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Exercise IX. Offer corresponding Ukrainian versions for the following English proverbs and sayings:

A. speak of devil and he will appear; to teach the dog to bark; you can not wash charcoal white; velvet paws hide sharp paws; he that will strive, must rise at five; life is not all cakes and ale; little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape; physician, heal thyself rule with the rod of iron; like teacher, like pupil; like master, like land; like father, like son; like master, like servant; like author, like book; like mistress, like maid; like priest, like people; as the tree, so the fruits; as old clock crows, so doth the young; like begets like; as is trie gardener so is the garden; like carpenter, like chips; as is the workman, so is the work; like likes like; like draws to like; like cures; like sayings.

B. Offer English semantic analogies/equivalents for the Ukrainian proverbs and sayings below. Use part A for the purpose where necessary.

Який учитель, такий і учень; який господар, таке й поле; яка хата, такий тин/ який батько, такий син; який автор, така й книжка; який, піп, така й парафія/ зі злої трави - лихе сіно; тернина грушок не родить; яке коріння, таке й насіння; яблуко від яблуні недалеко падає; яка пряжа, таке й полотно; по роботі пізнати майстра, який Яків - стільки й дяки; який пастух, така й череда, які сбмі, такі й сани; яка грушка, така й юшка; рибак рибака впізнає

205здалека; видно пана по халявах; який їхав, таку й здибав/стрів; малі злодії попадаються - великі вириваються.

Exercise X. Translate the story below into Ukrainian. Use the list of idioms below where necessary for the purpose.

Up, Up and Away

On Monday, out of the clear sky, the local travel agent telephoned Janice to tell her that she had won two tickets to the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta in New Mexico.

Janice and John, her husband, had always wanted to go ballooning at the festival, but they thought that such a trip was beyond their reach. She was walking on air when she telephoned John to tell him the good news. At first, John thought that Janice was joking and full of hot air, but when he realized that she was not building castles in the air, his annoyance vanished into thin air. As soon as John came home from work, Janice and John eagerly talked about the trip. Soon their plans grew by leaps and bounds. Janice's head was in the clouds all the time because she was anticipating the trip and her first balloon ride.

Two weeks before the trip, Janice was rushed to the hospital. After examining her, the doctor burst her bubble when he said that she would need an operation. The doctor's decision went over like a lead ballon. Janice was devastated. Now their balloon vacation was up in the air. She knew that without the free tickets, the cost of the trip would be sky high. But Janice was lucky. The operation was not serious, and she begged the doctor to let her go on the trip. One week later, Janice and John took their dream trip. They were on cloud nine as their balloon rose into the blue sky. Janice smiled and thought: sometimes it pays to reach for the sky.

Idioms to the story:

1. The sky's the limit - there is upper limit;

2. Out of the clear blue sky - suddenly; without warning;

3. Go sky high - go very high;

4. Walk on air - be very happy; euphoric;

5. By leaps and bounds - rapidly;

6. Full of hot air - talking nonsense;

7. Go fly a kite - go away and stop bothering me;

8. Burst one's bubble - disillusion someone;

9. Have one's head in the clouds - be unaware of what is going on;

10. Up in the air- undecided; uncertain;

11. Out of thin air - out of nowhere; out of nothing; high;

12. Vanish into thin air - disappear leaving a trace;

13. On cloud nine - very happy;

14. Reach for the sky - aspire to something; set one's goals

15. Beyond one's reach - more than one can afford;

16. Under a cloud of suspicion - be suspected of something;

17. Go over like a lead balloon - not well received by


18. As high as a kite - very happy;

19. Breath of fresh air - new, fresh, and imaginative approach;

20. Build castles in the air-daydream; make plans that never

come true.



