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categorial meanings in the paradigm of the participle, only the nucleus of it (the past participle) is usually used.

The number of components/elements in the paradigm of the participle has actually no influence on the expression of meaning and translation of this predicative construction, which can be seen from the sentence below:

This duty done, we unfilled Оскільки з иим було вирішено,

our glasses, lit our pipes, and re- ми осушили келихи, запалили

sumed the discussion upon our люльки й знову стали бідкатись

state of health. (J.K.Jerome) про своє здоров'я.

The syntactic/functional meaning of the participial construction in this isolated sentence may be considered temporal as well. Then its Ukrainian traslation wil be respectively Після того, як із иим було вирішено, ми...

It should be pointed out that only the analytical paradigms, which contain the constituent elements of the passive and perfect participles of some verbs may be condensed. When the participial paradigm is represented in the nominative absolute participial constructions through a single present participle expressing an action of the secondary subject, it can not be transformed into an extended paradigm or contracted. Thus, the present participle opening in the sentence James' face protruded naively, his mouth opening. (Galsworthy) can not undergo any complete transformation through reduction.

2. The second structural type constitute the nominative absolute participial constructions that contain no participle component at all. The relation of the predication in complexes of this type is implicitly inherent in and is realized through a prepositional (usually with a noun or pronoun) or a substantival word-group. Cf.:

Now, with this visit to Cardiff Тепер, лаштуючись до

in prospect, he wished her to ас- поїздки доКардіффа. він хотів,

company him. (Cronin) щоб Крістін супроводжувала


Не sat down, his face serious Він сів серйозний і

and intent, and his fingers began зосереджений за рояль, і його

to race across the keyboard, пальці швидко забігали по

(S.Sheldon) клавішах.

With so much at stake, he did Коли стільки ставилося на

not want to appear inhospitable, карту, він хотів здаватися

(Ibid.) якомога гостиннішим.


3. The third structural type form subjectless nominative absolute participial complexes. Their secondary subject may have a clearly addressed or an indistinctly addressed reference to the subject of the introductory clause. An illustration to the first subtype of such nominative absolute participial constructions may be the following example: Though being left out all night in the rain, the metal had not rusted. (Maugham)

The secondary predicate (being left out) of the nominative absolute participial construction clearly refers to the noun of the matrix clause «metal». Consequently, its translation is easy: Метал хоч і пролежав цілу ніч під дощем, (він) не поіржавів.

In opposition to this, in the second type of subjectless nominative absolute participial constructions the addressed referent in the introductory/matrix part of the sentence is not clearly indicated by the secondary predicate:

Bobbing and bounding upon the spring cushions, silent, swaying to each motion of their chariot. Old Jolyon watched them drive away under the sunlight. (Galsworthy)

The actions expressed by the participles of the nominative absolute participial constructions here refer to the pronoun they. Therefore, it is the secondary subject to the participles in this syntactic construction, which should be translated with the orientation on this pronoun: Старий Джоліон дивився як вони, мовчки похитуючись і підгуцаючи на пружинистих сидіннях брички, віддалялися в яскравому сонячному світлі.

4. The fourth structural type constitute nominative absolute participial constructions whose semantic reference to a part of the introductory clause (or to the clause as a whole) is quite vague and scarcely traced. As a result, such nominative absolute participial constructions function together with their secondary subjects as regular clauses of a semi-composite sentence. Though semantically not completely independent, these quasi-clauses are difficult to incorporate semantically and syntactically into Ukrainian sentences, which can be seen from the following sentence:

She reached the lake and stood there staring at it, the wind whipping the thin night-gown around her body. (S.Sheldon)

Neither the secondary subject (the wind) nor the secondary predicate (whipping the thin night-gown...) has any explicit syntactic and semantic connection with the introductory clause She reached the lake and stood there staring at it.

The vague, almost untraced semantic connection of the quasi-


clause with the introductory clause can be guessed, naturally, on the basis of the contextual environment from which some temporal sequence of actions can be seen: the wind whipped her nightgown after she had reached the lake. Hence, one of the translation versions may be as follows: Коли вона підішла до озера й стала, вдивляючись у нього, вітер затріпотів тонесенькою нічною сорочкою, що тісно облягала її тіло.

