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Sometimes a faithful translation of analogous units of the peculiar national lexicon can be achieved only with the help of an additional explications as in the examples like special school ( / ); summer school ( , , ); caravanning /, - . -

It is easy to notice that the denotative meaning of the first two of the above-given culturally biased units of national lexicon are practically identical in English and Ukrainian. The difference is in a few extralingual details only. Thus, summer school in Gr. Britain is not free of charge. Besides, it functions during the summer holidays when the rooms in schools and universities are not occupied by the students. One can assume, therefore, that the notions like these are only conventionally different . They are closer to regular semantic equivalents, though not devoid of some extralingual details in the source language. Our students must be aware of such differences when dealing with the kind of units of the specifically national lexicon of the source language. This can not be said, naturally, about caravanning, which is a purely American phenomenon as yet.



Exercise I. Pick up the units of the English specifically national lexicon in the sentences below. Define their sphere of usage and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. You know as I do that some students are capable of making you, the teachers, look bad. These are atypical students. Some of our best lessons fall flat because of these students. (A.Dodding) 2. Some ignorant jackass on Fleet Street has got together a list of cures by Stillman. (A.Cronin) 3. Sir Robert was surprised and said that this Argentine scheme (Canal Company Scheme) was known to be a commonplace Stock Exchange swindle. (O.Wilde) 4. At this point of the story enters the Great Detective, specially sent by or through Scotland Yard. (St. Leacock) 5. You must certainly send it (the painting) next year to Grosvenor. (O.Wilde) 6. He himself had a job in Whitehall of national importance. (R.AIdington) 7. Do you realize he's the first Distinguished Service Cross we've had in this town? (U.Gow, A.Dusseau) 8. The serious part of the dinner comprised roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, being served as sweet course before the meal. (Bennet) 9. Carrie established a little portable gas stove for the preparation of small lunches, oysters, Welsh rarebits, and the like... (T.Dreiser) 10.1 can't tell one tune from another. I don't know Home Sweet Home from God save the King. (S.Leacock) 11. An alderman from Hampshire was reported as saying that the recommended increase in school-joining age would possibly be raised to six years. (Herald Intern. Tribune) 12. Come, come he said, you are flurried, Mr. Lockwood. (E.Bronte) 13. And potbellied little coloured children fought hunger and sleepness while Lanny tried to


169teach them the three R's. (P.Abrahams) 14. The lady looked somewhat surprised. His Lordship arrived first escorting Mrs. Mallaby. (A.Christie) 15. Down Whitehall, under the grey easterly sky, thelow-ers of Westminster came for a second in view. 16. And, removing their hats, they passed the Cenotaph. (J.Galsworthy) 17. She was busy loading the table with high tea. 18. He was afraid that as K.C.he would get no work. (S.Maugham) 19. Mr. Huges was on the Bench. (Gordon) 20. I can get you a seat in the Distinguished Strangers' Gallery. (.J.Galsworthy)

Exercise II. Definite the ways in which the Ukrainian units of the national lexicon are translated (or should be translated) intoEngflsh.

A. 1. President Leonid Kuchma issued a decree obliging college graduates to work in the State sector after graduation. 2. The Ukrainian Nuclear Power Industry Workers' Union addressed their demand to President Leonid Kuchma, Verkhovna Rada, and the Cabinet ol Ministers. 3. Resulting from the sale of 60 per cent of an emission of municipal loan bonds totalling 15.000 hryvnias, the Kharkiv municipality will purchase 20 used Mercedes minibuses. 4. She is one of the 20 top ballet stars who will take part in the Christmas season of international ballet at London Albert Hall, opening on Boxing Day. 5. Photo reproductions in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg show huge burial mounds of Chernihiv princes and boyars of the 11th-12th centuries. 6. The desire to create, invent and experiment leads schoolchildren of Lviv and the Lviv Region to the Evrika Junior Academy of Sciences. 7. In 1931 Arkadiy Filipenko was enrolled at the robitfak, worker's faculty, under the Lysenko Music and Drama School. 8. His first teacher - a kindly old herdsman - taught him to play on a simple reedpipe, sopilka, when he was only nine. 9. Then music and songs were performed by the Trio of Bandore Players. 10. Both families call the groom and the bride knyaz and knyahynya (prince and princess), the best men are boyaryns, the bridesmaids are druzhky. 11. The occasion was celebrated by Ukrainian-families with kutya (boiled peeled barley or wheat/rice with honey ard ground popy seeds). 12. There are several types of pysanky. one when the egg is painted in one colour; when with the aid of a special sharp tool one scratches the pictures on the painted egg (such-an egg is called dryapanka or scrobanka); when one puts thin fayers of wax on the egg while dipping the latter in paint, usually going from light colors to dark (krapanka); when the egg is painted with oil paint (malyovanka); and, finally, when with the help of a special instrument one draws a picture with wax, then fills it with different colours.


B. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following traditional folk rites, customs, and religious feasts of our people:

1. commemoration of ancestors; 2. Whitsuntide/Whitsunday, Pentacost; 3. the feast of Presentation; 4. to bless water; 5. stuffed cabbage (leafs); 6. Holy supper; 7. pious and righteous; 8. Epiphany; 9. the feast of the Annunciation; 10. Warm Alexis; 11. miracle-workers; 12. Willow Sunday/Palm Sunday; 13. Passion Friday; 14. Holy Shroud; 15. the Easter Matins; 16. the High mess; 17. unleavened bread; 18. Seeing off Sunday; 19. Forty Martyrs; 20. water nymphs; 21. Maccabees' Day; 22. the Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord; 23. the Feast of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin; 24. Twelfth-day; 25. the pre-Christmas fast; 26. The Birthday of the most Holy Mother of God; 27. The Elevation of the Holy Cross; 28. The Feast of Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God; 29. The Archangel Michael's Day; 30. St. John the Baptist.

C. Read the Ukrainian passage below, identify the culturally biased notions in it and translate it into English.

( ), 20 - 621 . , () . ( ) , . , , ' . , ( ): , ( ), . ' ( ), ( ), ( ) . , , . . , ( , , ). ,

171 .

Exercise III. Read carefully the sentences containing some American/British nationally peculiar notions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

A. 1. USAir has gone to sporks, a combination of fork and spoon to cut down on the number of utensils used. The USA Today asked some Road Warriors who are best described as grumpy gourmands because they probably eat more meals on jets than at home. Here's what they say: The scrambled eggs were OK, moist with decent flavour. The waffles were almost soggy. The coffee was good, but they always serve it in a Styrofoam cup, which drives me crazy. (J.Y.Oakton) 2) Breakfast was a Cheddar cheese omelette, it not only appeared to be stable - as compared to some that swim in unidentifiable liquid - but it also tasted like Cheddar cheese and eggs. It was enough cholesterol to have caused a block in my arteries, but it was good. 3) I had the grilled chicken, it was a good portion, but it was dry with a fake, smoked flavour. The salad was fresh and cresp. But it was served in a bowl, not on a plate. The wheat roll was moist and served with real butter. For dessert, I had chocolate cake. But, it was too sweet, which was good. (K.W.) 4) I had two choices for breakfast: cold cereal or an omelet. I had Quaker Oat Square, a small carton of 2 milk, low-flat peach yoghurt, orange juice and a banana. 5) This time, the plate had an ample amount of grapes, pineapple and orange slices, but only one strawberry. I didn't eat the yoghurt or the dry cereal, but I did have a warm blueberry muffin. 6) They served a health-food concoction that tasted like the cardboard box it came in. It was a sort of corn-flavored, crispy, chiplike thing, it had no flavour at all. We also had fruit. I like that they serve milk, but I hate that low-fat stuff, it insipid - all airline food is insipid.