The article, both the definite and indefinite, is a functional word serving to identify or determine the noun (cf. to work-the work), the superlative degree of its quality (thetallesttree) or the order of nouns in a word-group (the first step) or in a row of similar nouns. In some prepositional phrases and word-combinations the definite and indefinite articles, however, may change their lexico-grammatical nature (become a particle), as in the expression the more, the better (чим більше, тим краще), or acquire some peculiar grammatical, functional and lexical meaning (the Browns/Petrenkos подружжя Браунів/ Петренків); the article may be lexicalized as in the Alps/the Carpathians Альпи/Карпати, at the baker's/butcher's у пекаря/ м'ясника (в хлібному /м'ясному магазині). Such and the like lexicalized articles, naturally, in no way weaken or lose their determining, i.e., grammatical function. As a result, their lexical meaning is inseparable in these cases from their functional meaning. The determining and lexicalizing nature of the definite and indefinite articles also manifests itself in several set expressions (cf. in the cart, in a word, what a pity, all of a sudden, etc.)

1). On several other occasions the definite/indefinite article may acquire some lexical meaning in contextual environment (only for a time) and thus serve as a peculiar means of «expressive connotation»1 . This kind of articles is each time endowed in different contextual environments with some quite different meaning, which may be, nevertheless, of implicitly different semantic and lexico-gram-matical/logically-grammatical type, as for instance, that of a demonstrative, possessive, identifying, indefinite or some other pronoun: Cf.: He lived more poorly than an artisan. (S. Maugham) Жив він бідніше за будь-якого ремісника. Carot never sold a picture. (Ibid) Каро не продав жодної картини/ні однієї картини.

2) That of an adjunctive/identifying adjective and a specifying or modal particle:... and she had acquired a reputation for neatness

1 See: Rayevska N.M. Modern English Grammar. - Київ, Вища школа, Головне вид-во, 1976, p. 86.


and accuracy (Maugham) і вона здобула за ретельно виконану роботу солідну репутацію. She would have called him a fish. (Carrol) Вона назвала б його просто карасем.

3) A distinctly nominal or rather nominalizing meaning. The latter can be explicitly illustrated in the following sentence. He (Mr. Gills) took it (the bottle) up and having surveyed and smelt it said with extraordinary expression: «The?» «The», returned the instrument maker. (C. Dickens)

The real meaning of thus emphasized article can be disclosed only in the sentence that follows, where Mr. Gills fills the glass with liquour and drinks it. Without the broader context it would certainly be impossible to guess what this definite nominalizing article stands for in the extract. Nor is it always easy for our students to identify in some sentences the rhematic and the thematic function of articles and to express their meaning. Therefore, the occurrence of lexically meaningful articles is not occasional or accidental, for it is predetermined by context. Due to this, the number of lexically meaningful articles in different speech substyles often varies. Their occurrence can also depend on the personal taste of the author who may be more or less inclined to use them in his narrative. But whatever their quantity, none of the lexically meaningful articles should be ignored or overlooked in the passage under translation and its meaning must be correctly rendered in the target language.

In order to faithfully convey each kind of the aforementioned meaningful articles, the student will be advised first of all to subject the whole passage, which is to be translated, to a thorough content analysis in order to select possible lexical substitutes for the articles in the target language. The substitutes in languages like Ukrainian (or Russian), which have no functionals of the kind, can differ by their logico-grammatical nature, as well as be contextually synonymous. Because of this the choice of the contextually equivalent substitutes depends much on the translator who, when selecting a fitting lexical equivalent for the article, has to take some factors into consideration. These include first of all the semantic factor playing a predominant role, and the stylistic factor eliminating an unnecessary repetition of the same equivalent substitute in sentences close by. In other words, the co-occurrence of the same synonymous substitutes must be strictly regulated. Besides, the translator has to keep it in mind, that some contextual meanings of the definite article may seem similar to those of the indefinite article and vice versa. Hence, the translator should be no less attentive to the style of his target lan-


guage passage which in its turn will help him achieve a faithful translation of sentences or the passage as a whole, where both the defining and the nominalizing lexically charged articles are used.