Because of the vague temporal reference of actions expressed by the predicative complex/quasi-clause, which is actually independent syntactically, it can also be translated as a separate sentence: Вона підійшла до озера й стала, вдивляючись у нього. Шугнув вітер і затріпотів тоненькою нічною сорочкою, що тісно облягала її тіло.

Therefore, translation of these secondary predication constructions is predetermined by some semantic and syntactic factors, the main of which are as follows:


1) the structural type of the nominative absolute participial com-

2) the function of the complex in the sentence;

3) its reference to a part of the introductory/semantically main clause of the semi-composite sentence.

D. Ways of Identification of Implicit Meanings in the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions

As has been said already, a peculiar feature of many nominative absolute participial constructions is their often indistinct semantic and syntactic role in the semi-composite sentence. The syntactic and semantic interrelations formed between the quasi-clauses with the nominative absolute participial construction on one hand, and the introductory/dominant clause on the other, may be of adverbial, attributive or objective nature. Among the most frequent adverbial meanings are temporal and causal, which are rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the corresponding subordinate clauses. For example:

«I can't write with you stand- «Я не можу, Марджері, ing there, Margery.» писати, коли ти стоїш там.» (Galsworthy)

A temporal meaning may also be indicated by an adverb/adverbial expression in the nominative absolute participiar construction


or by the corresponding tense forms in the introductory clause:

Mr. Quest, once again Квест, коли його знову

interrupted, turned his darky- обірвали, глянув на нього своїми

irritable eyes on him. чорними сердитими очима.

Ще один чоловік, що був спиною до фотоапараг перед жінкою спереду.


Another man, with his back behind to the camera, faced the woman. (A.Hailey)

As/since Mr. Hilary was at a meeting, the brothers had tea by themselves.

The inherent here in this nominative absolute participial construction causal meaning is not explicitly indicated. Nevertheless, it is clearly felt from the sentence, which can be proved by inserting the conjunction since or as, and thus transforming the secondary predication construction into the causative clause of the complex sentence:

Mr. Hilary being at a meeting, the brothers had tea by themselves. (Galsworthy)

Therefore, there can be only one way of translation for such and the like nominative absolute participial constructions into Ukrainian and this is by means of causative subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions оскільки, тому що, бо: Оскільки Гілері був на зборах, брати сіли за чай самі/сіли пити чай самі.

The nominative absolute participial constructions of causative meaning may also occupy a postpositive position in the sentence, i.e., after the introductory clause, as in the following example:

We were walking by our- Ми десь із годину ходили selves for an hour, George hav- вдвох, бо Джордж зостався в ing remained in the hotel to write готелі писати тітиі листа, a letter to his aunt. (Cronin)

Among other adverbial meanings expressed by these secondary predication complexes in semi-composite English sentence are

also conditional:

The human condition being Якщо вже так складається

what it was, let them fight, let людське життя, то хай собі

them love (Greene) воюють і хай собі кохаються...

The nominative absolute participial constructions can also


express other meanings and relations in the sentence. Then they are translated into Ukrainian respectively as corresponding nominal (or adverbial) subordinate clauses. For example:

«It's strange in a way, me be- «Воно якось аж дивно, що я

ing a secretary to the society... раптом - секретар цього

(Cronin) товариства...»

It was Dr.Dornbergen, his Це був лікар Дорнберґен,

hands inevitably busy with his руки якого постійно крутять

pipe. (Hailey) люльку.

Translation of the nominative absolute participial constructions may be influenced by the individual author's usage, because of which the aim of their employment is always stylistically predetermined. These constructions are mostly employed for the sake of economizing the speech efforts, for creating some dynamism or easiness in narration and for achieving the necessary expressiveness; etc. The last of these functions had been proved to exist in colloquial English and also in belles-lettres works of many British and American authors. This could also be observed in the translation of the above-cited nominative absolute participial construction, which may also be rendered with some ironic flavour: It was Dr.Dornbergen, his hands inevitably busy with his pipe. - Це був лікар Дорнберґен, руки якого мов прилипли до люльки /ні на мить не випускав з рук люльку, etc.