B. Translate the list of meals of a common American restaurant.

1. Traditional barbeque foods: smoked brisket and ham, or turkey; pig picking pork, smoked chicken wings, baby back ribs (half-slab, full slab), spare ribs (short ends, long ends); grilled chicken and greens; Texas chicken, a boneless breast grilled with spicy Texas sauce, topped with thinly sliced smoked brisket and melted Cheddar cheese; burnt ends, smoked apple sausage or brisket. Smoked ribs... tender meaty ribs basket with maple - mustard, glaze, slow roasted and then lightly grilled; hickory chicken... 1/2 chicken smoked and basted with the original BBQ (barbecue) sauce; burnt ends... tender chunks of twice-smoked brisket drenched in our famous sauce;

Texas-size beef ribs marinated, slow-smoked and flame-grilled. 2. Garnishes: BBQ baked beans, cole slaw and potato salad, whole wheat, white bread or buns, pickled and barbecue sauce. 3. Apetizers: cheese and assorted crackers, French onion soup, onion straws, corn fritters (hot and fresh long ends), a hickory-grinned chicken breast sliced and served atop, fresh veggies and greens, with our honey-mustard dressing; assorted relishes; vegetable tray with dip. 4. Accompaniments: dirty rice, tossed salads. 5. Desserts: creamy cheesecake, chocolate peanut butter, ice-cream pie; old fashioned cheesecake, apple fritters served hot with powdered sugar and sweet honey butter.

Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:

/, , , , , , , , (. ); , , , , , /, / ; , , , , (), , , , , , , , , , , /, , , , , , , ( ), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrainian.

A. 10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Commons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Parliament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, bacon, Yorkshire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, farthing, guinea, sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, modern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leggings, stretches, tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.

B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the meaning of peculiarly American government offices and their principal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of translation which you employ for the purpose.

The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia

173and America has no government but only an administration or to be more precise, a president's administration. The latter in its turn has no ministries and consequently no ministers but departments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thirteen departments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Department, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as announced by the presidential secretary. The only exception is the Justice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attorney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list include only four departments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Commerce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other departments in the U.S. administration government have Under Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy ministers in other countries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Interior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Department which include building roads, and overseeing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).

Exercise VI. Pick out the nationally specific English notions in the text below and then translate them in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The former Beatle Paul McCartney was awarded a knighthood in the New Year's honours list. Among other showbiz figures receiving honors. Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer of Evita, Phantom of the Opera and Jesus Christ Superstar becomes Lord Lloyd Webber allowing him to sit in the House of Lords. Among others recognized: The actress Joan Collins, best known for her role as Alexis in the television show Dynasty, received an QBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), white the playwright Alan Ayckbourn was knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose best-sellers include The Day of the Jackal, becomes a Commander of the Order of the.BriBsh Empire, which entitles him to add the initials CBE after his name. The racing driver Damon Hill, the current Formula One world champion, was given an QBE for services to auto racing, Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parliament below and translate it point by point in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life

1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first constitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10,1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and traditions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Palace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.

2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belonging to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Hereditary Peers. Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).

The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.

3. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the front benches, the cross benches and the back benches.

4. There are nine Royal British orders of Knighthood. The highest of them is the order of the Garter, which was founded by King Edward III in 1348. It consists of two parts - a collar gold chain worn around the neck with St. George killing the Dragon, and an eight-pointed star with the words Honi sort qui pense (in French) meaning: Shame on them who think badly. The order is conferred to

175the members of the Royal family and 25 knights. The only commoner to have received the order was Sir Winston Churchill in 1957. This order gives the bearer the right to be buried in Westminster Abbey. The next important order is that of the Bath established during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413). The name of the order comes from the ceremony of bathing (the symbol of purity) before being given. There are three different degrees of the order, the highest being the first: 1) G.C.B. (Grand Cross of the Bath); 2) K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the Bath), 3) C.B. (Commander of the Bath). The highest military award in Great Britain is the Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 to mark the victory in the Crimean War. It is a bronze Maltese Cross with a Lion in its centre and the inscription For Valour under it. The cross is made from the metal of the Russian guns captured in Sevastopol during the Crimean War in 1855. 5. Several traditional ceremonies are held in the capital of Great Britain attracting the attention of many Londoners and their numerous domestic and foreign quests. One of them observed every day is the changing of the Household Guards quartered in the Chelsea and Wellington Barracks near the Buckingham Palace. The Brigade of Guards of the Queen (and the Royal family body-guards) consists of two regiments representing the nationalities of the United Kingdom. The English Grenadiers wear the bear skin caps twenty inches high. The Scots Guards wear a wide black ribbon on the back of their uniform colour 15 cm wide and 25 cm long.

