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Rendering of information from a foreign language with the help of electronic devices represents the latest development in modern translation practice. Due to the fundamental research in the systems of algorithms and in the establishment of lexical equivalence in different layers of lexicon, machine translating has made considerable progress in recent years. Nevertheless, its employment remains restricted in the main to scientific and technological information and to the sphere of lexicographic work. That is because machine translation can be performed only on the basis of programmes elaborated by linguistically trained operators. Besides, preparing programmes for any matter is connected with great difficulties and takes much time, whereas the quality of translation is far from being always satisfactory even at the lexical level, i.e., at the level of words, which have direct equivalent lexemes in the target language. Considerably greater difficulties, which are insurmountable for machine translators, present morphological elements (endings, suffixes, prefixes, etc.). No smaller obstacles for machine translation are also syntactic units (word-combinations and sentences) with various means of connection between their components/parts. Besides, no present-day electronic devices performing translation possess the necessary lexical, grammatical and stylistic memory to provide the required stand-


ard of correct literary translation. Hence, the frequent violations of syntactic agreement and government between the parts of the sentence in machine translated texts. Neither can the machine translator select in its memory the correct order of words in word-combinations and sentences in the target language. As a result, any machine translation of present days needs a thorough proof reading and editing. Very often it takes no less time and effort and may be as tiresome as the usual hand-made translation of the same passage/work.1 A vivid illustration to the above-said may be the machine translated passage below. It was accomplished most recently in an electronic translation centre and reflects the latest achievement in this sphere of «mental» activity. The attentive student will not fail to notice in the italicized components of Ukrainian sentences several lexical, morphological and syntactic/structural irregularities, which have naturally to be corrected in the process of the final elaboration of the passage by the editing translator. Compare the texts below and find the inexactitudes in all sentences of the Ukrainian translation.


1. Communications and the EC

2. Public relations and telecom

munications must work hand in

hand to enable Europe really to

become one community. Martin

Bangemann looks to the 21st


3. «Communications have been

the driving force behind the

creation and growth of global


4. The European Commission

(EC) has expressed one vision

for the future of Europe in its

White Paper on Growth Com

petitiveness and Employment-

the Challenges and Ways

forward into the 21 st Century.

5. This document addresses



1. Повідомлення і EC

2. Суспільна інформація і

телекомунікація повинні

працювати рука в руці, щоб

дозволити Европу дійсно

стати одною співдружністю.

Мартін Бангеман дивиться до

21st століття.

3. «Комунікації були рушійна

сила ззаду створення і ріст

глобальних компаній».

4. Европейська Комісія (EC)

висловила одне бачення на

майбутній час Европи в Білій

Книзі наріст, конкурентно-

здатності й Занятість

Виклики і Шляхи Вперед у

21-го століття.

5. Цей документ адресує


1 Марчук Ю.Н. Проблеми машинного перевода. - М.: Наука, 1983.


the facts that, in the last 20 years, the European economy's rate of growth has declined from 4% to 2,5 % per year; unemployment has steadily risen; the investment ratio has fallen by 5%; and Europe's competitive position in relation to USA and Japan has worsened in regard to employment, export market share, research and development innovation and development of new products.


факти, що в останні 20 років норма (розряд) Европейської економіки (економії) росту знизилося від 4% до 2,5% за рік; безробіття постійно зросла; інвестиційне відношення впало на 5%; і конкурентно-здатне становище (позиція) Европи відносно США і Японії погіршувалося у відношенні зайнятості, експортної ринкової частки, дослідження і нововведення розвитку і розвитку нових виробів.



As has been noted, the sense of a language unit (the content of a whole matter) can be conveyed in the target language either in writing or in viva voce (orally). Depending on the form of conveying the sense/content, the following kinds or types of translating/interpreting are to be distinguished:

1. The written from a written matter translating, which rep

resents a literary/literary artistic or any other faithful sense-to-sense

translating from or into a foreign language. It may also be a free

interpreting performed in writing. The matter under translation may

be a belles-lettres passage (prose or poetry work), a scientific or

technical/newspaper passage / article, etc.