When conveying the lexical meanings of the definite and indefinite articles into Ukrainian, attention should be paid to their functional meanings in the sentence/word-combinations. Thus, the meanings of the definite article are usually expressed through different Ukrainian attributive pronouns, adjectives, participles, adverbs or cardinal/ordinal numerals. The meaning of the numeral one, on the other hand, is always expressed only through the indefinite article, which is historically derived from this part of speech. Cf.: Most of felllows in the Quarters share a studio. (Maugham) Багато хлопців з латинського кварталу орендують удвох одну студію.

The nominalizing articles are mostly rendered through the parts of speech having the functions of attributes to the noun: «...I believe that a young person in a city tea-shop has left her situation. (Maugham) ...Гадаю, водній із кав'ярень якась офіціантка зникла.

The emphatically used articles, on the other hand, have usually particles for their contextual equivalents in Ukrainian: But I must content myself with a few paragraphs. (Maugham) Жаль, що можу обмежитьсь дише кількома епізодами.

The rhematic use of the articles introducing the new information, a new core of an utterance, and its thematic use repeating the already known information about an object or event is often disclosed in Ukrainian sentences by other than lexical means, as will be shown further. Still, the bulk of meanings which the lexically charged articles can acquire due to their syntagmatic environment in speech are those of pronouns. This can also be seen from the citied illustrations on the forthcoming pages.


The definite article when endowed with the lexical meaning in a sentence or passage can have various realizations in Ukrainian. It is expedient to begin with the most common of them which may be the following:


1) as the demonstrative pronoun цей (ця, це, ці):


What his sister has seen in the man was beyond him. (J.London)1

The thought was fire in him. Martin came back and looked at the beady eyes ~ sneering ....


Що його сестра знайшла у цьому чоловікові, він не міг збагнути.

Ця думка пекла його, мов вогонь. Мартін опритомнів і, глянувши в ці злі, хитрі очі....


2) as the demonstrative pronouns такий (той, та, те, ті), той самий, (саме той, та сама), такий самий:


«Sometimes there is the impression that the IMF is on the same side of the barricades with the forces which are out to reverse the course of development back to Soviet times.» Ukrainian president said. (Kyiv Post)

Prime Minister's dismissal had been rumored from the date of his appointment. (Ibid.)

But surely Ruth did not understand it, he concluded. How could she, living the refined life she did?

He was amazed at the man's sympathy with the life and his incisive psychology.

The fellow behind us in the crowd was talking again. (E.Caldwell)

....and when I could see again, the fellow who stayed with me was dragging me down the street. (Ibid.)


«Іноді створюється таке враження, що МВФ стоїть на одному боці з тими самими силами, які намагаються повернути курс розвитку до радянських часів», - заявив президент України.

Чутки про зняття прем'єр-міністра поширювалися від самого початку його призначення.

Рут навряд чи розуміла цей твір. Та і як вона могла зрозуміти, живучи таким витонченим, яку неї, життям?

Його вразила така любов цієї людини до життя і її психологічне проникнення.

Той самий хлопець із натовпу позад нас тепер озвався знову.

...а коли мені розвиднілось в очах, саме той хлопець, що зостався зі мною, тяг мене за собою.


1 All cited instances in illustration of the lexical meaning of articles, unless indicated otherwise, have been picked up from J.London's works and their translations in Ukrainian.


3) as the possessive pronoun /"/', їхні, свій (своя, своє, свої):


The room was situated over the laundry...

«Why don't you eat?» he demanded, as Martin dipped dolefully into the cold, half cooked oatmeal mush.

...Mr. Higginbotham sneered throughout mealtime at the «literary» person they had discovered in the family.


Його кімната була/ знаходилась над пральнею...

«Чому ти не їси?» - запитав він, бачачи, як неохоче Мартін копирсає свою недоварену вівсяну кашу.

...містер Хіггїнботем під час обіду стільки кепкував з «писаки», що виявився у їхній родині.


4) as the identifying pronoun весь, вся, все/цілий:


Не looked up, and it seemed that the room was lifting...

The romance and beauty, and high vigour of the books were coming true.

Her trained ear detected the overemphasis of the tyro...

