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Read the text about marketing and do the exercises below

A.People often wonder what makes a brand different from a product? Quite simply, in marketing terms, products aren’t brands. Products are general, while brands are something quite unique. Brand identity consists of far more than the physical product itself. It includes all the psychological features that we have learnt to associate with it. Top brands form a personal relationship with consumers; they are able to make us feel more confident, more powerful, healthier, and happier. Brands are promises and people buy what they believe in.

brand identity – образ марки


B.A brand has USPs (Unique Selling Propositions), specific features that set it apart from its competitors. For example, Barbie was the first doll to look like a young woman, and a metal rivet (заклёпка) was the unique feature of Levi jeans. Both brands have had numerous imitators, but generally speaking, a ‘me-too’ product won’t achieve the success of the one it follows.

to set something apart– отличаться от

‘me-too product’ – товар подражатель, товар аналог


C.People who say you don’t need to worry about your competitors couldn’t be more wrong. Competent managers have to know how to position their brandin relation to the competition, in terms of factors like price and quality of the product. Managers should relate the brand’s values mostlyto the consumers they have targeted. With worldwide brands this may mean changing your message from country to country.


to position a brand– позиционировать торговую марку (в сравнении с


to target someone– нацеливаться на


D.The product life cycle is a familiar one in marketing. A product is launched, developed, goes through a period of growth, enters maturity, declines, and eventually dies. A top brand should go on and on if it is well managed. A brand manager is like a doctor or plastic surgeon, who can keep the brand healthy and looking fresh down the years. Knowing what stage your branded product is at in this cycle may help you decide when to launch a line extension – such as a different size or colour – or if you ought to relaunch it with ‘added-value’ features. Newer versions of cars, for instance, come with air conditioning as a standard feature, or they may have a face-lift to modernize their look.


maturity – зрелость

product line extension– пополнение товарного ассортимента

Tasks to perform

1. Which paragraph (A-D) do these heading belong to?


a) Dare to be different ___

b) Be global, think local ___

c) Marketing medicine ___

d) The feel-good factor ___


Read the text again and decide if these statements are true or false.

1. Brand is just another word for product.

2. Brands can help us feel good about ourselves.

3. USPs aren’t as important as people believe.

4. It’s better to be first in the market with a new idea.

5. People worry too much about competition.

6. If your audience changes, it might be necessary to change what you say about

your product.

7. There’s little you can do to keep a brand alive.

8. Some changes to products are simply superficial and cosmetic.\


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