2. The oral from an oral matter interpreting, which is a regu

lar oral sense-to-sense rendering of a speech/radio or TV interview, or

recording which can proceed either in succession (after the whole

matter or part of it is heard) or simultaneously with its sounding. This

consecutive interpreting is a piecemeal performance and the inter

preter can make use of the time, while the speech/recording is pro

ceeding, for grasping its content and selecting the necessary means

of expression for some language units of the original matter. There

is also a possibility to interrupt (stop) the speaker/recording in order

to clarify some obscure place. As a result, consecutive interpreting

can take more or a little less time than the source language speech/


recording lasts. When it takes quite the same amount of time as the source language matter flows and the interpreter faithfully conveys its content, it is referred to as simultaneous interpreting/translating. Otherwise it remains only a consecutive interpreting. That can be well observed when interpreting a film, each still of which in the process of the simultaneous interpretation takes the time, allotted to it in the source language. In Ukrainian this kind of interpreting is called синхронний переклад. Therefore, simultaneous interpreting is performed within the same time limit, i.e., takes the same amount of time or a little more/less, than the source matter lasts.

3. The oral from a written matter interpreting is nothing

else than interpreting at sight. It can also proceed either simultane

ously with the process of getting acquainted with the content of the

written matter, or in succession (after each part of it is first read through

and comprehended). The former way of interpreting, if carried out

faithfully and exactly on time with the consecutive conveying of the

matter, may be considered simultaneous too. Usually, however, it is

a regular prepared beforehand kind of interpreting.

4. The written translating from an orally presented matter is,

as L.S.Barkhudarov points out1, a rare occurrence. This is because

a natural speech flow is too fast for putting it down in the target lan

guage (except for a shorthand presentation, which would be then a

regular translation, i.e. interpretation from a written matter). Translat

ing from an oral speech/recording is now and then resorted to for

training practices. When the matter to be rendered is produced at a

slower speed than the written translation, can naturally be performed

(and put down) in the target language.


Descriptive translating. One must bear in mind that it is the notional meaning of the source language unit and not always its morphological nature or structural form that is to be rendered in the target language. As a result, the target language unit, which equiva-lently/faithfully conveys the denotative/connotative meaning of the corresponding source language unit may not necessarily belong to the same language stratification level. Depending on the notion expressed by the source language word/lexeme, it may be conveyed in

1 See: Бархударов Л.С. Язьік й перевод. - М.: Междунар. отношения, 1975, р. 46-48.


the target language sometimes through a word-combination or even through a sentence, i.e., descriptively: indulge робити собі приємність у чомусь, віддаватися втіхам; infamous той (та, те), що має ганебну славу; inessentials предмети не першої необхідності, предмети розкошів; вщерть up to the brim, full to the brim; в'язи the nape of one's head, the back of the head; окраєць crust of a loaf, hunk of a bread; окривіти (осліпнути) to become lame (grow blind). Therefore, the descriptive way of conveying the sense of language units implies their structural transformation which is necessary to explicate their meaning with the help of hierarchically different target language units.

Descriptive translating/interpreting is very often employed to render the sense/meaning of idioms/phraseologisms, which have no equivalents in the target language. Cf. in English: (as) mad as a hatter цілком/геть божевільний; all my eye and Betty Martin! нісенітниці! (дурниці!); like one (twelve) o'clock миттю, вмить, прожогом. In Ukrainian: зуб на зуб не попадати to feel very cold (to feel freezing); навчить біда коржі з маком їсти hard times make one inventive; наговорити сім кіп/мішків гречаної вовни to say much nonsense.

No less often is descriptive translation employed when dealing with the notions of specific national lexicon: haggis геґґіс (зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяними крупами і спеціями впереміш із січеним овечим потрухом); porridge порідж (густа вівсяна каша зварена на воді чи молоці); Senate сенат (рада університету в Англії, складається переважно з професорів); sweet-meat солодка страва, приготовлена на цукрі чи медові.

Alongside the literal translating some explications of the meaning of specific national notions becomes sometimes necessary: вареники varenyky, middle-sized dumplings filled with curd, cherries, etc.; дума duma, Ukrainian historic epic song; кобзар kobzar, a performer of dumas to the accompaniment of the kobza (a mandoline-like four string musical instrument), the bandore (a flat multistringed Ukrainian musical instrument).

Descriptive translation is also employed in foot-notes to explain obscure places in narration. Cf. midland мідленд, діалект центральної Англії, a spiritual релігійна пісня америк. негрів.

