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It may naturally not always be clear from an isolated sentence, which of the possible meanings the modal verb must expresses: that of the strongest () or those of the somewhat weaker ones (, ). Thus, from Martin Eden's words in the sentence below is not clear whether it is Ruth's duty, moral/presumptive obligation or her necessity to address her father: And you must tell your father for me. (London) Hence, the translator may suggest three posible equivalents for this modal meaning of must in Ukrainian:

1) I/A . (duty, obligation)

2) I/A . (necessity)

3) / . (presumptive obligation)

) The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of a modal meaning in his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a prescription or rule, may often be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical word order or via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb, as can be observed in the following sentences:


, ( ) .

I musn't take the money, -

said Carry, after they were set- ,- ,

tied in a cosy corner... (Dreiser) The Constitution of the US specifies that a nationwide census, a head count of all Americans, must be taken every ten years. (O.K. Stevenson)


d) When expressing assumption or supposition, the modal verb must may have for its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian a contextually fitting modal adverb or a modal particle:

³ / '!-. ( '!)

/ . ³ .

, , .

He must be as mad as a hatter! exclaimed the Colonel. (Christie)

That fellow must be made of steel. He's never tired. (R.Warren)

If I feel this way, my heart must be broken. (Hemingway)

e) Some meanings of this modal verb are formally obligatory in English, where they express obligation or certainty but they may not have an explicit expression of these meanings in Ukrainian:

I must apologize, Agnes, I'm . Ŵ;

very sorry... (Coward) . /-

. Ŵ, .

thought you must be ,

away. (Maugham) / .

f) Therefore, the usual meaning of must in some Ukrainian contexts may be weaker than in the English language original where it clearly expresses certainty, duty or obligation. Consequently, it can not be substituted in Ukrainian for either the modal verb or for its weaker variant . Then, some other equivalents have to be chosen for such nationally predetermined meanings of must. For instance:

What must you have thought

of me? (Maugham) ?

It must seem very funny to /

you. (Galsworthy) / .

Were the people looking at ? her? They must be. (Mansfield) ./. . .

Some contextual meanings of must have a national Ukrainian non-explicit expression of modality. For example: Come, Dave, you must see. (London)

-, , . or: -, ,





g) The Ukrainian modal verb or is to be used, however, when conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme have got (to) with the indefinite infinitive having the function of the compound modal verbal predicate:


Doris, l say to you. (Hemingway)

I've got to stay sober. /


jot something to , / .

h) The modal verb must when used with the perfect infinitive usually expresses actions supposed to have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is mostly informed. The meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the modal adverbs or particles , , , , :

must have fallen off when we left the first bull. (Hemingway)

, ' .



So Dr. Brown's whispered words: The man must have been dead a week. (Greene)

Some probable action expressed by the modal verb must with the negative particle not and the perfect infinitive shows that the action might have been carried out. Though other interpretations, i.e., expressions of the meaning are not excluded either:

She must not have followed

the advice ... (Austen) ...

Some other interpretations of this modal verb with the perfect infinitive construction may be quite opposite to that in the sentence above. Namely:

1) 򳺿 .

2) , 򳺿 .

3) 򳺿 .

As in the similar case with may/might plus the perfect infinitive, there may be also other contextual meanings of must with the perfect or indefinite/continuous infinitive. These meanings can also be found in the compound modal predicates of sentences given in the exercises that follow.


Exercise I. Analyse each sentence first and offer a suitable Ukrainian equivalent (, , , etc.) for the modal verb must. Then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Accidents can happen to anybody, darling. You mustn't blame yourself. (S.Sheldon) 2. Only you must give me your clothes, too. (A.Bierce) 3. You mustn't stare at people when they pass, continued mother. 4. To succeed one must do something - one must associate, at least seem to associate with those who were foremost in the world of appearences. (Dreiser) 5. I'll telephone. They must see the faces of many people you've heard about. (Fitzgerald) 6. This brings us to the last factor that must be kept in mind. 7. They must have local public support, because citizens vote directly on how much they want to pay for school taxes. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. We must go as quickly as we can. 9. In the meantime we must make the best of the situation. (C.Lewis) 10. I must be left to myself fora while. 11. They mustn't take him into my house. (Maugham) 12. Adam, you must not leave the house. 13. To be popular, one must be a mediocrity. 14. I go on board to-night for India, and I must do my job first. (Wilde) 15. He must know that infatuation won't last. 16. He must be treated with infinite tact. 17. But you mustn't go with me, you wouldn't understand. I must show them to you myself. (Christie) 18. I must speak to you by such means as are within my reach. (J.Austen) 19. But according to your category I must be merely an acquaintance. (Wilde) 20. Still I must sleep. (Hemingway) 21. An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society. (I.Tenson) 22. I must acquit you of criminality. (A.Bierce) 23. But we mustn't talk here. (Galsworthy)

Exercise H. Translate the sentences containing the modal verb must with different forms of the infinitive. Use one of the following (or some other) fitting Ukrainian equivalents for the purpose: , , , , , ', , etc.

