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peculiarly national ways of expression in the target language.

Always subjective, however, is the approach of the translator to the choice of some semantically and syntactically equivalent versions of the source language units as in the following sentence:

«They gave me a wrong book, and I didn't notice it, till I got back to my room.» (Salinger) This sentence can have two equally faithful versions in Ukrainian, each of which fully expresses its content:

1) Вони мені дали не ту 2) Мені дали не ту книжку, книжку, і я не помітив цього, і я помітив ие. аж коли аж доки не прийшов додому. прийшов додому.

The subjective transformations in the left hand Ukrainian definite personal clause Вони мені дали не ту книжку \s transformed into the indefinite personal sentence Мені дали не ту книжку,

2) the second co-ordinate clause/я не помітив цього is changed into the antonymic affirmative clause / я помітив це, and the adverbial subordinate clause аж доки не прийшов додому is changed into an affirmative clause (antonymic again) аж коли прийшов додому.

These subjectively introduced by the translator transformations have not in any way changed the syntactic nature or content of the English composite (compound-complex) sentence as a whole. Neither have they changed the order of words, though the plane of expression has undergone some alterations, the main of which is the employment of the antonymic device. It is expedient to term such kind of alterations in the structural plane of syntactic units as «inner transformations» as well. The latter involve only minor structural or lexico-semantic alterations without causing any cardinal changes in the structural form of the sense units under translation.

These were by far all the possible objectively required or deliberately introduced transformations of lexical and syntactic units called forth in the process of translation by the existing divergences between the means of expression in the source language and in the target language on one hand, or due to the translator's subjective approach to some types of sense units on the other.




Transformations of nationally peculiar lexical units in the pro-


cess of translation, as will be shown below, are sometimes of particular interest as well. These transformations become inevitable as a result of differences existing between the ways and means of expression of the same meanings in the source language and in the target language. Among the lexical units that change their outer/structural form in the target language as a result of translation are a number of simple and compound words belonging to different parts of speech and representing various layers of lexicon. They include three main stylistically distinguished classes of units: 1) Stylistically neutral lexis; 2) stylistically evaluative lexis; 3) culturally biased national specific units of lexicon pertained to each source language and to every target language.

1. Among the numerous stylistically neutral simple and compound words both in the English and Ukrainian languages there are different notional parts of speech - nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, numerals, pronouns, the semantic equivalents of which in the target language may be single words, word-groups and even sentences. Because of this the choice of their lexical equivalents in the target language is not always easy. Cf.:

advertiser той /та, ті/, хто дає/що дають рекламне оголошення, пропонують на продаж товар;

akimbo взявшись руками в боки, тримаючись руками в боках, руки в боки;

answerable той, та, те, що/на що можна відповісти/дати відповідь;

ЬасКегтой, хто підтримує когось/допомогає, сприяє комусь у чомусь;

boatful пасажири й команда корабля/судна; заповнене/ завантажене судно/корабель;

indulge робити собі приємність у чомусь, віддаватись якимось утіхам (читанню, слуханню музики, грі в футбол, тощо);

airsick той/та, те, ті, що погано переносять повітряне подорожування (в літаку).

A considerable number of stylistically neutral Ukrainian simple and compound words have very often word-groups or sentences for their semantic (but not structural) equivalents in English as well Cf.:

грамотний person who can read and write or well informed in smth.;

пополудні in the afternoon, post meridiem;

принатися/прискакати to come quickly running or riding (to come galloping);


обороноздатність the strength of the defensive capacity of a country;

перекотиполе rolling Яах(рослина) and rolling stone (про


пустомолот/пустомеля an idle tale-teller, copious speaker (chatterbox);

світогляд conception of a person's world/world outlook/one's


A great number of such and the like stylistically neutral words are given in any bilingual English-Ukrainian dictionary and never present any difficulty for the translator to check up their meaning.

