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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. Fill in the words from the list below

Fill in the words from the list below. Use each word only once.

engine, steam, mechanical, external, combustion, vehicle, chemical

1. air-breathing …..

2. internal ….. engine

3. original ….. engine

4. non combustive ….. reactions

5. useful ….. motion

6. engine-powered …..

7. ….. combustion engine


Match each word from the text with its synonym.

1. fluid a) power

2. engine b) apparatus

3. energy c) substance

4. motion d) car

5. matter e) motor

6. automobile f) liquid

7. device g) movement


6. Complete the following sentences using the information from the text:

1. A heat engine may also serve as …….

2. The term motor was originally used to …….

3. Motors can also be driven by …….

4. An engine or motor is a machine designed to …….

5. External combustion engines such as …….

6. Originally an engine was a mechanical …….

7. Molecular motors like myosins …….


7. Match up the words in column A with the words in column B to form meaningful phrases, translate them into Ukrainian:

Column A Column B

1. propulsion a) engine

2. electric b) field

3. mechanical c) system

4. working d) motor

5. steam e) motion

6. electromagnetic f) reaction

7. chemical g) fluid


8. Read the clues and complete the crossword:

            2               3
      4           5          


A machine that changes power, especially electrical power, into movement and is used for working other machines.
The act, way or process of moving.
A piece of equipment intended for a particular purpose.
A material that is used for producing heat or power by burning or by atomic means.
The chemical activity, usually in the presence of oxygen, that produces light and heat.
A piece of machinery with moving parts which changes power from steam, electricity, oil, etc., into movement.


Something in or on which people or goods can be carried from one place to another, something that moves on wheels, such as a bicycle, car, bus, etc.
The force that can be used for doing work, driving a machine or producing electricity.
The power which can do work, such as drive machines or provide heat.
An instrument or apparatus which uses power, such as electricity, to perform work.
Water in the state of gas produced by boiling.



9. Pre-listening: match the words from the left column with their definitions from the right column.

1. train a) винахід
2. electrify b) збільшувати
3. locomotive c) паровий двигун
4. invention d) вимірювання
5. measurement e) електрифікувати
6. steam engine f) локомотив
7. increase g) потяг

Listen to the text and answer the following questions.

1. Who invented the first steam engine for trains?

2. How did steam engines help the progress?

3. What speed did the first locomotive travel?

4. What was the Golden Age of Steam?

5. What replaced steam engines?

6. How fast can trains travel now?


11. Work in small groups. Imagine that you are a graduate student and the topic of your degree work is «Types of Engines». Read the text again and be ready for the defence of your diploma and for the questions the State Exam Board members may ask you (student A – a graduate student, students B, C, D – members of the State Exam Board).

Use the Internet or magazines to find information about new or improved engines. Choose one and make a list of the features it has and share the information with your group mates.


13. Imagine that you are an engineer working at the plant and you have to explain the functions of different engines to your new colleague. Make an outline of your explanation (write 60-80 words). Describe:

- where it is used

- how it works

- its capacity

- its efficiency

- its main parts.


These exercises can help you to practise the Pronouns: few / a few / little / a little. (See Appendix 1 p. 200 – 202) and do the following exercises.

14. Fill in the blanks with little / a little or few / a few.

1. I don’t think I can lift this box on my own. I need ….. help.

2. ….. tourists visited Northern Ireland in the 1980s because of the terrorism there.

3. The postman doesn’t often come here. We receive ….. letters.

4. He isn’t finding it’s easy to fix the shelves. He’s having ….. trouble.

5. I can speak ….. words of Swedish , but I’m not very fluent.

6. There were ….. new words in the text. Ann spent ….. time learning them.

7. I would like to stay here ….. longer, it’s such a nice place.

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