Translation of nominative absolute participial constructions is often connected with considerable difficulties. These are caused by the indistinct semantic and syntactic relations created between the constituent part of the sentence containing secondary predication construction on one hand and the introductory/matrix clause on the other. When the nominative absolute participial constructions express explicitly or implicitly the adverbial, objective or attributive relations/ meanings, they are usually translated, as has been shown already on the foregoing pages, with the help of the corresponding subordinate clauses.

The logico-grammatical nature of the nominative absolute par-


ticipial constructions in the sentence, however, is far from always clearly and exactly identifiable. This is because of the implicit meanings, which some of the nominative absolute participial constructions may have in a sentence. As a result, more than one Ukrainian version may be suggested for some of such constructions. For example, the meaning of the participial construction/syntaxeme Several of his letters being ignored in the sentence Several of his letters being ignored. Martin indited an angry one which drew a reply. (London) is not quite distinct. It may be considered as causal (Why did Martin indite an angry letter? - Because he did not receive any reply to his previously sent letters). It may also be temporal (When did Martin indite an angry letter? - When he received no reply to his previously sent letters).

More obvious and more contextually substantiated seems to be the causal meaning, though the temporal meaning can not altogether be discarded either. Consequently, the translator guided by the requirements of his own presentation, may suggest two versions, giving respectively a stronger preference to causal meaning. Each of the two meanings in Ukrainian is explicitly indicated by the corresponding conjunction:

1) Оскільки на попередні 2) Після того, як газета не листи газета відмовчалася, відповіла на попередні листи,

Мартін надіслав їм сердитого листа, на який прийшла відповідь.

Мартін надіслав їм сердитого листа, на який надійшла


One more identical example of the explicit and implicit meaning of the nominative absolute participial construction (the NAPC) is given below:

The session drawing towards its close. Senator Dilworthy shook hands with his constituents and let them look at him. (Mark Twain)

1) Оскільки збори наближа- 2) Коли збори наближалися

лися до завершення, сенатор до завершення, сенатор

Ділворзі потиснув руку кожно- Ділворзі потиснув руку кожному

му виборщикові, удостоївши їх виборщикові, удостоївши їх

честі глянути на себе. честі глянути на себе.

Far from all the NAPCs with different implicit meanings have always a more or less clearly distinguishable or transparent logico-grammatical meaning. In some cases the translator may be simply


in dou^t ao m me semantic and functional meaning of the NAPC singled out of a contextual environment.

For example: His try for a smile ignored. Stavros turns to Harry.

(J.Updike) *

The NAPC His try for a smile ignored clearly refers to present tense which can be seen from the simple verbal predicate (turns) in the matrix clause. This makes the choice of the lexico-grammatical meaning between causal and temporal more difficult. The question to the matrix clause includes an alteration - Does Stavros turn to Harry because his smile is ignored or he turns totally when his smile is ignored? Consequently, the NAPC may be translated with the help of the subordinate clause of cause: Оскільки/Тому що на його посмішку не реагують, Ставрос повертається до Гаррі.

Neither can there be objections to this NAPC being translated with the help of a temporal clause: Якщо на його посмішку не реагують, він повертається до Гаррі.

An analysis of the semantic relations between the main immediate constituents of the sentence induced the translator to suggest a third possible Ukrainian variant for this NAPC - a temporal subordinate clause: Коли на його усмішку не реагують. Ставрос повертається до Гаррі.

The conditional meaning of the NAPC in this sentence seems to be the most fitting in the general content of this semi-composite sentence. It can also be proved by the corresponding transformation of the NAPC into a conditional subordinate clause:

If his try for a smile is ignored. Stavros turns to Harry. This was not the last possible way of faithful rendering of the logico-grammatical meaning of this NAPC into Ukrainian. There may be one more, which at first sight may seem doubtful, though only at first sight. And this is by transforming the NAPC into a coordinate clause joined to the matrix clause by means of the copulative conjunction and: His try for a smile is ignored and he turns to Harry. -Його усмішка залишається поза увагою, і він звертається до Гаррі.

Consequently, the NAPC, being a specifically English lexico-syntactic unit, may often be endowed with different meanings which require the employment of various means of rendering them into Ukrainian. The choice of these means may be predetermined, however, not only by the lexico-grammatical meaning of the NAPC, but also by its syntactic interconnection with the part of the matrix clause and also by the means, which are available in the target language to


express their meanings and functions.