2. A separate group of lexical units, which may sometimes have the same meaning but quite different outer/structural expression in English and Ukrainian is presented by diminutives. They have a very poor representation in English (only among some nouns) but there is a very large quantity of them in Ukrainian, where they exist practically among all parts of speech. These words may be used in English only as diminutives or they may express diminutive evaluation as well, which is regularly identified in context. It is difficult to say, for example, whether booklet, manikin or hillockare diminutives only or diminutives and evaluatives at the same time. As diminutives they mean брошура, карлик and горбок respectively, and as diminutive evaluatives they may express the meanings of книжечка, брошурка, чоловічок (small and handsome or scornful), горбочок (not high or pleasant hillock).

This distinction is almost always clearly identified and expressed in Ukrainian where diminutive suffixes may also point to an escalating gradation of a diminutive quality in a noun. This can be seen from each second or third outer form of the following nouns:

1. ручка 2. ручечка 3. рученька 4. рученя 5. рученятко 6.рученяточко 7.руця;

1. голова 2. головка 3. головочка 4. голівка 5. голівочка

6. голівонька/головонька;

1 дівчина 2. дівчинка 3. дівча 4. дівчатко б.дівчаточко

7. дівонька 8. дівчинонька, etc.

Similar meanings have to be expressed (and are to some extent expressed) in English with the help of lexico-syntactic means, i.e., by means of some additional adjectives containing the seme of smallness. Cf.: голівка small head; голівочка/голівонька small/little head; дівчинонька dear/lovely girl, lovely little girl, etc.

English diminutive and evaluative meanings are not always


clearly and fully expressed by isolated nouns, except for those which have corresponding suffixes as daddy, sissy, granny, and a few others whose direct Ukrainian equivalents are respectively татко / татунь, таточко; сестричка /сеструня/ сестронька; бабуся / бабка, бабуня, бабусенька, etc.

Diminutive and evaluative poetic and endearing (ласкаві) meanings of most other English nouns and their Ukrainian equivalents can be expressed (and identified) only or mostly in the form of word-groups:

small little fingers / dear little fin- пальчики, пальчички, пальчи-

gers нятка

sweet/dear little flowers гарні / гарненькі / любі кві-


little star (Cf. Twinkle, twinkle зірочка/зіронька little star)(poet.)

sweet little lips, lovely little lips вустонька, губи, губоньки,

(poet, colloq.) губки, губенята/губенятка

sweet little girl, dear sweetheart серденько (любка), любонька

No less, if not more, extensive is the use of the diminutive adjectives in Ukrainian which have no semantic and morphological/ structural equivalents in English because of which they have to be translated in a descriptive way, which can only partly express their subtle Ukrainian meanings. Cf. білесеньке личко a beautiful white little face, dear/lovely white little face; молоденький козаченько - а handsome and lovely youth, тоненькії брівоньки very beautiful thin little eyebrows, ясненький/яснесенький місяченько a very bright and lovely/beautiful little moon/dear beautiful little moon.

Diminutive and evaluative meanings of Ukrainian numerals and pronouns are expressed in English practically in the same way: двієчко/двійко гарненьких діточокімо nice little children/two dear little kids, трієчка a miserable C mark/a miserable satisfactory mark; нічогісінько (там не робиться) absolutely/practically nothing is being done there.

No need to emphasize that a miserable satisfactory mark or absolutely nothing by far from completely express the diminutive and evaluative meanings of трієчка and нічогісінько.

Diminutive and evaluative meanings of Ukrainian adverbs and verbs can be explicitly and implicitly expressed, though only to some degree, in the same descriptive way too. Cf.: тихесенько вітер віє ... (Г.Шевченко) the wind breathes very softly, сядьмо рядком та


поговоримо ладком (proverb) let us sit side by side and have a lovely talk/chat together; спатки/спатоньки, спатуні, спатунечкиіо have a little (sweet) sleep; їстиЯстоньки to have a nice/tasteful little bite/ dinner, supper, etc.

Neither has the English language any morphological means to express explicitly the augmentative and evaluative meanings of Ukrainian lexemes (mostly nouns). As a result, they acquire in English an objectively predetermined form of explicit expression by means of word-groups or sentences. For example, the pejorative (mostly contemptuous) meanings of a number of Ukrainian augmentative nouns will have the following English outer form expression: вовчище a big formidable wolf/a (big) monster of a wolf; дубище a very thick and tall/ ramous oak-tree; здоровило a healthy/robust fellow, a regular/robust maypole; п'янюга a miserable heavy drunkard, a disgusting inebriate, a three-bottle man, etc.