1. She must be in New York by now. (M.Wilson) 2. They must be in a bad way truly. 3. It must cost a good deal to live here, don't you think? 4. It must be nice to be famous, said the girl softly. 5. The neighbourhood they lived in must be very poor. 6. Mrs. Gerhardt commented upon this repealing again and again: how good he must be or how large must be his heart. (Dreiser) 7. Must be interesting? he said. (Christie) 8. We heard it from three people, so it must be true. (Fitzgerald) 9. The boy must be forty by now.




(Galsworthy) 10. You must be too hard, he smiled back. (Hemingway) 11. Alcohol must help somewhat in fighting arteriosclerosis. (D.K.Stevenson) 12. You must know, Gatsby. 13. Some words of this conversation must have reached Wilson swaying in the office door... 14. She must have seen something of this expression for she turned abruptly away... 15. She must have broken her rule against drinking that night. 16. You must have gone to church once. 17.1 must have felt pretty weired at that time, because I could think of nothing else. 18. It (the car) must have killed her instantly. 19. He must have looked up at the unfamiliar sky. (Fitzgerald) 20. He must have been in the river, the woman said. (S.Barstow) 21. But even when she laughed she must have'been one of the servants. (Maugham) 22. These must have been expensive cigars. (J.Priestley) 23. But you must have seen pictures of her. (Christie) 24. You must have got mixed up in something in Chicago. (Hemingway) 25. What he saw in that room must have frightened him terribly. (J.Kierzek) 26. I have read your feelings, and I think you must have penetrated mine. (J.Austen)

4. The modal verb have (to) is of common lexical nature in English and Ukrainian, where its meaning in all substyles corresponds to the verb as in the following examples:

a) Oh, I have to tell you , , something, mamma. (Dreiser) /.

Don't forget, we have to pay ',

the library. (Hemingway) .

b) Depending on the lexical meaning of the infinitive that forms the compound modal predicate with it, the modal verb have (to) may often become close to that of the Ukrainian modal verbs , , to the stative or to the modal adverb / :

, , , / - .

/ , .


/ ,


You know we, poor artists, have to show ourselves in society from time to time. (Wilde)

We have to do everything we can. (Hemingway)

You'll have to pull harder than this tomorrow. (Hemingway)


c) In some contextual environment, however, the meaning of have to may be very close if not equivalent to must (/ ):

I have to leave you here. / -

(Fitzgerald) / .

have to tell you I find your / ,

work just a little too stark. /

(Hemingway) .

d) The modal meaning of the verb have to may be predetermined by the peculiarity of usage and singularity of expressing the same modal meaning in the source language and in the target language, which may sometimes coincide as in the sentence below:

And what have we to do with /

the lives of those who toil for us? ,

(Wilde) ?

As can be seen, translation of the modal verb have (to) may be influenced by various factors which should be taken into consideration while choosing its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian.

Exercise I. Suggest an appropriate lexical equivalent for the modal verb have (to) in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. You don't have to do it. 2. You have to go back to school. (Salinger) 3. If you gain anything, you will have to fight for it. 4. Times are hard ... I have my family to keep. 5. You will have to wait until you hear from me again. (Dreiser) 6. We've got to go to bed. 7. She's not to know about it. (Fitzgerald) 8. Hadn't we better put a little bit of stick or something between each word.? (Kipling) 9. Doris, I've got something to say to you.10. He'd have nothing more to do with the woman and Macomber would get over that too. (Hemingway) 11. ... under my oath I've got to try to catch the criminal. (Saroyan) 12. Shan't we have to risk it? (C.S.Lewis) 13. Well, we've got a little business to talk about, said Boom confidently. (W.Jacobs) 14. All I had to look forward was doing the same old thing day after day. (Maugham) 15. How long did you have to stay there? (F.Cooper) 16. You don't have to be an alcoholic to hurt your baby; you just have to be drinking enough while pregnant. (Alcohol, the Legal Drug) 17. I must write stories and they have to be stories that will sell. (Salinger) 18. Bob has to be on duty at the




hospital at nine o'clock. (J.King) 19. You have to take it. (Dreiser) 20. She and Diana, have a lot to arrange together. 21. ... you've still got to take it easy. (F.King)

5. Together with the common in both languages modal verbs of generally isomorphic nature there is one conspicuous for its usage. This is the synonymous to the modal verb have to English modal verb to be (to) which has some meanings that are realized depending on the form and lexical meaning of the infinitive following it. This modal verb may express obligation or necessity resulting from an arrangement or from a prearranged agreement/plan. The Ukrainian equivalents for these meanings of to be (to) are usually the modal verbs , , :

a) Remember, Joe, you are He , ,

to run the laundry according to

those old rules you used to lay down. (London)

According to the agreement rent was to be paid strictly in advance. (Ibid.)