All the Guards wear scarlet or red tunics and black trousers except the Scots Guards wearing their traditional regimental cloth. The Irish Guards wear a triple row of brass buttons and distinctive plumes. The second ceremonial event which can be seen at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays is Mounting the Guard. In this ceremony the Household Cavalry (the Royal .and Life Guards) take part. They wear breast and back shiny plates made of steel armour. The third ceremony is observed only once a year on the second Saturday in June at ab. 11.15a.m. and is called Trooping the Colour. The ceremony marks the official birthday of the Queen and presents an inspection parade of the Queen's own troops. This spectacular ceremony with the Queen riding side-saddle on a highly trained horse ahead of the Guards is watched by many hundreds of


Among other old traditions the most prominent are the ceremony of the Keys which is over 700 years old (since 1215 when King John was forced to sign the Magna Charta) and Lord Mayor's Show. The latter goes back to the mayoralty of Richard (Dick) Whittington, who was mayor four times (1396,1397,1406 and 1419). The Lord Mayor rides from the City in a splendid six horses-spanned coach through the streets of London and stops at Law Courts where he is presented to the Lord Chief of Justice, who hands him his sword of office after receiving a solemn promise to carry out his duties faithfully. The procession4hen continues to Westminster, and then returns to the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor.



Exercise VIII. Read the stories A, B, C, D, E below, pick out the units of the English culturally biased lexicon and translate the stories into Ukrainian.


An Englishman's day - and who better to describe it than an Englishman's wife? It begins when, ignoring me, he sits down to breakfast with his morning paper. As he scans the headlines (or the racing results) there is nothing he likes better than his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar (porridge if he lives in the North) followed by fried bacon and eggs, marmalade and toast, the whole accompanied by tea or coffee. But whether he in fact gets such a meal depends on the state of my housekeeping budget! After breakfast, except on Sundays and (in many cases) Saturdays which are holidays, he sets off to work by train, tube, car, motor scooter, motor bike or even on his own two feet. The time he sets out depends in large degree upon whether he is what might colloquially be termed a striver (one who works himself), a driver (one who sees..that others works) or a thriver (one who profits from others work). If he is a striver, he will jostle along with thousands like him on the 7.20, probably still reading his paper (or somebody else's) and studying the successes (or otherwise) of his favourite team.

The drivers customarily depart about an hour later while the thrivers travel up to the City in great style about an hour later. But be he striver, driver or thriver-, he will enjoy his tea or coffee break around about 11. The tea or coffee is usually brought to the factory bench or office desk.

Then, at mid-day, everything stops for lunch. Most offices and small shops close for an hour, say from 1 to 2, and the city pavements are thronged with people on their way to cafes. Factory workers usually eat in their canteens.

The usual mid-day meal usually consists of two courses - a meat course accompanied by plenty of vegetables, followed by a sweet dish, perhaps fruit pudding and custard with tea or coffee to finish. Most Englishmen like what they call good plain food, not messed about with. They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Otherwise they are likely to refuse it. Usually they like beef steaks, chops, roast beef and Yorkshire pudding and fried fish and chipped potatoes.

They are in the main not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. Then back to work again, with another break in the middle of the afternoon, once again for tea or coffee, sometimes with a cake or biscuit.

The working day finishes at time between 4 and 6, with the thrivers usually first home and the strivers last. On arrival home, many Englishmen seem to like to inspect their gardens before their evening meal.

