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Text 1Read and translate the text pay attention to the new words
Ceramics and pottery in Ukraine.
Ukraine is reach in deposits of the best ordinary and kaolin clay of different color - from white and creme to brown and dark-gray; this fact mostly accounted for the great development of ceramic craft even in the ancient times. Pre-Minoan Tripil painted ceramics of the end of eneolitis (2500 - 2000 B.C.) is of a special importance for Ukrainian ceramics and pottery. Its rich ornamental motives, signs, composition principles had a great influence on the further development of the Ukrainian pottery on the whole.
The time since the VII century A.D. is the Slavic period in the development of Ukrainian ceramics. Dark-gray ceramics of that period had in itself a lot of features of the Roman one, with embossed (dug) ornament (parallel and wavy lines, cuts, stars).
As early as in the Princely period (X - XIII century) ceramic production reached a high degree of perfection and became the real craft. Since that time the potter's wheel was used, the blunge and the process of burning was improved, and at the verge of the X - XI centuries a method of kaolin clay treatment, very close to porcelain of the XVII - XVIII centuries, was found. In addition to clayware with exquisitely simple ornaments, also modeled figures of humans and animals, things for religious use were made. Technical ceramics for construction purposes achieved unprecedented perfection: bricks, tile, ceramic tile, architectural details and ornament, quite often glazed. Beautiful carpet patterns were laid out with tile and ornamented ceramic tile.
After a short period of decline of ceramic production in the XIV - XV centuries its new upturn started from the end of the XV century. New guilds of potters arose. Production technique, forms of clayware, adornments, glazed houseware became more diverse, ornamented ceramic tiles were more widely spread.
In the XVII - XVIII centuries in Getmanshchyna and Podillya ceramic production reached another level. The Ukrainian baroque style gave them restraint decorativeness and richness of color, original ornamental motives appeared. Houseware and tiles were characterized by durability, good burning and strong even glaze coating. There were also tiles that pictured complete compositions, scenes with plants and animal, scenes from everyday life and historical scenes: riflemen, Cossacks, Zaporizhya camps, bandura musicians, kobza musicians, ships, amusements in taverns, battle scenes, religious motives, heraldry etc. In addition to painted glazed ceramic tiles monochromatic (mostly of dark-yellow or red color) ceramic tiles with embossing and sculptured patterns were also widely spread. At the same time the leading centers of ceramic production were formed; they kept their importance up to the XX century (Starodub, Kozelets, Nizhyn, Chernigiv, Ichnya, Baturyn - in Chernigivshchyna, Khorol, Komyshna, Opishnya - in Poltavshchyna, Kamyanets, Derazhnya, Shargorod, Zinkiv, Bar, Kupyn, Letychiv, Smotrych, Yaniv, Mykolayiv - in Podillya, Yavoriv, Sudova Vyshnya, Stryi - in Galychyna, Volodymyr - in Volyn).
In the XVII - XVIII centuries Ukrainian pottery also was spread. Centers and areas of pottery were located on the territory of Ukraine quite irregularly because of the irregular location of deposits of quality pottery clay. Among the most important pottery regions are Sokalshchyna, western Podillya, eastern Podillya, Poltavshchyna, Polissya, Pidlyashya, Chernigivshchyna, Kyivshchyna, Slobozhanshchyna, Bukovyna and Zakarpattya. The basic types of products manufactured by potters in those regions were various kinds of houseware (jugs, gladushchyks, pots, bowls, dzbankas, kumanets', flasks, baryltses, decorative houseware of sculptural character (sheep, lions, horses, cocks etc), various toys (cocks, horses, little sheep, penny whistles and others) etc.
Ceramics coming from the territory of the former Getmanshchyna (Kyivshchyna, Chernigivshchyna, Poltavshchyna) in the form of houseware and ornaments reflects the traditions of the ancient Princely period, influence of other decorative and applied arts is noticeable, especially that of embroidery and weaving. In Polissya ceramics were quite practical and monochromatic, as well as in Pidlyashya (now the Republic of Poland) and in Galychyna.
The most typical articles were bowls and dzbankas(jugs). Bowls are often monochromatic with very diverse ornaments, sometimes with very archaic motives. The archaic types of motives are geometric motives (endless patterns, broken and wavy lines that match the form of houseware). They were characteristic of ceramics from Podillya, Volyn, Zakarpattya. In Kyivshchyna, Poltavshchyna, eastern Podillya floral themes were very popular. Ornaments of Gutsulshchyna and Sokalshchyna had patterns of two types. There were also images of birds (cock, peacock), animals (horse, lion, fish, frog), insects and even humans.
From the XIX century articles manufactured in different regions of pottery craft started acquiring certain peculiarities, which were dependent on natural characteristics of the material, technical level of production, local traditions etc.
In Opishnya engraving was done on wet crock, sculptured ornamental motives were stuck on, fabulous animals and birds were interlaced with painted floral ornament. In Podillya manufacturing of red painted houseware and decoration of bowls with thematic figured compositions was started.
In Gutsulshchyna ceramics of Petro Bakhmetyuk and his son Oleksa form Kosiv, tiles of Ivan Baranyuk were famous. In Kosiv ornaments there are flowers with many petals, triangular leaves, bunches of grapes, birds on branches, horses, goats, deer. In Pistyn mostly painted bowls, plates, dzbans etc. were made.
In the 20-30s of the XX century compulsory collectivization to a certain degree was harmful to pottery production in Ukraine, as it was the reason of decrease in the number of potters-craftsmen. Pottery was somewhat revived in after-war years, but in the 1960-80s the process of pottery craft decay went on. Only during the years of independence the tendency to a certain recovery of ancient traditions is traced, in particular in Opishnya, Gavarechyna and others.
Ceramics production technology has not been changed much since the ancient times, it lies in: 1. excavation and preparation of lay; 2. making of houseware and tiles; 3. burning. Technological nomination is the same for the entire territory of Ukraine. Manufactured articles are painted with a brush, the ornament is painted with a ryltse on the surface of dried article of houseware before burning.
With the help of a dictionary find the meanings of the following words, write them down and memorize them
. Ceramics and pottery, real craft, blunge, at the verge, unprecedented perfection, ceramic tile, adornments, a ryltse
Exercise 2Translate the following sentences into English.
1.Україна багата на родовища звичайної глини та каоліну різного кольору. 2 Технічна кераміка для будівельних цілей досягла небаченої досконалості: цегла, черепиця, керамічна плитка, архітектурні деталі і прикраси. 3. Після короткого періоду занепаду керамічного виробництва в XIV - XV століть новий підйом почався з кінця XV століття. 4. Центри і області кераміки були розташовані на території України дуже нерівномірно через нерегулярне розташування родовищ глини. 5. Технологія керамічног виробництва не змінилася з давніх часів.
Exercise 3Answer the questions
1. When do we first find painted ceramics on the territory of Ukraine? 2.When did ceramic production reach a high degree of perfection and became the real craft? 3What can you say about Slavic period in the development of Ukrainian ceramics? 4. When was a short period of decline of ceramic production? 5. What is characteristic for Getmanshchyna and Podillya ceramic production? 6. Where were the centers and areas of pottery located on the territory of Ukraine? 7.What can you say about the ceramics production technology?
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