007*
(Tehran) Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea 2006*

3. Solutions at national level:

· Greater familiarity with and better control of the natural heritage.

· Conserving the most endangered species and their habitats by establishing national networks of protected areas (national parks, nature reserves, etc).

· Protecting and managing biodiversity over the whole of a territory, including non-protected areas, by ensuring sustainable development and maintaining “calm” areas for wild species. This should be done when programs for major public works and infrastructures, agriculture, forestry and transport policies and tourist development programs, are approved.

· Improving existing national legal frameworks for protection of biodiversity. For this purpose, i.e. the council of Europe has drawn up a Model Act on the Protection of the Environment, which encompasses every element capable of ensuring comprehensive protection of the environment and promoting an ecologically stable and healthy environment.

· Raising public awareness of biodiversity issues by means of national campaigns.


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