This goes under various names - tea, high tea, dinner or supper depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it. Usually a savoury meat course is followed by stewed fruit or cake and tea. His evening meal over, the Englishman might do a bit of gardening and then have a walk to the local for a quick one. The local means the nearest beer house while a quick one means a drink (alcoholic, of course!) taking anything from half-an-hour to three hours to imbibe! There is plenty of lively, congenial company at the local and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards or discuss the weather or the current situation.

But if the Englishman stays at home, he might listen to the radio, watch television, talk, read or pursue his favourite hobby. Then at any time between 10 and 12 he will have his nightcap - a drink accompanied by a snack - and then off to bed ready for tomorrow. (S. Andrews)

B. You Say Pasta, We Say Noodle It's too soon to declare peace in the world's pasta wars. But the combatants finally sat down together at the table. U.S. pasta-makers have been angered over European Union subsidies, which sometimes made Italian pasta cheaper than American brands on U.S. grocery shelves. Afew months ago, the U.S. International Trade Commission decided there was merit to American pastamakers' com-

plaints about being hurt by Italian and Turkish imports. No settlement has been reached yet. Italy's MenconLwas quick to recall how national pride was pricked earlier this year by a claim from some U.S. experts that pasta could be bad for some people, especially the overweight. Focusing on the common goal of increasing pasta consumption, savvy spaghetti sellers aren't overlooking any market. C. Fast Food Burgers

Two quick service restaurants specializing in burgers are attracting locals and foreigners alike. If you're looking for a tasty, cheap meal in a convenient location, Kentucky Beirut Chicken and Boston Burger, both located in the center of Kyiv, measure up Kentucky Beirut Chicken wins on the burger front. Their Lebanese-seasoned burgers - it's a secret recipe, - are crave-indicing. They come on crisp buns with a variety of fixings that are in the plate option. A plate is like getting a full meal deal at McDonald's, only in Kyiv it includes a hamburger or cheesburger, French fries, pickles and coleslaw. KBC's drawback is Boston Burger's saving - French fries. While KBC's tend to be soggy and too cool, Boston Burger's are perfect, string-like morsels. Boston Burger's hamburgers are fine, but they're missing a special touch. They're simply a bland hunk of meat, with wilted lettuce and ketchup. KBC has an advantage in that it cooks as food is ordered, whereas Boston Burger premakes a bunch of sandwiches, which means they sometimes are served lukewarm and not-so-fresh. Until the Big Mac makes its way to Kyiv, Boston Burger and Kentucky Beirut Chicken will fill that fast-food burger whole in your stomach.

D. the Candymaker's Witness

A candymaker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the famous throughout America Christmas Candy Cane on which he incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry and death of Jesus Christ.

He began with a hard candy stick of pure white, which symbolizes the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus; and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the Church, and the firmness of the promises of God. This candy cane was made in the form of the letter J to represent the name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It could also represent the staff of the Good Shepherd with which he reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.

Thinking that the only white candy was somewhat plain, the candymaker stained it with red stripes. He used three small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus and the large red stripe was for the blood that was shed by Christ on the cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life.

Unfortunately, in America the candy became known only as a sweet Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who have eyes to see and ears to hear.

E. Scotland

It is one of those places where civilization has not tramped all before it. Scotland has uniqely combined the untouched beauty of nature with the kind of facilities that guarantee comfort.

Your impressions from Scotland very much depend on you, on how open you are to new cultures and traditions of this country. Start your trip with the cities and then go deep to the Highlands. Step by step you will be unweiling the quiet magic of this miraculous place and falling in love with its unforgettable authenticity, which gets smoothly with modernity. Tartan is no longer just an echo from the past. Any bank or football team has its own tartan. Any local family can have a tartan by just registering it at the Scottish tartan Society. And it is not only fashion that reflects a changing consciousness. Over the last 10-15 years Scots seem to have become more conscious of their national identity, just as we Ukrainians have. They do not only debate their more independent status, but wear kilts more often - for weddings and for parties, even for work. They feel proud and comfortable on these double-pleated skirts, even when they have to pay something in the region on of 600 USD for a full outfit.

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