3. The third class of lexical units, which mostly require a different explicit/outer form presentation in the target language are culturally biased elements/specifically national notions. When in the form of words not belonging to regular internationalisms like lord, mister, shilling, etc. лорд, містер, шилінг, they are mostly transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated in the target language. Cf.:

haggis (шотл.) геґґіс посічені й перемішані з вівсяним борошном та спеціями овечі потрохи, зварені в жирі в овечому кендюсі; muffin маффин, солодка здоба, випечена в чашкоподібній формі з прісного чи сходячого тіста (споживається гарячою); sheriff шериф, поліцейський начальник округи (США); бабка babka cooked noodles mixed with egg, sugar and raisins, backed in a pot (in oven) and served fresh/warm; веснянки vesnyanky Ukrainian songs hailing the coming spring; вишиванка vyshyvanka an embroidered Ukrainian linen/silk shirt; плахта plakhta thick checkered cloth wrapped by Ukrainian girls and younger women around the waist over the shirt (as a kind of skirt). All above-given structural transformations of lexical units through translation exemplify the objectively conditioned ways of expression pertained to the English or Ukrainian language respectively. The subjectively employed transformations of lexical units in the process of translation are predetermined not so much by the objective, i.e., national linguistic factors, than by the stylistic aims realized by the translator. These are employed to achieve the necessary evaluation or a higher degree of expressiveness. Thus, to render the meaning of (my) dear love the translator, guided by the context, is free to choose on his own will


one of the following Ukrainian semantic equivalents: люба, кохана, любка/любочка, серденько, дівчинонька, дівчина-рибчина, ясочка, зіронька, дружинонька. No less difficult may also be, for example, the choice of the most fitting in a Ukrainian context diminutive equivalent, say, for the adjective teeny (colloquially teeny - weeny) or its Scottish variant wee, which may have the following synonymous word equivalents in Ukrainian: малесенький, манюній, манюнький, манюсінький, манюпусінький, крихітний.


1. Name the classes of sense units which do not undergo any

structural transformation in the process of translation.

2. Expand on the nature of inner/implicit transformation of the

source language/sense units in the target language.

3. Define the nature and types of outer/explicit transformation

of the language/sense units in the process ottranslation.

4. Explain and exemplify the outer phonetic/phonological trans

formation of some language units in the process of translation.

5. Give examples of some possible transformations of the

English and Ukrainian simple/compound words and word-groups in

cluding internationalisms and specific notions of national lexicon/cul

turally biased elements.

6. Identify the grammatically/objectively conditioned transfor

mations of sense units and point out the devices employed to achieve

faithfulness in their translation.

7. Explain the reason of employment of stylistically conditioned

transformations of language/sense units in the process of translating.

8. Explain the transformation which occurs through omissions,

additions, extension, reductions, etc. in the target language in the

process of translation.

9. Name the main transformations employed in the process of

translating Ukrainian evaluative lexis (diminutives and



Exercise I. Analyse the semantic structure and translate the following English simple and compound words into Ukrai-


nian. Point out the difference (if any) in their outer form in the two languages.

Model: abduct викрадати силою чи обманом (особливожінку чи дитину), a simple word in English - an extended word-group in Ukrainian.

1. Abiology, abloom, acclamation, adore, adrift, agape, airborn,

airsickness, all-clear, all-up, answerable, ashen, babyhood, bailable,

blameful, carnation, chargeable, chemise, clockwise, coddle, cuff,

deployment, diner, embark;

2. endanger, eventful, exuberate, fence, season, fishmonger,

grandmotherly, haunter, headachy, header, head-phones, hurry-scurry,


3. jeopardize, jumping-rope, lucubration, lunate, matchwood,

melodize, midmost, midsummer, misstatement, monologize, mother's

mark, mythisize, name-child, needful, northerner/southerner, off-print,

off-shore, outrank, overtalk (v);

4. overtask, parcook, pencraft, percipient, patchwork, playable,

politicize, pot-valiant, pauperize, prison-breaker, prosify, propulsive,

quantify, queenhood;

5. rebuff, reforest, reiterate, remand, readable, repayable, rus

ticate, schoolable, salad-days, saddlefast, sea-born, seaworthy, sig

natories, speaking-trumpet;

6. straddle, stampede, sugar candy, sunproof, sweetie, swing-

door, war-whoop, swift-handed, washable, waterage, zipper.