, .

, () ' .

When to be (to) expresses the meaning of inevitability of some action or event, it is translated into Ukrainian as the modal verb :

. , .

If the thing was to happen, it was to happen in this way ... (E.Wharton)

The modal verb to be (to) may also express a meaning corresponding to the Ukrainian stative :

It was to be expected. Mrs. .

Mors said gently. (London) - .

) Sometimes the modal meaning of the verb to be (to) is faithfully conveyed by means of the Ukrainian infinitival predicate of the sentence and the strictly logical position of the parts of the sentence, as in the rhetorical questions below:

What am I to do now? ? (Maugham)

How was President Kravchuk


to have won the re-election?

(F.News) ?

d) When expressing order or instruction (usually in reported speech) the modal verb to be (to) is translated into Ukrainian either with the help of the modal verbs /, or with the help of a subordinate clause respectively. For example:

, / .

You are to stay in bed until .

you are allowed to get up. (Du (

Maurier) ).

I'm going to tell him he's not to come to the house anymore. (W.Jacobs)

e) When expressing possibility, the modal verb to be (to) is translated with the help of the modal verbs , , or with the help of the modal word :

There is a good training to be

had there. (Dreiser) /.

... in the basement of the ... Diggby Avenue, Congregational ˳ Church, there was to be held social with refreshments. (Ibid.) .

f) When expressing an assumptive or suggested possibility, the meaning of the modal verb to be (to) is mostly rendered with the help of a peculiar logical sentence structure. The meaning of the modal verb to be (to) in such sentences may have reference either to present or to future. For example:

I am to have the priviledge

of sitting next to you. /



g) Somewhat clearer is the reference to future, however, when the modal verb to be (to) is used in the subjunctive mood as in the underlined conditional clauses below:

If anything were to happen, it -

would cost me my place all right, /,

(Dreiser) .




If he were to come, he would certainly have arrived already. (S.Sheldon)

, / .

There may also be other contextual modal meanings of the verb to be (to) in English, which can be ascertained from the sentences in the given exercise below.

Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be to in each of them.

1. Is he to take it that everything is O.K.? (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. There is only one thing to be done. (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it. (J.Fowler) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ... they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14. ... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the problem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17. ... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)


6. The modal verb ought to like the modal verb should expresses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close


to that of the stative or modal verb , , which can be seen from the following sentences:

Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook. (F.King)

He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy)

Every man ought to be married. (Hemingway)

, : / .

( ).


As can be understood from the content of the second sentence, the meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal verb : .

b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs , , :

We're going to Greece... .

...It ought to be lovely at this /

time of year. (Maugham)

You ought to know that you / ,

can't have to steal. (J. Cheever) .

c) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environments. These may be as follows:

1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, assumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ , and the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:

You ought to be working now. (J.Joyce)

By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie)

I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)

/ .

/ .

He ( ), .

2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles / and the notional finite verb without the subordinate conjunctions or , as in the following examples:

You ought to have seen her ҳ



tie he had on. (Dreiser)

God. You ought to hear Walter on the subject of you. (Fitzgerald)


賻/ ...

. , / .


3) When ought to expresses desire or affirmation, assumption, its modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal adverbs and modal words , , :

She ought to have been thinking about spending her money on theatres already ... (Dreiser)

She's said to be very beautiful by people who ought to know. (Fitzgerald)



, ...

, /- , , .


4) The meaning of the modal verb ought to may sometimes be rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of the verbal predicate as in the sentence below:

If you're a poor driver, you /

oughtn't to try driving at night. , (

(Fitzgerald) / ) .

Some other contextual realizations of the modal meanings pertained to ought to are not excluded either, which can be seen from the English sentences of the exercise that follows.