Thus, when the secondary subject of the NAPC is in no logical interrelation with the action expressed by the predicate of the matrix clause, i.e., when the secondary subject functions as the agent in the NAPC, the latter is translated as a co-ordinate clause orsas an independent sentence. For example:

There was a pause, Coleman listening. (Hailey)

1) Настала пауза, і Колман прислухався.

2) Настала пауза. Колман прислухався.

Similarly translated into Ukrainian are many other NAPCs which are logically and grammatically not connected with any constitbent part of йіе matrix clause. For example:

The two walked in silence, Обоє йшли мовчки, і Сомз Soames watching him out of the поглядав на нього краєчком corner of his eye. (Galsworthy) ока.

She gritted her teeth, grabbed Вона скреготнула зубами,

the rope and started walking вхопилась за канат і рушила,

across, the bridge swaying with - і місток захитався від

every step. (Sheldon) кожного її кроку.

As can be noticed, the secondary subjects Soames and bridge function as independent subjects in both languages.

Ukrainian co-ordinate clauses, which are equivalents of the NAPCs may often be joined by the conjunctions /, а, причому:

We went out behind the Ми один по одному вийшли

church in a single file, the lieu- за церквою, і вів насосам

tenant leading... (Greene) лейтенант.

The feaction was immediate, Реакція була негайною.

Pearson almost shouting. Причому Пірсон мало не

(Hailey) закричав.

Tony,was staring at him, his Тоні дивився на нього, а

eyes uncomprehending, той, розгубившися, не розумів

(Sheldon) його.

The above-cited NAPCs may be translated into Ukrainian correspondingly as independent sentences or as clauses of a compound sentence: Ми один по одному вийшли за церквою. Попереду нас ішов лейтенант. Тоні подивився на нього. Той, розгубившися, не розумів його/Той розгублено дивився, не розуміючи його.

The translator may sometimes transform the English sentence, turning the NAPC of this type into a Ukrainian simple sentence w\th


homogeneous predicates: Він нашвидкуруч закінчив

Matters pressed on. he made справи і пішов обідати на Ґрін-

his way to Green Street for lunch, стріт/відклавши справи, він

(Galsworthy). пішов обідати на Ґрін-стріт.

The lexical and functional meanings of different NAPCs in simple and composite sentences may sometimes be rendered in Ukraifi-ian with the help of some other means too:

1. With the help of the participial (diyepryslivnyk) construction or by means of a single diyepryslivnyk:

The two guards listened, their Обидва вартові слухали, faces turned to the rifle-slit, their пороззявлявши роти і mouths hanging open. (Greene) повернувшись обличчям до

амбразури. \,

«І felt compassion for him,» «Мені стало шкода його/я

said Louisa, her colour deepen- відчула жаль до нього,» -

ing... (Dickens) відповіла, зашарівшись.Луїза...

2. With the help of a prepositional noun, a noun phrase or a participial/diyepryslivnyk construction:

His head lowered, holding to Тримаючись за перила, з,

the banister, Andrew went up- низько похиленою головою.

stairs. (Cronin) Ендрю пішов до себе нагору.

This NAPC may also be translated with the help of the participial/diyepryslivnyk construction: Потупивши голову і тримаючись за перила, Ендрю почвалав до себе нагору.

3. As a participial (diyepryslivnyk) construction or a subordinate (mostly adverbial) clause:

The champagne poured. Наливши шампанського^

Andrew sat back. (Cronin) Ендрю знову сів.

The corresponding temporal clause for the NAPC may be Після того, як/Коли Ендрю налив шампанського, він знову сів.

4. With the help of a prepositional noun: He was watching her, his eyes Він з цікавістю спостерігав

ed. (Sheldon)

за нею.

-• — -J '"'- ' ' ' U01/1

5. By an adverbial substantival word-group or a single adverb:

His voice low. Alexander said, Олександр стиха запитав:

«He died, didn't he?» (Hailey) «Він помер, так?»


This NAPC can also be translated with the help of the adverb притишено: Олександр притишено запитав ... Олександр насторожено/боязко запитав ...