«What the hell you guys blocking the street?» (E.Caldwell)


Він підвів голову і йому здалося, що вся кімната ходить ходором...

Вся романтика і краса, всі високі поривання, про які він читав у книжках, виявились правдою.

її витончене вухо враз вловило всі перебільшення новачка...

«Якого біса ви, волоцюги, запрудили всю вулицю?»


5) as the relative pronoun який (яка, яке, які):


Не caught himself imagining the wonder of a caress from such a hand, and flushed guiltily...

She did not know the actual fire of love.


Він подумав, яку насолоду повинні приносити пестощі такою рукою, і зніяковіло зашарівся...

Вона не знала, яке то справжнє полум'я коханая.


6) as the indefinite pronoun якийсь (якась, якесь), певний:


For the moment the great gulf that separated them then was bridged. He was played by the low comedian, who had intro-


Ha якусь мить через велику безодню, що розділяла їх, був наведений міст. Його роль виконував такий собі комік з



duced gags of his own... (О. фарсовими вибриками

Wilde) власного штибу.

7) as the identifying attributive pronoun сам, сам собою, інший/


But the man did not seem to know of the content of the great mind.

The toil meant nothing to him.

...which was new to him, for of the women he had known -that was the only way he thought.


Та, очевидно, сам бібліотекар нічого не знав про творчість цієї великої голови.

Сама собою праця нічого не важила для нього.

.... і це було нове для нього, бо про інших жінок, яких він знав, він інакше взагалі не думав.


8) as an adjective or adjectivized participle (according to the

contextual meaning):

Martin Eden did not go out to hunt for a job in the morning.

He had worked the day before in the basement and the money had been kept all the time. (E.Caldwell)

9) as a particle emphasizing or some other part of speech:

But the story was grand just the same, perfectly grand.

The man above us was talking to several persons in the crowd. (E.Caldwell)

The next afternoon, accompanied by Arthur, she arrived in the Morses carriage.


Мартін Іден не пішов наступного ранку шукати роботи.

Напередодні він також працював у підвалі фабрики і ще не витратив зароблені гроші.

the attributive pronoun, numeral

А так це оповідання -чудове, ну просто чудове.

А той чоловік над нами огризався до людей з натовпу/ сперечався з людьми з натовпу.

На другий же день в супроводі Артура вона приїхала до нього в кареті Морзів.


10) very often when the noun in the sentence has another attribute the clearly explicit lexical meaning of the definite article remains superflous:

He lay where he had fallen, Він лежав, де впав, і звідти and from there he watched the спостерігав за чоловіком у


man in the red sweater. червоному светрі. (J.London)

Here the man in the red sweater may be translated as той чоловік у червоному светрі but the postpositive attribute у червоному (светрі) has a stronger force of definiteness than the prepositive lexically charged article. As a result, the meaning of the article remains implicit, though strongly felt.

Similarly in the sentence below where the lexically charged definite article is also suppressed by the attributive prepositional noun:

From the first mention of the 3 першої миті, як місіс

dance by Mrs. Cowperwood and Каупервуд та Анна заговорили

Anna, Ailen had been conscious про вечори з танцями, Ейлен

of a desire toward a more effec- закортіло блиснути (показати

tive presentation of herself than себе) ще яскравіше, ніж це їй

as yet. (T.Dreiser) вдавалося досі.

The definite article in the sentence above is substituted for the contextual noun вечори (з танцями) instead of ті танці as in the original sentence.

11) In many a case the definite article may point to thematic functioning of the noun, which is usually signalized by its initial position in the sentence and pointing to the core of the utterance presenting the basic, known already elements in the sentence:

The street lights were fewer Лампіонів на вулиці тепер

now. (J. Steinbeck) горіло менше.

The old man stared at the Старий з острахом дивився

open door. (Ibid.) на прочинені двері.

The night was getting colder А ніч усе холоднішала і

and more raw all the time, ставала щодалі вологішою/ і

(Е. Caldwell) ставало щодалі вологіше.

The dog had gone back to his Тут собака заходився знову

slow, spiritless barking, спроквола і неохоче

(J. Steinbeck) погавкувати.

