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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. 4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the text:


4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the text:

1. The common _______ of number notation in use in most parts of the world today is the Arabic system.

2. The system of number symbols created by the _______ had the merit of expressing all numbers from 1 to 1,000,000.

3. The Roman system's one drawback, however, is that it is not suitable for rapid _______ calculations.

4. The _______ numeral system was probably introduced into the Arab world about the 7th or 8th century AD.

5. Numerals are _______ or symbols for graphic representation of numbers.

6. The earliest forms of number _______ were simply groups of straight lines, either vertical or horizontal, each line corresponding to the number 1.

7. Arabic _______ was first developed by the Hindus and was in use in India in the 3rd century BC.


5. Match each adjective from the text with its antonym:

1. straight a) main

2. vertical b) identical

3. inconvenient c) slow

4. additional d) curved

5. infinite e) horizontal

6. rapid f) finite

7. different g) convenient


6. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the list below. Use each word only once:

tens, alphabet, ancient, system, numbers, symbols, letter, thousands, numeral, antique, second

The 1) _______ Greeks had two parallel systems of numerals. The earlier of these was based on the initial letters of the names of 2) _______. The number 5 was indicated by the letter pi; 10 by the 3) _______ delta; 100 by the 4) _______ form of the letter H; 1000 by the letter chi; and 10,000 by the letter mu. The later 5) _______, which was first introduced about the 3rd century BC, employed all the letters of the Greek 6) _______ plus three letters borrowed from the Phoenician alphabet as number 7) _______. The first nine letters of the alphabet were used for the numbers 1 to 9, the 8) _______ nine letters for the 9) _______ from 10 to 90, and the last nine letters for the hundreds from 100 to 900. 10) _______ were indicated by placing a bar to the left of the appropriate 11) _______, and tens of thousands by placing the appropriate letter over the letter M.



7. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. representation a) обчислення

2. notation b) записування

3. addition c) значення

4. calculation d) нововведення

5. drawback e) зображення

6. innovation f) недолік

7. value g) додавання


8. Read the clues and complete the crossword:

1             2              
  3     4                    
  5               6          


The act of representing or state of being represented.
The fact of being measurable; an amount or number.
A group of related parts which work together forming a whole; an ordered set of ideas, methods or ways of working.
The quantity expressed by a letter of the alphabet or other sign.
A sign that represents a number.
The name of the sign 0 and of the number it stands for.
A standard mark; something which is seen and represents a generally-known meaning; symbol.


The use of a system of written signs to describe the stated kinds of things and represent things or ideas.
A written sign representing a member of the system used in counting and measuring.
The act or result of calculating.
A letter, sign or figure which expresses a sound, operation, number, chemical substance, etc.




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