Antonymic translation is employed for the sake of achieving


faithfulness in conveying content or the necessary expressiveness of sense units. It represents a way of rendering when an affirmative in structure language unit (word, word-combination or sentence) is conveyed via a negative in sense or structure but identical in content language unit, or vice versa: a negative in sense or structure sense unit is translated via an affirmative sense unit. Cf.: to have quite a few friends мати багато (немало) друзів; mind your own business не втручайся не в свої справи; take it easy не хвилюйся, не переживай; not infrequently часто; по time like the present лови момент (використовуй нагоду); я не нездужую нівроку (Т.Ш.) І feel/am perfectly well; не спитавши броду не лізь у воду look before you leap; немає лиха без добра, every dark cloud has a silver lining, etc.

The antonymic device is empolyed in the following cases:

1) when in the target language there is no direct equivalent for

the sense unit of the source language. For example, the noun «infe

riority» and the adjective «inferior» (like the verb phrase «to be infe

rior») have no single-word equivalents in Ukrainian. So their lexical

meaning can be conveyed either in a descriptive way or with the help

of their antonyms «superiority», «superior»: The defeat of the Notts

in last season's cup semi-finals was certainly the result of their physical

and tactical inferiority... (The Kyiv Post) Поразка клубу «Ноттінгем

Форест» у торішньому півфінальному матчі на кубок країни була •

наслідком переваги їхніх супротивників у фізичній і тактичній

підготовці (...була наслідком того, що гравці поступалися

супротивникові у фізичній і тактичній підготовці).1

The meaning of some English word-groups can also be conveyed in Ukrainian antonymically only: Baines was reading a newspaper in his shirt-sleeves. (Gr. Greene) Бейнз сидів без піджака і читав газету. Do you mind this? (M.Wilson) Ви не заперечуєте?

2) When the sense unit of the source language has two

negations of its own which create an affirmation: In those clothes

she was by no means non-elegant. (S.Maugham) У цьому вбранні

вона була досить елеґантна.

3. In order to achieve the necessary expressiveness in narration: I don't think it will hurt you, baby. (E.Hemingway) Думаю, вам воно не зашкодить, люба. A shell fell close. (Ibid.) Неподалік вибухнув снаряд. Не lurched away like a frightened horse barely


1 See more about transformations of the kind in part IV of this work.


missing the piano stool. (J.London) Він сахнувся вбік, мов сполоханий кінь, мало не перекинувши стільця коло піаніно (ледь обминаючи стільця біля піаніно).

4. In order to avoid the use of the same or identical structures close to each other in a text (stylistic aim and means):

Mrs. Strickland was a woman of character. (S.Maugham) Місіс Стрікленд була жінкою не без характеру (тобто, була жінка з характером). Most of the staff is not away. (M.Wilson) Більшість співробітників ще на роботі (ще не розійшлися). Savina said nothing. (Ibid.) Савіна промовчала (тобто нічого не відповіла).


1. The main terms and notions of the theory of translation/


2. Ambiguity of some terms concerning translation (free trans

lation vs. free adaptation/free interpretation, etc.).

3. Social and political significance of translating/interpreting.

4. Translating as a successful means of enriching national lan

guages, literatures, and cultures.

5. Translating/interpreting in establishing, maintaining, and

strengthening diplomatic, political, economic, scientific, cultural and

other relations between different nations in the world.

6. The role of translating/interpreting in providing the success

ful proceedings of international conferences, congresses, sympo

sia, meetings, etc.

7. Translating/interpreting and the progress of world science,

technology and dissemination of new ideas/doctrines.

8. Translating/interpreting while teaching and learning foreign


9. Literal, verbal, word-for-word translation and restrictions in

their use out of a contextual environment (cf. revolution оберт but

not революція).

10. The main difference between the interlinear and literary/

literary artistic kinds of translating.

11 The requirements to faithful prose and poetic translation/ versification.

12. The machine translation, its progress, present-day poten-


tialities and spheres of employment.

13.Kinds of translating/interpreting: a) the written from a written matter translating; b) the oral from an oral matter interpreting; c) the oral from a written matter interpreting; d) the written translating from an orally presented matter.