They silently passed the stu- Повз майстерню вони

dio. (J. Fowels) пройшли мовчки.

The rheme, the new notional element in the utterance, is more frequently indicated in English by the indefinite article determining


the noun in the initial position. When translated into Ukrainian, however, the rhematic noun, as has long been noticed1, occupies a terminating position in the sentence/clause (when the utterance is a composite sentence):

There was an old twostorey Того року на Філдінґ Авеню ще

yellow house on Fielding Av- стояв старий двоповерховий

enue that year. (W. Saroyan) жовтий будинок.

A dog growled in one of the Коли чоловіки проходили

yards as the men went by. (J. повз один з будинків, у його

Steinbeck) дворі загарчав собака.

A light fog began to drift У повітрі потяглися

through the air, and the stars легенькі пасма туману, /вони

were swallowed in it. (Ibid.) заволокли й поглинули зірки.

A train hooted mournfully, Тужно загув поїзд, і, обігнув-

and in a moment it rounded а ши за якусь мить округлий вигін,

bend and pushed its terrible light кинув свої страхітливі сліпучі

down the track. (Ibid.) пасма світла на колії.

A correct selection of thematic and rhematic nouns, identified by the definite and indefinite articles and by their respective placement in the sentence, facilitates the faithful conveying of the logical sentence perspective in the target language.


Strange as it may seem but very often, almost predominantly, the indefinite article is endowed in speech/text with lexical meanings, which may coincide with those of different pronouns. The only exception is made for the meaning of the cardinal numeral «one» from which the indefinite article historically originates. No wonder that the contextual meanings of the lexically charged indefinite article can sometimes be, as will be seen further on, quite unexpected. The most frequent and common of these meanings can be expressed, as has been mentioned already, in one of the following ways:

1) by the cardinal numeral один (одна, одне): He said something about а Він тут розповідав щось про

1 See: Бархударов Л.С. Структура простого предложения современного английского язьїка. - М.: «Вьісш. шк.», 1966, p.p. 192-195.


schooner that's gettin' ready to go одну шхуну,

off. (О. Wilde) відпливати.


яка готується


2) In some contexts, however, the indefinite article may ac

quire a lexical meaning which corresponds either to the Ukrainian

cardinal numeral один, to the ordinal numeral перший or to the in

definite pronoun якийсь (якась, якесь). The indefinite article may

also mark the rheme of the utterance as in the sentence: Only for an

instant he hesitated, then his head went up and his hand came off.

(J. London) In this sentence any of the above-given substitutes may

be quite faithful, since the cardinal or ordinal numeral and the indefi

nite pronoun are equally fitting in the utterance, which in Ukrainian

will have another position:

Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки якусь мить... Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки першу мить... Він був у нерішучості (вагався) тільки одну мить... Similarly in the following sentences:

It was only fora moment. Це тривало тільки одну/

(J. London) якусь мить.

3) By the indefinite pronoun якийсь only, without the attendant

meanings of the cardinal or ordinal numerals:

He saw her come down the aisle, with Arthur and a strange young man. (J.London)

Sometimes, when with her, she noted an unusual brightness in his eyes, and she liked it. (Ibid.)

Він бачив, як вона пройшла партером у супроводі Артура і ще якогось незнайомого молодика.

Часом, коли він бував з нею,

вона помічала якийсь

особливий блиск в його очах, що подобався їй.

4) when the lexically meaningful indefinite article precedes the noun under logical stress, it functions as the demonstrative pronoun, which is translated into Ukrainian as цей, ця, це:


This was his programme for a week. (J. London)

Here was a man who could do anything, was the message she read there. (Ibid.)

How can a man write so badly?.. (E. Hemingway)


Це була його програма на цей тиждень.

Ця людина здатна на все-ось що вона прочитала в його погляді.

Як може ця людина (цей чоловік) писати так погано?..



