B. Translate the list of meals of a common American restaurant

1. Traditional barbeque foods: smoked brisket and ham, or turkey; pig picking pork, smoked chicken wings, baby back ribs (half-slab, full slab), spare ribs (short ends, long ends); grilled chicken and greens; Texas chicken, a boneless breast grilled with spicy Texas sauce, topped with thinly sliced smoked brisket and melted Cheddar cheese; burnt ends, smoked apple sausage or brisket. Smoked ribs... tender meaty ribs basket with maple - mustard, glaze, slow roasted and then lightly grilled; hickory chicken... 1/2 chicken smoked and basted with the original BBQ (barbecue) sauce; burnt ends... tender chunks of twice-smoked brisket drenched in our famous sauce;

Texas-size beef ribs marinated, slow-smoked and flame-grilled. 2. Garnishes: BBQ baked beans, cole slaw and potato salad, whole wheat, white bread or buns, pickled and barbecue sauce. 3. Apetizers: cheese and assorted crackers, French onion soup, onion straws, corn fritters (hot and fresh long ends), a hickory-grinned chicken breast sliced and served atop, fresh veggies and greens, with our honey-mustard dressing; assorted relishes; vegetable tray with dip. 4. Accompaniments: dirty rice, tossed salads. 5. Desserts: creamy cheesecake, chocolate peanut butter, ice-cream pie; old fashioned cheesecake, apple fritters served hot with powdered sugar and sweet honey butter.

Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:

/, , , , , , , , (. ); , , , , , /, / ; , , , , (), , , , , , , , , , , /, , , , , , , ( ), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrainian.

A. 10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Commons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Parliament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, bacon, Yorkshire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, farthing, guinea, sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, modern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leggings, stretches, tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.

B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the meaning of peculiarly American government offices and their principal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of translation which you employ for the purpose.

The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia

173and America has no government but only an administration or to be more precise, a president's administration. The latter in its turn has no ministries and consequently no ministers but departments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thirteen departments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Department, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as announced by the presidential secretary. The only exception is the Justice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attorney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list include only four departments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Commerce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other departments in the U.S. administration government have Under Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy ministers in other countries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Interior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Department which include building roads, and overseeing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).

Exercise VI. Pick out the nationally specific English notions in the text below and then translate them in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The former Beatle Paul McCartney was awarded a knighthood in the New Year's honours list. Among other showbiz figures receiving honors. Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer of Evita, Phantom of the Opera and Jesus Christ Superstar becomes Lord Lloyd Webber allowing him to sit in the House of Lords. Among others recognized: The actress Joan Collins, best known for her role as Alexis in the television show Dynasty, received an QBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), white the playwright Alan Ayckbourn was knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose best-sellers include The Day of the Jackal, becomes a Commander of the Order of the.BriBsh Empire, which entitles him to add the initials CBE after his name. The racing driver Damon Hill, the current Formula One world champion, was given an QBE for services to auto racing, Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parliament below and translate it point by point in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life

1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first constitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10,1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and traditions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Palace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.

2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belonging to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Hereditary Peers. Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).

The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.

3. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the front benches, the cross benches and the back benches.

4. There are nine Royal British orders of Knighthood. The highest of them is the order of the Garter, which was founded by King Edward III in 1348. It consists of two parts - a collar gold chain worn around the neck with St. George killing the Dragon, and an eight-pointed star with the words Honi sort qui pense (in French) meaning: Shame on them who think badly. The order is conferred to

175the members of the Royal family and 25 knights. The only commoner to have received the order was Sir Winston Churchill in 1957. This order gives the bearer the right to be buried in Westminster Abbey. The next important order is that of the Bath established during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413). The name of the order comes from the ceremony of bathing (the symbol of purity) before being given. There are three different degrees of the order, the highest being the first: 1) G.C.B. (Grand Cross of the Bath); 2) K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the Bath), 3) C.B. (Commander of the Bath). The highest military award in Great Britain is the Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 to mark the victory in the Crimean War. It is a bronze Maltese Cross with a Lion in its centre and the inscription For Valour under it. The cross is made from the metal of the Russian guns captured in Sevastopol during the Crimean War in 1855. 5. Several traditional ceremonies are held in the capital of Great Britain attracting the attention of many Londoners and their numerous domestic and foreign quests. One of them observed every day is the changing of the Household Guards quartered in the Chelsea and Wellington Barracks near the Buckingham Palace. The Brigade of Guards of the Queen (and the Royal family body-guards) consists of two regiments representing the nationalities of the United Kingdom. The English Grenadiers wear the bear skin caps twenty inches high. The Scots Guards wear a wide black ribbon on the back of their uniform colour 15 cm wide and 25 cm long.

All the Guards wear scarlet or red tunics and black trousers except the Scots Guards wearing their traditional regimental cloth. The Irish Guards wear a triple row of brass buttons and distinctive plumes. The second ceremonial event which can be seen at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays is Mounting the Guard. In this ceremony the Household Cavalry (the Royal .and Life Guards) take part. They wear breast and back shiny plates made of steel armour. The third ceremony is observed only once a year on the second Saturday in June at ab. 11.15a.m. and is called Trooping the Colour. The ceremony marks the official birthday of the Queen and presents an inspection parade of the Queen's own troops. This spectacular ceremony with the Queen riding side-saddle on a highly trained horse ahead of the Guards is watched by many hundreds of


Among other old traditions the most prominent are the ceremony of the Keys which is over 700 years old (since 1215 when King John was forced to sign the Magna Charta) and Lord Mayor's Show. The latter goes back to the mayoralty of Richard (Dick) Whittington, who was mayor four times (1396,1397,1406 and 1419). The Lord Mayor rides from the City in a splendid six horses-spanned coach through the streets of London and stops at Law Courts where he is presented to the Lord Chief of Justice, who hands him his sword of office after receiving a solemn promise to carry out his duties faithfully. The procession4hen continues to Westminster, and then returns to the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor.

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