Exercise II. Prior to translating the Ukrainian simple and compound words into English point out the influence of some prefixal and suffixal morphemes upon their semantic and outer structure in the corresponding English equivalents.

1. Аспірантка, багатостраждальний, багатшати,

байдикувати, бездощів'я, безлюддя, бліднути, будень, будь-коли,

буханець, вдосвіта, вдруге/втретє, веселитися, вибовкувати,

вигодинюватися, вигодовувати;

2. виголоднітися, вилежуватися, виплакувати, вихвалювати,

віддавна, власноручний, вмить, востаннє, вранці, вслухуватись,

глухнути, двометровий, десятирічний, дубочок, доверху,

доношувати, донедавна;

3. дообідній, досі, досипати, досхочу, дохристиянський,

дощаний, дужчати, жалкувати, задощити, зарікатися, заспівувати,

манюсінький, найменшенька, нанівець, обіруч, обношуватися,

одвіку, одомашнювати;


4. окатоличуватися, опам'ятатися, ощасливлювати,

панькатися, переінакшувати, підбігати, поміцнішати, по-

молодецькому, по-нашому, по-святковому, придивлятися, мчатися,

притакувати, прицінюватися;

5. простоювати, ремісникувати, різдвяний, родичатися,

розтовстіти, розцілуватися, самохіть, середньодобовий,

свободолюб, словотвір, спохвачуватись, сокір/сокорина,

тогочасний, торік, увірувати, хнюпитися;

6. холоднеча, худнути, циркач, чаювати, щодуху, найкраще,

щороку, щосили, ювіляр, якнайшвидше, якомога, ярмаркувати.

Exercise III. Translate the Ukrainian evaluative words into English. Distinguish, where possible, between the ways of expressing their purely diminutive or purely augmentative meanings on one hand and tender or coarse meanings on the other.

1. Ангеля/ангелятко, бабусенька, батечко, багатенько,

бажаннячко, батіжок, бурячок, вівчарик, віничок, газетка, Ганнуся,

гарбузик/гарбузяра, голубеня, горнятко, горішок, давненько,

дитятко, дівчинонька, діжечка, діляночка, дрібнесенький(дощик),

дубище, екранчик, житечко, журавлик;

2. жучище, забіяка, зайчик/зайцюга, здоровило, земелька,

зміюка, зубки, зубиська, зятьок, каченяточка, жабера, їстоньки,

кабанчик, кабанюра, катюга, кізонька, коник, корівка, коровисько,

котичок, котяра, левисько, ліжечко, лисичка-сестричка, личко,

літечко, любесенько, масельце;


3. матуся, місяченько, молодичка, ніженьки, ніченька,

носяка, онучатко, орляка, оченята, очиська, півничок, пісенька,

повнісінько, приярок, рибонька, рибище, рученьки, серденько,

синочок, сонечко, сальце;

4. свинюра, тихесенько, точнісінько, тупенький, убоїще,

україночка, усмішечка, фартушок, фіалочка, футлярчик,

хатиночка, хлібець, худесенький, хутесеньке, цапок, цілісінький,

цілуночок, цяцечка;

5. чепурушка, черешенька, чистесенько, чоботище,

чортяка, чубисько, чумаченько, шаблюка, шакалюга, шахраїще,

школярочка, штаненята, щасливчик, ямище, яруга.

Exercise IV. Define the possible ways of expressing the sense of the following English specific notions of national lexicon in Ukrainian.

