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Read the text. Find sentences with Past Participle and translate them



Your future life is strictly dependant to the profession you choose. There are various jobs to take up and many ways how to lead the future life.

In my opinion, the best choice is to take up the profession connected with computers. Today computers are considered to be the symbol of modern era. Everything connected with Internet, computers, multimedia and interactive television seems to be the techniques of the future. This advanced techniques is present in every part of our life. Everyone should be familiar with it, because it is essential.

If I would have to choose my future profession right now, I would probably decide to work as programmer, computer scientists or net administrator. I am fond of the new techniques and software and hardware novelties. Computers are my passion.

Now finish the idea: If I would have to choose my future profession right now, I would probably decide to work as programmer…

 

Translate into English and reproduce the dialogue.

 

- Have you seen an interesting advertisement in the last issue of “The Economist”?

- Я ещё не читал его.

- The School of Engineering offers a new program in information system. Applicants are invited for jobs in this field.

- Профессор Смит говорил мне об этом. Эта программа очень интересна. Она создана, чтобы помочь людям со знанием компьютера найти работу.

- Don’t you think that our son can lecture on this new program?

- А почему бы и нет? Он ведь выпускник отделения информационных технологий и несколько лет принимал участие в исследовательском проекте, связанном с проблемами суперкомпьютеров и их производством.

- As far as I remember his research interests cover software and application.

- И что они говорят о контракте?

- It is a three years contract and it may be extended for further two years. I’ll write Mike a letter.

- Это слишком долго. Я лучше позвоню ему.

 

Before reading Text B match the key soft ware terms with their definitions.

software operating system malware virus search engine

 

  1. The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs.
  2. Computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software.
  3. A computer program that retrieves documents or files or data from a database or from a computer network.
  4. Short for malicious software, software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a system, such as a virus or a Trojan horse.
  5. Self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents.

 



Read Text B using a dictionary and then make a list of software terms which are new for you. Give the definitions to these terms.

TEXT

All about Software

Categories of applications software explained

For years people understood the term software to refer to computer instructions, programs or data. Basically, anything that could be stored electronically on your computer is considered software. Traditionally, software has been divided into two different categories: systems software and applications software. However, in addition to those, an entire new batch of wares has entered the computer vernacular in recent years.

Systems Software

System software, as the diagram above illustrates, sits directly on top of your computer's hardware conponents (also referred to as its bare metal). It includes the range of software you would install to your system that enables it to function. This includes the operating system, drivers for your hardware devices, linkers and debuggers. Systems software can also be used for managing computer resources. Systems software is designed to be used by the computer system itself, not human users.

Applications Software

Unlike systems software, applications software is designed to be used by end-users. Applications software, in essence, sits on top of system software, as it is unable to run without the operating system and other utilities. Applications software includes things like database programs, word processors and spreadsheets, e-mail applications, computer games, graphics programs and such. Generally, people will refer to applications software as software.

All the Other 'Ware Terminology

Today we find new terms created frequently to classify types of applications software. You have classifications based on usage, for example games or accounting software, office applications,and other categories where the category is derived based on the main use of the software. Unfortunately, we also have a newer group of software related terms that have a negative association. Whileethe applications software itself may be useful, , it may also carry hidden programs or utilities that may cause undesirable effects.

Malware

We have a whole selection of software that may come bundled under the name of malware. Short for malicious software, malware is any software that has been designed (programmed) specifically to damage or disrupt a computer system. The most common forms of malware are computer viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

Other common types of software is adware and spyware. Adware is considered a legitmate alternative offered to consumers who don't wish to pay for software. Today we have a growing number of software developers who offer their goods as "sponsored" freeware until you pay to register. Generally most or all features of the software are enabled but you will be viewing sponsored advertisements while the software is being used. If you're using legitimate adware, when you stop running the software, the ads should disappear, and you always have the option of disabling the ads by purchasing a registration key.

Unfortunately some applications that contain adware track your Internet surfing habits in order to serve ads related to you. When the adware becomes intrusive like this, then we move it into the spyware category and it then becomes something you should avoid for privacy and security reasons. Spyware works like adware, but is usually a separate program that is installed unknowingly when you install another application. Once installed, the spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers. Unlike adware, spyware is considered a malicious program. For more information on spyware and adware, we recommend you check out Webopedia's "The Difference Between Adware & Spyware".

Greyware

Sometimes developers will include tools and programs within software that some may view as malware, but really, it falls into the grey area between malicious software and software, hence the name greyware. Greyware is the term used to categorize all other malicious or annoying software such as adware, spyware, trackware, and other malicious code and malicious software fall under.

In addition to these types of software, there are more terms to describe software that is distributed with common tools and utilities that don't necessarily cause harm to your computer or are a security risk. Some of these terms are slang terms used to describe unwanted features found in applications software.

Freeware is copyrighted software given away for free by the author. The author retains the copyright, which means that you cannot do anything with it that is not expressly allowed by the author. Usually, the author allows people to use the software, but not sell it.

Shareware is software that distributed on the basis of an honor system. Most shareware is delivered free of charge, but the author usually requests that you pay a small fee if you like the program and use it regularly.

Nagware is the term given to software that routinely issues a pop-up window or other form of visual interface asking the user to register a product, purchase an application or take another form of action.

Bloatware is a slang term given to software that has so many features that it requires considerable disk space and memory resources to run.

Abandonware is software that is no longer being sold or supported by its publisher.

Considered a type of adware, slimeware is the slang term used to describe software that interferes with the user experience by changing key settings in order to gain profit. For example, slimeware may change your Internet browser default home page to one where you view a company's banner ad or products for sale.

Software that is remotely accessed online usually with a Web browser, is called webware (although its more formal names are Web applications or online software.

Lastly, there's warez which is a term that has been around for quite some time. Pronounced wayrz or wayrss, it is the name given to commercial systems software or applications software that has been pirated and made available to the public via a BBS or the Internet. Typically, those who pirate software, often called crackers, have figured out a way to de-activate the copy protection or registration scheme used by the software. The use and distribution of warez software is illegal.

(http://www.webopedia.com)

3.15 Work in pairs or small groups. Using the list of software terms and definitions you’ve made check if your partners understand them.

3.16 Use http://www.webopedia.com or any other sites toinvestigate something new in computer software and present your information to your group.

Unit 4

The Internet

Vocabulary

1. create [krı'eıt] творить, создавать
2. network ['netwɜ:k] (инфор.) сеть
3. spread [spred] распространять(ся), простирать(ся)
4. share [ʃeə] делиться; поделиться
5. transfer ['trænsfɜ:] перемещать, передавать
6. backbone ['bækbəυn] главная опора; основа; суть
7. maintain [meın'teın] (тех.) обслуживать; содержать в исправности
8. provide [prə'vaıd] предоставлять (услуги), давать
9. provider   (информ.) провайдер, поставщик информационных и коммуникационных услуг
10. browse [braυz] просмотреть
11. browse facility [fə'sılətı] (компьют.) средство просмотра
12. feature ['fi:tʃə] (компьют.) функция, функциональность, опция, (сленг) фича (у программного продукта, системы)
13. surf the Internet [sɜ:f] «путешествовать» по Интернету (тж. surf the net)
14. etiquette ['etıket] этикет профессиональная этика
15. netiquette ['netıket] (информ.) сетевой этикет
16. flood (with spam) [flʌd] засыпать; заваливать (спамом)
17. evaluate [ɪ'væljυeɪt] оценивать

4.1 How would you describe what the Internet is? Discuss it with your partner.





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