In rare cases the structure and meaning of both the Ukrainian equivalent and the NAPC may be much alike:

And still with his eyes closed. Все ще з заплющеними

he said... (Galsworthy) очима він сказав...

This NAPC may be translated with the help of an antonymic syntaxeme containing a diyepryslivnyk: / есе ще не розплющуючи очей, він сказав...

It should be repeatedly emphasized in conclusion that some NAPCs may have more than one faithful semantic and structural equivalent in Ukrainian. Thus, the underlined below NAPC in the sentence They having the keys, no entrance was possible. (Galsworthy) may have the following two equally faithful versions in Ukrainian:

1) Оскільки ключі були в 2) Ключі були у них, і ввійти них, ввійти було неможливо. (нам) було неможливо.

The second (last) Ukrainian substitute of the above-given NAPC is the co-ordinate clause with an implied causal meaning (Чому ввійти було неможливо? Бо у них не було ключів).

These secondary predication constructions are often used in scientific and technical matter texts in which the translator has also to find equivalents for different terms. The ways and means employed to faithfully convey the meaning and structure of the NAPCs are the same:

1) the temporal subordinate clause;

2) a causal, conditional and other sub-clauses: 1) The job having been sand- Коли деталь обробили blasted, all scale was removed. піскоочисним апаратом, то

вся циндра була знята.

2) The part cooling during this process, it is necessary to reheat it.

3) The induction motor being of high efficiency, the power input of the primary would be but slightly more than the rating.

Оскільки деталь при цьому охолоджується, то її треба підігріти.

Якщо асинхронний мотор має високий коефіцієнт корисної дії, то сила використання його лише трохи більша, ніж номінальна.


4) By co-ordinate clauses as in other types of text joined by the conjunctions У. а. причому:

The motor load thus in- Навантаження мотора

creases and a s//p takes place, таким чином збільшується, [

the amount being proportional to відбувається пропориійне

the load. , навантаженню сковзання.

The depth of insert being suf- Глибина насадки була

ficjerii, it was possible to make а достатня, і можна було

large number of regrinds.1 зробити більшу кількість


The existence of some possible ways of faithful rendering of meaning of the NAPCs in Ukrainian provides the translator with some freedom of choice between some ways of expression. This can be illustrated on the following sentence containing two NAPCs: He held on to the bar, his legs wobbling under him. Martin's arm around him and supporting him, while he thought. (London)

1) Хлопець ухопився за 2) Він ухопився за стійку,

стійку, його ноги повисли, і його ноги гойдалися під ним.

Мартін підтримував його, а Мартін охопив його рукою і

охопивши рукою, доки той підтримував, доки той

збирався з думками. збирався з думками.

Exercise I. State the nature of the semantic and syntactic relations existing between the main constituent parts in the sentences below. Suggest an appropriate subordinate clause for each NAPC and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. My private station being that of a university professor, I was naturally deeply interested in the system of education in England. 2. But Henry VIII being dead, nothing was done. (Leacock) 3. He had seen Jody with his head slowly moving about... (M; Wilson) 4. After a first session of the Six, with the British .prime Minister waiting outside, there seemed no reconciling of the French and the Five. (F. News) 5. Patterson, his habit of politeness back in place, inquired, «Do you want to take questions as we go, Alex, or leave them to the end? 6. For an instant, with Mike holding her, she felt the same solace and relief, as when years before she had run, a little girl, into her mother's arms. (Hailey) 7. The message reported, they walked on. 8. The service in the Chapel over, the mourners filed up again to guard the body to the tomb. 9. The men had been sent out to dine at

1 The examples are picked out from Machinery and Production Engineering. London, 1988.




Eustache's Club, it being felt that they must be fed up. (Galsworthy) 10. The children, with Graham still hanging on to Susan, were being carried relentlessly by the current into the path of the water wheel. (J.Higgins) 11. A police motorcycle escort, engines running noisily, was at the head of the assembling cortege. (Hailey) 12. His door being shut, she softly opened it and spoke to him ... (Dickens) 13. These houses, details settled, Hurstwood visited some of the advertised opportunities to purchase an interest in some flourishing downtown bar. 14. Coroner Heith, his official duties completed for the time being, found himself pondering ... how he was to proceed further. 15. And with that thought in mind, he now scanned more briefly, but none the less sharply and critically the various notes, or invitations, or love messages from Saundra ... (Dreiser)

