Translating of Loan Internationalisms
Forming a common fund of lexicon in different languages of a geographical area, the loan units usually retain an identical/similar surface structure, i.e., form of a word, word-combination or sentence. Like genuine internationalisms, they are constantly appearing in different languages as a result of unceasing progress in various domains of science, technology and culture. A great many of international loans have long become an integral part of each language's lexicon. Despite all that, they preserve in each national language the unity of their componental parts, i.e., their structural peculiarly, an absolutely identical notional meaning and a common sphere of functioning: loud-speaker: Germ. Lautsprecher, Ital. altoparlante, Ukr. гучномовець, Russ. громкоговоритель; steam-engine: Germ. Dampfmaschine, Ital. macchina a vapore, Ukr. парова машина, Russ. паровая машина; long/short waves (radio), Germ, lange/kurze Wellen, Ital. onde lunge/corte, Ukr. довгі/короткі хвилі, Russ. длинньїе/короткие волньї, etc.
A bulk of international loan words and expressions are used to designate various grammatical, lexicological, stylistic and other notions. Depending on their nature, as well as on their denotative meaning and their sphere of functioning, international loan units can be rendered into Ukrainian in one of the following three ways:
a) by direct translation of the componental parts without changing considerably their structural form cf.: coefficient of efficiency коефіцієнт корисної дії, conjugation/declension дієвідмінювання/ відмінювання (слів); genitive/dative case родовий/давальний відмінок; personal/possessive pronouns особові/присвійні займенники; prepositional government прийменникове керування; compound nominal predicate складений іменний присудок; literal/ verbal translation буквальний/дослівний переклад, etc.
Note.It is worth mentioning that some Ukrainian or Russian loan internationalisms may be genuine internationalisms in other languages and vice versa. Thus, підмет, присудок and other parts of the sentence are genuine internationalisms in English, German, Italian and in some other West European languages. Cf.: the subject, the predicate, the object; German: der Subjekt, das Pradicat, das
Objekt; Italian: il soggetto, il predicate, etc. Consequently, these and other loan internationalisms are practically rendered only with the help of the phonological level units, i.e., they are transcribed or transliterated in these three languages.
b) with the help of componental translation and some replace
c) with the help of descriptive translation as in the examples