5) As one of the possessive textual meaning):

He did not go home immediately, and under the tree, where he kept his vigils, he looked up at a window and murmured. (J. London)

When she returned with the grammar, she drew a chair near his. (Ibid.)


pronouns (according to their con-

Він (Мартін) не рушив зразу додому, а пішов до знайомого дерева, став на звичне місце проти її вікна і прошептав схвильовано.

Коли вона (Рут) повернулася з граматикою, вона присунула свій стілець до його стільця.


6) As the negative ргопоипжоден or the negative perticle ані (when the determined noun is preceded by the negative particle not):

You were not following а Ви не чули жодного слова/

word. ані слова.

Не hadn't a penny. Він не мав жодного пенні

(S. Maugham) (ані пенні).


7) as the relative adjective цілий which is lexically equivalent in the sentences below to the Ukrainian identifying pronoun весь (вся, все):

Мартін узяв напрокат друкарську машинку і цілий (весь) день вчився друкувати на ній.

...(його) доробок за день дорівнював доробкові якого-небудь модного письменника за цілий тиждень.

Martin rented a typewriter and spent a day mastering the machine. (J. London)

- (his) day's work was the equivalent to a week's work of

the average succesful writer. (Ibid.)


8) More common in Ukrainian contextual substitutes for the lexically meaningful indefinite article are, however, different relative adjectives, the most often used being справжній:

It is sweet to feel that you are really and truly a woman. (Ibid.)

This small sum seemed a fortune. (Ibid.)


Приємно відчувати (себе), що ти є справжньою жінкою.

Ця маленька сума здалася (Мартіну) справжнім (цілим) скарбом.


9) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may some-


times be expressed in Ukrainian through different adverbs:

He had the conviction that he У нього було таке переконання,

could sit in a draught if he що він міг сидіти навіть на протязі,

wanted to. (J. Galsworthy) якби того захотів...

There is a great difference. Це зовсім різні речі/зовсім

(O.Wilde) інша річ.

The above-given lexical realizations of the determining and identifying functions of the definite and indefinite articles would be incomplete without the illustration of some other meanings, which they may acquire in contextual environment. The choice of the se-mantically fitting substitute for the definite or indefinite article then rests entirely with the translator, who is well acquainted with the text/ work under translation. Since the style of the text may often influence or predetermine the choice of the necessary synonym, care should be taken in order not to neglect the possible ways of expression in Ukrainian either. Thus, the lexical meaning of the indefinite article a in the sentence - I didn't dare show my face at Court for a month. (O. Wilde) - could be faithfully expressed in Ukrainian either through the identifying pronoun весь or by its lexical equivalent at sentence level, which is the relative adjective цілий. But the translator of The Picture of Dorian Gray (R. Dotsenko) has suggested for this particular case a more acceptable contextual version: Я добрий місяць і носа не наважувався показати при дворі.

10) The broader context often predetermines the employment

of lexically equivalent variants which could scarcely ever be offered

for a narrow context. The kind of contextual substitutes can be seen

in the examples below, where Ukrainian demonstrative and other

pronouns, adjectives, numerals, etc., are contextually/semantically

enforced by emphatic or modal particles. Thus, the contextual mean

ing of the indefinite article below is expressed through an adjective

enforced by an emphatic or some other particle or group of particles:

He was not to remain a sailor. Бо ж він не буде простим

(London) собі матросом..

Не seemed to think it a dis- Він вважав це чи не за

tinction. (Ibid.) особливу відзнаку.

11) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may be

expressed through the interrogative or indefinite pronoun also en

forced by some emphatic particles:

- a penniless young fellow, а ...молодик без шеляга за


mere nobody, sir, a subaltern in а душею, - власне ніщо, сер,

foot regiment. усього лишень якийсь

піхотний офіцерик... What a lovely day! (La Mure) Який же гарний день!

Note: Apart from the above-cited contextual meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles there may be some other (implicit) meanings of them. Thus, the definite article may sometimes have the following additional realizations in Ukrainian:

a) that of a pronominal word-group of an emphatic force:

I want you to get rid of the Я хочу, щоб ви врешті-решт

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