Exercise II. State the nature of the syntagmatic relations existing between the NAPC and the matrix clause in the sentences below. Suggest the appropriate type of clause for each NAPC and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. He took her hand gently, their faces close. 2. The younger man's face was strained, the tears streaming. 3. There was no answer, only Vivian's steady gaze meeting his own. 4. His expression was serious, his eyes troubled. 5. Coleman wheeled serious, his eye on Bannister; his eyes merciless. 6. Barlett was on his feet, his chain flung back, his face flaming red. 7. «Ramona», Elise shouted, with her eyes shut, «go out in the kitchen and let Grace take galoshes off.» (Salinger) 8. He was all confusion and embarrassment on the instant, the blood flushing on his neck and brow. (London) 9. They moved toward the Vicarage, each making enormous effort to find excused for the other. (Christie) 10. He speared Brad with a long stare, his black eyes glittering. 11. Bendabb jumped out, Leighton heating and pulling himself from the limousine behind the younger executive. (R. Moore) 12. Rossman withdrew and Himmler returned to his work, the only sound in the room the steady scratching of his pen. (J.Higgins) 13. Buddha sat as Buddha always sits, with his lap empty ... 14. Then I got hold of Pyle's sleeve and dragged him out, with the .girl handing on to his other arm like a hooked fish. (Greene) 15. With me working and not home until dark, he hangs around with that bad crowd toward the bridge. (J.Updike) 16. He looked at her happily in the sun; her khaki shirt open. 17. The sentry was still standing at the far box with his back turned. (Hemingway) 18. With Adna gone too, Mr. Wipple tried to run the farm with just him to help. (LA. Porter) 19. Her face tear-streaked but expressionless, almost vacu-


ous, she picked up her handbag from the floor, opened it, and took out a small pea-green clothbound book. 20. She was lying asleep, with her face sort of on the side of the pillow. (Salinger) 21. They went out by the gate, he with his arm round her waist, and were lost in the night. (Maugham)

Exercise III. Analyse the syntagmatic relations existing between the NAPC and its matrix clause in each sentence below. Suggest the appropriate way of translating the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Meanwhile Andrew, with his eyes fixed upon the glass jars before him, had been stumbling upon the specimens. (Cronin) 2. Her cheek pressed against the pillow, she gazed at him with shining eyes. (Cronin) 3. Miss Lawson stood in the doorway smiling rather foolishly after them, her mouth a little open. (Christie) 4. With her eyes fixed on that great yellow moon of a face from which these entrancing sounds came, Miss Matfield allowed her mind to be carried floating away on these changing currents of music. 5. «Well, Livian, now that we're out of that monkey house in there, with everybody snatching and pecking at each other, I can wish you a proper «Happy New Year». (J.Priestley) 6. With his hand upon her brother's shoulder, Louisa still stood looking at the fire. 7. «Ah», said Mr. Bouderby, with his thumbs in the arms of his coat. (Dickens) 8. His thought having returned, he concluded that it must be some night bird or large bat. (H. Wells) 9. She turned towards him, her smile, a mixture of love and sadness. 10. His face in her hair, he whispered «Vivian, darling ...» (Hailey) 11. He sat there, with raw eyes glaring across the room at me. (Greene) 12. Peter looked up, his head fallen slackly back. (Cronin) 13. Listening to the minutes and other routine business, with his chin clasped on his hand, he let his eyes move from face to face. 14. She took the flowers in her hand and went down, her face carried high under its burden of hair. (Galsworthy) 15. Jane turned to look at Mrs. McGrador, who all this time remained silent, watching, with her pale unblinking eyes fixed at Jane's face. (J.Aiken) 16.... he could see the upswept wide black horns on their heads as they galloped, heads out; the heads not moving. (Hemingway) 17.... he could see the full span of the ravine along the edge of town, his view of it broken by two or three Negro cabins which lined the edge of it. (W.Faulkner) 18. The worship of senses has often, and with much justice* been decried, men feeling a natural instinct of terror about passions and sensations that seem stronger than themselves... (O.Wilde)

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