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Match the first part of the sentence (1-7) with the second one (A-G). 1. In the United States, any new and useful art, machine



1. In the United States, any new and useful art, machine …..

2. In some cases, although two individuals working independently achieved the same innovation .….

3. Today most modern inventions and discoveries take place in .….

4. In most countries, certain classes of inventions are legally recognized,.....

5. In the United States, any new and useful written material, …..

6. For example, the American inventors Elisha Gray and .....

7. The machine age, which began with the Industrial Revolution …..

 

a) ….. and their use is temporarily restricted to the control of the inventor.

b) ….. Alexander Graham Bell applied for a patent on the telephone on the same day.

c) ….. paintings, sculpture, and photographs may be protected by copyright.

d) ….. simultaneously, only one was recognized for the discovery.

e) ….. and continues to this day, developed from a group of inventions.

f) ….. large research organizations supported by universities, government agencies.

g) ….. manufacture, or material may be protected by patent.

 

 

5. Find mistakes in the following statements and correct them:

1. Early inventors were usually isolated and able to support themselves through their inventions.

2. Credit for the discovery of the writing was fought for bitterly by the Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

3. The earliest artifacts make evidence of human inventiveness.

4. The names of the great archaeological ages are derived from the inventive use of iron and metal implements.

5. Invention is production of new devices, objects, ideas, or procedures useful in accomplishing human objectives.

6. An example of collective effort in producing an important invention is the discovery of the electronic digital computer.

7. The period of recorded history began with the invention of letters.

6. Match each adjective from the text with its antonym:

1. new a) small

2. useful b) antiquated

3. internal c) old

4. industrial d) public

5. modern e) useless

6. large f) external

7. private g) agricultural

 

7. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the list below. Use each word only once:

title, invention, term, system, inventor, unique, device, definition

In common usage the 1) _______ invention is applied only to the production of new materials or operable devices, and the term 2) _______ is applied to a person who has produced a new 3) _______ or material. Less frequently, the term 4) _______ is applied to a new procedure; thus a person may be said to have invented a new game or a new 5) _______ of accounting. Under strict definition, however, anything produced by humans that is new and 6) _______ is an invention; this 7) _______ was recognized by Johann Sebastian Bach, who gave the 8) _______ Inventions to a series of his short keyboard compositions.



8. Read the clues and complete the crossword:

  1 2                 3        
                               
4                              
                               
          5         6          
                               
    7                          
                               
                               
      8                        
9                              
                               
                               
    10                          
                               
                               
                               
                               

 

 

Across:
A fact or thing that has been discovered.
Having or showing the ability to invent or think in new and different ways.
A paper from a government office giving someone the right to make or sell a new invention for a certain number of years.
A person who invents something new, especially one whose job is to invent things.
A new idea, method or invention; the introduction of new things.
Something produced by human invention or imagination.

 

Down:
The act of inventing; something invented.
Serious and detailed study of a subject, that is aimed at learning new facts, scientific laws, testing ideas.
Something which gives knowledge in the form of facts, news, etc.
A picture in the mind; conception.
The right in law to be the only producer or seller of a book, play, film or record for a fixed period of time.

 

LISTENING

9. Pre-listening: match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:





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