14. Ways and devices of translating (descriptive and antonymic translating).


As it has been pointed out in chapter I, the process of written or oral translating presents in reality different forms of decoding or transformation which the source language units undergo at the phonetic, morphological or syntactic levels: Cf.: ambition [aembijn] амбіція, geologist геолог, metaphor метафора, participate брати участь, пеgоtiаblе те (той), що піддається погодженню; рученьки beautiful little hands, лісовик (mythology) forest demon, etc. No lingual, i.e., structural or semantic identity have in the target language many English and Ukrainian specifically national notions of lexicon (culturally biased words), which are also to be decoded, i.e., transformed Cf.: Number 10 Downing Street Даунінґ Стріт №10 (резиденція прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії), haggis зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяною кашею впереміш із посіченими потрохами; кутя cooked peeled wheat, barley or rice mixed with ground poppy seeds, raisins and parceled kernels of nuts, honey and a little boiled water, etc.

Neither are there in the target language direct semantic or structural equivalents for many idioms and stable expressions of the source language. Hence, they must be decoded, i.e., transformed, Cf.: Tom, Dick and Harry перший-ліпший (з), будь-хто (з), to go to the altar одружуватися, виходити заміж; клепки не вистачає nobody home, he has got a screw loose, etc.

A considerable number of other source language units, however, may maintain their lingual form little changed or unchanged in the target language, as in many proper names and genuine internationalisms: Alfred Альфред/Ельфред, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост, Boston Бостон, president президент, affiх афікс, phoneme фонема, motor мотор, cybernetics кібернетика, export експортувати, soc/a/соціальний, nationally національно, etc. Such and the like words are, in fact, not translated in the true sense of the word but turned into the target language in their phonemic (sometimes also in their orthographic) form/structure. These and some other problems, which are of academic interest not only for the beginning translator but also for the teacher constitute the subject-matter of the succeeding chapters of this work.




There are no finally established rules yet as to how different kinds and types of English proper names should be translated into Ukrainian, though Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic structure, i.e., are transliterated in English. E.g.: Антоніна Antonina; Віра Vira; Лаврін Lavrin; Роман Roman; Авраменко Avramenko; Лавріненко Lavrinenko; Панібрат Panibrat; Іван Ivan; Тамара Tamara; Семен Semen; Петро Petro, Саливон Salyvon, etc.

Far from all Ukrainian proper names can be conveyed by way of literal translating, however. This is because some of our vowels and consonants have no equivalent sounds/phonemes in English and must be substituted for approximately similar sounds. Among these Ukrainian sounds and sound combinations are first of all those ones, which are rendered with the help of the letters or letter combinations и, й, ий, ій, я, ю, є, Ї, or partly through the letters ж, щ, х, ч, ц and palatalized consonants.

Ukraine as a newly independent state makes efforts to get rid of her former colonial past. One of the ways to assure this internationally was the adoption of the Romanization System which enabled the conveying of our personal names, family names (onomastics) and also all Ukrainian geographical names (toponymy) in accordance with some rules. Their system practically does not contain diacritics, i.e., different signs over or under the letters. The only sign of the kind being the sign ' for palatalization (cf. Щербань Shcherban', Львів L'viv) which is not difficult to add after a letter. This makes the system convenient and assured for direct and unambiguous reconstruction of any Ukrainian name form or word standing for a specifically national notion (реалія). E.g.: kutya or kutia, kobzar, varenyky, etc. The adopted Romanization System will also serve well as an aid to correct pronunciation of Ukrainian proper names by the foreigners, capable of reading the Roman letters, which more or less correctly convey the sounding forms of any Ukrainian name. The adopted Romanization System is internally consistent and based on sound linguistic principles. It is to be strictly observed by the students of foreign languages and the people responsible for its absolute implementation in this country and abroad. This is how the system is presented:




1. A a

2. Б б

3. В в

4. Г г

5. Ґ Ґ

6. Д д

7. Е е

8. Є є

9. Ж ж

10. З з

11.И и

12. І і

13. Ї ї

14. Й й

15. К к

16. Л л

17. М м

18. Н H

19. O o

20. П п

21. P p

22. С с

23. Т т

24. У у

25. Ф ф

26. Х х

27. Ц ц

28.Ч ч

29. Ш ш

30. Щ щ

31. Ю ю

32. Я я

33. Ь


А а


V/v W/w

H h

G g

D d

Е е

Ye ye

Zh zh

Z z

Y y


Уі/li yi/ii

Y y

K k


M м

N п

О о

Р р

R r

S s

T t

U u

F f

Kh kh

Ts ts

Ch/Tch ch/tch

Sh sh

Shch shch

Yu yu

Ya ya




A practical realization of this system can be illustrated on many Ukrainian names with the following substitution of Ukrainian letters (and sounds) for the completely, approximately or similarly corresponding English letters or letter combinations:

/и/ as у: Кирило Kyrylo, Марина Maryna, Микита Mykyta, Бобрик Bobryk, Бровари Brovary, Бобир Bobyr, Винник Vynnyk, Микитенко Mykytenko, Суми Sumy.

/и/ as ii, і or yi. The choice of a letter/letter combination in English to Romanize the sound is predetermined by its environment and position in the Ukrainian name/surname. When preceded by a vowel, the sound /j/ is to be conveyed by the letter і (as in «naive»): Заїка Zaika, Мисаїл Mysail, Українка Ukrainka, Зінаїда Zinaida, Турбаї Turbayi /or Turbaii.

When the Ukrainian letter Ї initiates the proper name/surname, the sound expressed by it has to be conveyed through the yi letter combination: Ївга Yivha, їздець Yizdets, їжакевич Yizhakevych.

The voiced /й/ sound is also to be conveyed through the letter у: Йосип Yosyp, Йовенко Yovenko.

Very often the /й/ sound in Ukrainian is used with the preceding /i/ or /и/ sound. When preceded by the /i/ sound it is conveyed in English as ii or iy: Андрій Andrii/Andriy, Гулій Hulii/Huliy, Гафійка Hafiika/Hafiyka, Матвійчук Matviichuk/Matviychuk, Павлійчук Pavliichuk/Pavliychuk, etc. When the /й/ sound is preceded by /и/ it is to be conveyed as yi: Горовий Horovyi, Гулий Hulyi, Сірий Siryi, Коломийченко Kolomyichenko, Гнідий Hnidyi.

As to the sounds expressed by the Ukrainian letters я, ю, є they are to be conveyed through the English letter combinations ya, yu, ye respectively or through ia, iu, ie Cf.: ya: Яким Yakym, Ярема Yarema, but: Забіяка Zabiyaka/Zabiaka, Мусіяка Musiyaka/Musiiaka.

The sound expressed through the Ukrainian letter я in the final position of a word or traditional proper name can sometimes be conveyed in English by the ia rarely ya letter combinations. It is mostly observed in traditional proper names like Марія, Софія, Maria, Sofia, Юлія Yulia, Югославія Yugoslavia, Малазія Malasia, but: Кенія Kenya. Some common in English and Ukrainian proper names and also foreign place names may have йа for the ia letter combinations as well: Maria Марія/Мерайя, Malaya Малайя.

It is common knowledge that present-day English despite the existence of some less hard consonants like the /I/ after the IiI, /i:/ and /ai/ sounds (cf. little, leave, like, controlling, etc.) is practically devoid of palatalization. As a result, all Ukrainian palatalized consonants usually obtain a hard pronunciation in English: Альвіна Alvina, Бенедь Bened, Василь Vasyl', Близько Vlyzko, Гринь Hryn, Кость Kost; Кусько Kusko, Луцьк Lutsk, Редько Redko. In linguistic papers these and the like proper names, however, may have a sign for palatalization ('): Al'vina, Kost', Red'ko, Bened', Vlyz'ko, Luts'k, Lots', Kozlovs'kyi, Koval', Mel'nyk, etc.

As to the Ukrainian consonant phonemes, which have no direct equivalents in the English language, they can mostly be conveyed through analogous English sounds, sometimes formed by different letter combinations. Thus, the Ukrainian /г/ sound is to be conveyed through the similar though not identical voiceless English /h/ phoneme: Гаврило Havrylo, Григір Hryhir, Гайдай Haidai, Григораш Hryhorash, Громак Hromak, Гмиря Hmyrya. This sound is also observed in such nouns/proper names as hobby гоббі, maharajah магараджа, Hyderabad Гайдерабад, Huxley Гакслі, etc.

