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IV. Lexico-Grammatical Aspects of Translation............... 208



Rendering of the Contextual Meanings of the Definite and

Indefinite Articles.............................................................. 208

Realization of Contextual Meanings of the Definite Article 210

Realization of Contextual Meanings of the Indefinite Article 215

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion.... 221

Exercises for Class and Homework.................................... 221

Asyndetic Noun Clusters and Rendering Their

Meaning into Ukrainian...................................................... 225

Approaches to Translating Asyndetic Substantival Clusters 226


Translation of Two-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters.............................................................................. 227

Translation of Three-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters.............................................................................. 232

Translation of Four-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters.............................................................................. 237

Translation of Five-, Six- and Seven-Componental Asyndetic

Substantival Clusters.......................................................... 240

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion.... 243

Exercises for Class and Home Translation......................... 244

Translating of English Verbals and Verbal

Constructions/Complexes................................................... 252

Ways of Rendering the Lexico-Grammatical Meanings

and Function of the English Infinitive................................ 253

Ways of Translating Infinitival Complexes........................ 256

Ways of Translating the Objective with the Infinitive

Constructions/Predicative Complexes................................. 259

Ways of Rendering the Meaning of the Subjective with the

Infinitive Constructions...................................................... 263

Ways of Translating the Participles and Participial

Constructions..................................................................... 269

Ways of Translating Participial Constructions/Complexes.. 273

A. Ways of Translating the Objective with the Participle
Constructions/Complexes................................................... 274

B. Ways of Translating the Subjective with the Participle
Constructions/Complexes................................................... 276

C. Ways of Translating the Nominative Absolute Participial
Constructions/Complexes................................................... 280

D. Ways of Identification of Implicit Meanings in the Nominative



Absolute Participial Constructions...................................... 283

Structural Types of Ukrainian Language Units Conveying the Meaning of the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions... 285

Translation of the Gerund and Gerundial Complexes......... 295

Ways of Translating Gerundial Complexes/Constructions.. 299

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion..................... 302


Ways and Means of Expressing Modality in English and

Ukrainian.............................................................................. 308

The Lexico-Grammatical Expression of Modality

through Modal Verbs.......................................................... 310

English Modal Verbs Having not Always Modal Verbs

Equivalents in Ukrainian.................................................... 334

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion..................... 343

Exercises for Class and Homework.................................... 343

Transformations in the Process of Translation.................... 361

Grammatically and Stylistically Prearranged

Transformations................................................................. 367

Stylistically/Subjectively Predetermined Transformations... 369

Ways of Conveying the Passive Voice Constructions......... 370

Objectively Required and Subjectively Introduced/Contextual

Transformations of Language Units.................................... 376

Objectively and Subjectively Conditioned Transformations

of Lexical Units in the Process of Translation.................... 382

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion..................... 387

Exercises for Class and Homework.................................... 387





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