Read and translate the text. International trade is the exchange of goods and services between different countries
International trade is the exchange of goods and services between different countries. Depending on what a country produces and needs, it can export and import.
Governments can control international trade. The most common measures are tariffs(or duties) and quotas.A tariff is a tax imposed on imported goods, and a quota is a maximum quantity of a product allowed into a country during a certain period of time. These measures are protectionistas they raise the price of imported goods to “protect” domestically produced goods.
International organizations such as the WTO (World Trade Organization) and EFTA(European Free Trade Association) regulate tariffs and reduce trade restrictions between member countries.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was founded in 1957 in order to create a common market in which tariffs and quotas between member countries would be progressively eliminated. The six original member countries were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. From 1993 to 1995 the European Economic Community membership was increasing. Denmark, Ireland, the UK, Greece, Portugal and Spain joined the community. In November, 1993 the organization became the European Union (EU). In 1995 membership increased to 15 countries as Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the Union. In 1999 the single European currency, the euro, was launched.
Now the EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries. It has deliveredhalf a century peace, stability and prosperity to Europe, helped raise living standard, launched a single European currency, and is progressively building a single Europe-wide market in which people, goods, services, and capital move among member states as freely as within one country.
Tasks to perform
Give English equivalents of the words and word partnerships used in the
вводить налог на импортируемые товары; максимально допустимое для ввоза в страну количество товаров; деньги, которые необходимо выплатить государству от полученного дохода; налог на ввозимые и вывозимые из страны товары; государственный налог на определённые товары, такие как алкогольные напитки, нефть и т.д.; повышать цену на ввозимые товары; товары, произведённые на отечественном рынке; всемирная торговая организация; Европейская организация свободной торговли; регулировать тарифы; сокращать торговые ограничения между странами участниками; создать Европейское экономическое сообщество; Европейский Союз; убирать тарифы и квоты; первоначальные страны участники; увеличивать членство; вступить в сообщество; уникальное экономическое и политическое партнёрство; обеспечить полувековой мир, стабильность и процветание; повысить жизненный уровень; выпустить единую Европейскую валюту; единый обще-европейский рынок; передвигаться свободно внутри одной страны;
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words given below.
Tariff quota protectionism eliminate deliver promote
1. The purpose of the European Union is to reduce costs, increase employment, in
other words, to … economic growth.
2. Slavery was stopped by the law in the US in the 19th century. The … of slavery
brought freedom to the black population of the US.
3. The administration decided to get rid of or …. all spending restrictions on federal
4. The US has for years established an officially allowed amount of Chinese imported
goods, i.e. …. .
5. France and Germany imposed taxor …on grain coming into their countries.
6. A government tries to help industry or farming in its own country by taxing
foreign goods that compete with it. So limiting the number of goods that can be
imported is called … .
7. Good government can provide or ….. a high level of services while maintaining
fiscal, i.e. connected with government taxes, debts, and spending discipline.
8. Sometimes aggressive companies sell their goods at a low price in importing
countries. Their aim is to kill the local competition. Such kind of selling goods is
called …. .