The Ukrainian /ж/ phoneme is conveyed with the help of the zh letter combination: Жук Zhuk, Жанна Zhanna, Божій Bozhiy, Журавель, Zhuravel', Жуйхліб Zhuikhlib, Женченко Zhenchenko, Журба Zhurba, Неїжмак Neyizhmak, Вражливий Vrazhlyvyi.

The Ukrainian /x/ sound is conveyed in English through the kh letter combination: Лахно Lakhno, Остахів Ostakhiv, Хома Khoma, Химии Khymych, Харків Kharkiv, Ховрах Khovrakh, Охрімчук Okhrimchuk.

As to the similar in the Ukrainian and English languages /ч/ sound it may be conveyed in two ways. Traditionally the letter combinations ch or tch always were and are still used for the purpose: Качанів Kachaniv, Клочко Klochko/Klotchko, Костюченко Kostyuchenko/Kostiutchenko, Кочур Kochur/Kotchur, Чернушенко Chernushenko/Tchernushenko, Чорний Chornyi/Tchornyi. Though the letter combination tch is less and less often used at present.

Similarly with the Ukrainian /шч/ sound which has no equivalent in English. Traditionally it was conveyed in English through the letter combination shch (sh+ch). The Ukrainian proper nouns and especially geographical names and names of public bodies containing щ can be conveyed as follows: Щаденко as Shchadenko, Щербак as Shcherbak, Щедрій as Shchedrii, Безпощадний as Bezposhchadnyi etc.

For all other Ukrainian consonant phonemes there are corresponding letters and letter combinations in English which convey more or less similar sounds, though they may belong in both the languages to the same articulatory zones (labial, dental, alveolar, etc.). For example, the Ukrainian /б/ and /п/ phonemes are substituted for the English plosives /b/ and /p/: Борис Borys, Бойчук Boichuk, Петро Petro, Панібудьласка Panibud'laska. The consonant phonemes /д/,/т/,/Н/, In/, Id, Iu/ and their palatalized variants /д'/, /т'/, /н7, /л'/, /с'/, /ц1/ are substituted respectively for the English alveolar Id/, /t/, /n/, /I/, Is/, /is/, though the latter, which is common knowledge to everybody, differ greatly by their articulatory characteristics from the Ukrainian phonemes. Cf.: Дорош Dorosh, Ткаченко Tkachenko, Німенко Nimenko, Льольо Lyolyo, Ціпко Tsipko, Цвіркун Ts'virkun, Циба Tsyba, Гороть Horot', Ковальчук Koval'chuk, Гаврись Havrys', etc.

Only approximate similarity can also be observed in most cases between the Ukrainian /в/ phoneme which is much closer when used in the initial position to the English /w/ than to its traditional substitute (in translations from the Ukrainian) /v/ phoneme as in the proper nouns like: Володимир Volodymyr, Вовчок Vovchok, Добривечір Dobryvechir, Убийвовк Ubyivovk. But Віль, of course, must be only Will. Consequently Вовченко, Вареник may also be Wowchenko, Warenyk and Вовчок also Wowchok.

When in the position between two vowels or between a vowel and a palatalized consonant, the Ukrainian /в/ sound somewhat resembles the English/v/ phoneme, however: Сиваченко Syvachenko, Винниченко Vynnychenko, Яворівський Yavorivskyi, Швайка Shvaika, Швидюк Shvydiuk/ Shvydyuk.

Undoubtedly the closest to the English consonant phonemes are the Ukrainian /к/, /ґ/ and /з/ phonemes. Cf.: Кавун Kavun, Зінаїда Zinaida, Зайченко Zaichenko, Ґудзій Gudziy/Gudzii. But there are no similar substitutes in English for our palatalized /дз'/ sound which will be read by the English native speakers as /dz/ only as in Ґедзь Gedz', Ґудзь Gudz', and others.

There is very little similarity, however, between the Ukrainian vibrant /p/ and the English /r/ phoneme belonging in both these languages to different articulatory zones. Nevertheless the English /r/ is always used in translations of proper names to substitute the Ukrainian /p/ and vice versa: Barbara Барбара, Robert Роберт, Rupert Руперт, Роман Roman, Новодворський Novodvors'kyi, Черкасенко Cherkasenko.

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