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Structure of interview



Opening of the Interview

In beginning an interview, an interviewer has three basic responsibilities. The first is to introduce the objectives of the interview to the respondent. A second task for the interviewer is to get the respondent feel that the interviewer can be trusted and that the meeting does not present a threatening situation. The interviewer's third and most impor­tant responsibility is motivating the respondent to answer questions.

2. Body of the Interview

The body of the interview constitutes the major portion of time spent with the respondent, and it should be carefully planned for best results.

Conclusion

The possibility of an unpleasant or at least an unsatisfying conclusion points to the importance of skillfully terminating the interview. Interviews often end abruptly because of a lack of time, and both parties are left feeling the need for closure, or resolution.

A number of different types of questions can be used in an interview.

The open questionresembles an essay question on a test; it places no restrictions on the length of the respondent's answer.

The closed questionis more specific and usually requires a shorter, more direct answer.

Primary questionsintroduce a new topic in the interview. A very different type of question is called a probeor secondary questions early in the interview to get the respondent to relax and reveal more personal information.

A more volatile and often annoying type of leading question is the loaded ques­tion,which stacks the deck by implying the desired answer. This form of the closed question is sometimes used to back the respondent into a corner.

Suspect Questions. These are the questions that are lawful relate specifically to the job, attitudes about work, health if relevant to the particular work, past employment, educational background and capabilities.

17b Directives are utterances used to try

to get hearer to do smth. They express what the speaker wants.

In order for directives/requests for action to be heard and interpreted as legitimate, they must satisfy certain felicity conditions (Gordon and Lakoff 1971:64):

- Speaker wants hearer to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer is able to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer is willing to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer would not do act in the absence of the request.

Largely because of the demand directives place on the addressee, and because of the fact that they can be realized by a variety of syntactic forms, the choice of directive type can express a great deal about the social context of discourse and the relative status of the interlocutors, e.g. their age, sex, occupation, and familiarity (Ervin-Tripp, 1976)



Directives can be oriented to various elements of the request matrix:

- Hearer-oriented: Could you help me?

- Speaker-oriented: Do you think I could borrow your book?

- Speaker and hearer-oriented: Could we please clean up?

- Impersonal: It might be a good idea to get it done.

Directives can be mitigated through various types of linguistic devices:

Syntactic mitigation:

a) Interrogative

b) Negation

c) Past tense

d) Embedded

Pragmatic mitigation:

e) Consultative devices

f) Understaters

g) Hedges (avoiding commitment)

h)Downtoner (signaling possibility or noncompliance):

25b Directives are utterances used to try

to get hearer to do smth. They express what the speaker wants.

In order for directives/requests for action to be heard and interpreted as legitimate, they must satisfy certain felicity conditions (Gordon and Lakoff 1971:64):

- Speaker wants hearer to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer is able to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer is willing to do act.

- Speaker assumes hearer would not do act in the absence of the request.

Largely because of the demand directives place on the addressee, and because of the fact that they can be realized by a variety of syntactic forms, the choice of directive type can express a great deal about the social context of discourse and the relative status of the interlocutors, e.g. their age, sex, occupation, and familiarity (Ervin-Tripp, 1976)

Directives can be oriented to various elements of the request matrix:

- Hearer-oriented: Could you help me?

- Speaker-oriented: Do you think I could borrow your book?

- Speaker and hearer-oriented: Could we please clean up?

- Impersonal: It might be a good idea to get it done.

Directives can be mitigated through various types of linguistic devices:

Syntactic mitigation:

i) Interrogative

j) Negation

k) Past tense

l) Embedded

Pragmatic mitigation:

m) Consultative devices

n) Understaters

o) Hedges (avoiding commitment)

p)Downtoner (signaling possibility or noncompliance):

12 b Scripts

In everyday life our ability to arrive automatically at interpretations of the unwritten or unsaid must be based on preexisting knowledge or knowledge structures. These structures function like familiar patterns from previous experiences that we use to interpret new experiences. The most general term for pattern of this type is scheme. A scheme is a preexisting structure in memory. If there is a fixed static pattern to the scheme it is sometimes called a frame. A frame shared by everyone within a social group is smth like a typical version. For ex., within a frame for selling goods, there’ll be such assumed items as sellers, customers, certain goods, possible intermediares, transport means.

When more dynamic types of schemes are considered they are very oftaen described as scripts. A script is a preexisting knowledge structure involving event sequence with use scripts to build interpretation of accounts or report or what happened. Schrank has attempted to characterize the knowledge that people have of the structure of stereotypic events sequences of various kinds. He was the first to use term “script” to represent this knowledge.

In everyday life people have many goals. To fulfil them we design a plane that might involve a different number of actions. Within a script one can distinguish goals, actions and prompts.

 

22a Mass Communication

Mass Communication is the process in which professional communicators use media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly and continiously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences in attempts to influence them in variety of ways.

The process of mass communication includes 5 stages:

1. At the first stage a message is formulated by professional communicators. These are the producers, editors, reportes, gatekeepers.

2. The message is sent out in a relatively rapid and continious way through the use of media. A medium is any object or device used for communicating a message; that is, for moving information over distances and preserving it through time. There are 2 types of nass media: electronic and print mass media. Modern media are characterised by the speed of message”s movement. Sometimes a message can be distorted by noises or interference.There three types of noises: channel, semantic and psychological noises.

3. The message reaches large and diverse audiences. The term “mass” in communaication implies large and diverse audiences, but it refers to the social nature of audiences rather than their size.

4. Feedback is given in MC. There schould be no confusion about it. It is true, for example, that television viewers or telephone a network concerning a given program. But usually those viewers will not be face-to-face with the television producer and the feedback will not be as immediate or complete as it will be on a face-to-face basic.

5. The last stage in MC is the outcome of the preceding stages. People in the audiences are changed in some way.

 

 

30 a cross cultural communication

When members of different cultures communicate, getting the codes wrong is a common experience. Throughout, intercultural communication can occur in any of the contexts. Participants may not be aware of all aspects of each others’ cultures.

Culture is a way of life developed and shared by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation. It is made up of many complex elements, including religious and political systems, customs, and language as well as tools, clothing, buildings The language you speak are all profoundly affected by your culture. Not all members of a culture share all its elements. Culture will change and evolve over time. Still a common set of characteristics is shared by the group at large and can be traced. Intercultural communication is communication between members of different cultures. As this definitions suggests, the divisions between cultural groups are not established or absolute; Culture is a complex of values polarized by an image contracting a vision of its own excellence. In a sense, then, it is the culture that provides a coherent framework for organizing our activity and allowing us to predict the behavior of others. People from other cultures who enter our own may be threatening because they challenge our systems of beliefs. A network of telecommunications, including television, telephone, radio and the news wire services, allows us to communicate across great distances. There are two intercultural changes: a shared code system, which of course will have 2 aspects – verbal and nonverbal. There will be degrees of differences, but the less a code system is shared, the less communication is possible. The last important implications for intercultural communication is the level of knowing and accepting the beliefs and behaviors of others.

 





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