Exercise I. Offer faithful Ukrainian equivalents for the meanings of the modal verb ought to in the sentences below and translate these sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Someone ought to go for the police. 2. Well, I think you ought to send it to her. (Maugham) 3. We don't think you ought to let him, dear. 4. Well, I think we ought to be starting ... 5. She ought to be very happy. (Galsworthy) 6. It is her birthday and she ought to have first choice. (J.Priestley) 7. We ought to make terms with him. 8. You ought to take care of yourself. (Galsworthy)

9. A strong party ought instantly to be thrown into the block-house.

10. Have I said anything I oughtn't? asked Harvey Birch. 11. You

think I ought to have thrown White to the wolves? (J.F.Cooper)

12. But I was wondering whether I ought to be getting back. 13.... he

ought at least to be violently attacked by some party within it.


14. You ought to be ashamed of yourself... (C.Lewis) 15. It ought to be better out in the country than in Town. (Hemingway) 16. That ought to be a beauty. (Bates) 17. He says so and he ought to know, was the answer. 18. You ought to care, she answered with blazing eyes. (London) 19. You ought to know all about statues and things. 20. He ought to have put a spoke in the wheel of their marriage. (Galsworthy) 21. You ought to ask for a transfer to a more civilized school, Leslie said. (I.Shaw) 22. You ought to see the baby. 23. You ought to live in California, began Miss Baker. 24. Either you ought to be more eyeful, or you oughtn't to drive at all. (Fitzgerald) 25. Life ought to be lived, as he lived it... 26. Well, she ought to know bettter than to want to go out alone. 27. ... he ought to be compelled to continue at this very manual form of work any longer. (Dreiser)

7. The modal verb need is known to have two forms of realization, e.g., that of a defective verb and that of a regular verb with modal meaning. The double morphological nature of need does not influence in anyway its lexical meaning, which remains in both cases identical. Hence, when used in its paradigmatic forms with the personal endings or with the auxiliary verb do/does and the infinitive with the particle to, the verb need is translated in quite the same way as its defective form in the present or past tense, always maintaining the meaning of , , . This can be seen from the following illustrative sentences:

a) That needs a bit of think-

ing. (Christie) .

He need say no more to

her. (Ibid.) .

May I ask you to take care

of me? I didn't need any ask- ?

ing. (E. Wharton) .

The meaning of the modal verb need may be rendered in the last sentence implicitly, i.e., by employing semantic transformation:

ͳ/ .

b) Similar semantic transformations are observed when rendering the meaning of resolute/negative advice or indignation:

Why need we defend it? / -

(Maugham) ?


You need not worry about it.


) There may be other contextual meanings equivalents of the modal verb need as in the sentence below where its Ukrainian equivalent is the modal verb /.

Well, nobody needn 't know -

about it... (W.Jacobs) .

The meaning of need in this sentence may also be expressed with the help of prosodic means (intonation and stress): ҳ ' ' .

Exercise I. Identify the meaning of the verb need in fhe sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.

1. We don't need anything else. 2. You needn't have to bring your umbrella, Sugar Boy, as we are going by car. 3. He need say no more to her this evening. (R.Warren) 4. Boys of your age need to sleep the clock round. (Snow) 5. I don't think you need be afraid of that. (Maugham) 6. You need not come before tea. (Ibid.) 7. You are in a condition in which you will shortly need care and attention. (Ibid.) 8. You need not worry about that. (Voynich) 9. Then for a flight to Italy ... people needed pasports to get abroad. (Hailey) 10. Let's take you rear... Then I needn't get mine out of the garage. (F.King) 11. You need not be afraid. (Wilde) 12. You needn't trouble. It's here. (Greene) 13. More, I shall send you at all times that you need. (O.Henry) 14. As a matter of fact you needn't ascertain. 15.... the chauffeur asked him if he needed help, but he shook bis head. (Fitzgerald) 16. You needn't bother about coming up, Manson... (Cronin) 17. You want my professional opinion ... that what you need is sea air. (Christie) 18. She said, Need we go to the club? (Greene) 19. I'm sorry. You needn't be. It's not you, kid. (Ibid.) 20. His presence in Columbus was due to the fact that his political fences needed careful repairing. 21. Hence, only twenty-five cents need to be returned to the man. (Dreiser) 22. You needn't be in such a fright, take my arm. (B.Shaw) 23. I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure Gwendolen's happiness. (Wilde) 24. To achieve long-term capital growth, you need foresight and selectivity. (The Economist). 25. ... I don't think you need translate it. (Galsworthy)

8. The verb dare like the verb need may function in English


both as a modal verb and as a regular finite verb with all its paradigmatic forms. The lexical meaning of the verb, however, remains unchanged and corresponds to the Ukrainian verbs , /, .

The verb dare is mostly translated into Ukrainian as , . For example:

She daren't come here when /

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