1. Doughboy, kilt, backbencher, call-up (Amer.), corndodger,


borough, Dixie (Dixie Land), Empire City, exeat, gobbet, hastings, The Great Lakes, graduation school, headliner, hot-pot, jaw-breaker, Joe Miller, John Bull, K-ration, Labour Exchange, Lady Day, ladyship, landlordism, lovelock, master-spirit, matriculation, maypole, Number 10 Downing Street, okie, part-song;

2. Peeping Tom, penny-wise, penny-worth, pound-foolish, play

off, play-by-play, policy-shop, poor law, porringer, poundage, priestcraft,

the principality, proctor, prize-fight, pro-and-con, provided school,

pussyfoot, remittence-man;

3. roadster, (the) Rockies, sandwich-man, salad-days, Scotch

broth, scon, Stars and Stripes, Solicitor-General, secularist, sopho

more, spa, sporran, squaman, standpatter, stateside, summerschool,

teddy boy, teller (in parliament), tenner;

4. term-time; Tom, Dick and Harry, tommy-shop, tube (Lon

don), tutti-frutti, twopence, toryism, Uncle Sam, under-secretary, union

ist, Valentine (Day), V-Day/VE-Day, Victorian, votee (Amer.), Wardour

Street English, walkie-talkie, Welsh rabbit/rerebit, Whitehall, write in,

yeomanry, Yule-tide, log, zero hour.

Exercise V. Point to the difference in the outer forms of expression of the following Ukrainian culturally biased (specific) notions of national lexicon in English.

Арнаутка, бабка, борщ, боярин, вареники (з сиром, капустою тощо), вергуни, веснянки, вечорниці, вишнівка, гайдамаки, галушки (страва), гопак, гривня, ґринджоли, дівування, дримба, дружка, дядина, залікова книжка, заслати сватів, жупан, картопляники, киптар, кобзар, козаччина, кожух, коломийка, колядники, крашанка, кукурудзяні баранці, куліш, кутя, лантух, льох, маковія, обжинки, окріп, оселедець (козацький), паляниця, пампушки, парубкування, перепій (весільний), пиріжки (із сиром), писанка, плай, плахта, посипальники, рухівці, рушник, ряжанка, сирники, солонина/сало, січовик, січові стрільці, соломка (їстивна), толока, трембіта, троїсті музики, Хмельниччина (істор.), цябрина, чумакування, шулики', щедрівки/щедрування, «Ще не вмерла Україна», Дочка Прометея, Кобзар, Каменяр, розкуркулювання, герої Крут.




The theoretical principles of faithful translation and their realization through various devices of the target language testify to the fact that referential meanings of many language units can be equivalently expressed via the same level units of the target language. For example, the proper names of people and most of geographical names, like the international words can be faithfully translated at the level of words. The phraseological/idiomatic expressions and the bulk of words expressing specific nationally biased units of lexicon are mostly translated at the level of words-combinations/phrases and sentences. Though sometimes the lexical meaning of an idiom or a unit of specific national lexicon can be faithfully turned into the target language with the help of a single word as well (when international).

In other words, a considerable number of simple lexemes and word combinations, stable and idiomatic expressions can be faithfully translated when they are taken isolated, viz. at language level. Thus, the meaning of most pronouns and numerals remains unchanged whether they are used in context or taken as separate words at language level Cf.: ґЛгеетри, fifteen п'ятнадцять, fifty п'ятдесят, fifth/sixth п'ятий/ шостий, one-thirdодна третя, zero point nine нуль цілих дев'ять десятих; І я, he він, she вона, nobody ніхто, etc.

Similarly with many nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and function words which are monosemantic both in the source language and in the target language: the sky небо, the moon місяць, geese / swans гуси/ лебеді, lake озеро, the island острів, political політичний, fo/ac/счорний, white6\nm, bathe купатися, sing співати, sleep спати, легетут, often часто, firstly по-перше, among серед/ споміж, under під, or чи, that (conjunction) що; hallo! anno, ah ax, oh ox, even навіть, yet однак, etc.

A bulk of words belonging to the above-mentioned logico-gram-matical classes of words may also have two or more semantically identical referents, i.e., synonymous meanings. The latter are often stylistically marked and .should possibly be distinguished in the text under translation as well. Among these may be even such seemingly simple words as the English because бо, тому що, через те що; courage сміливість, відвага; dad/daddy тато, татунь/татусь; drake селезень/ качур; everywhere повсюди, скрізь or Ukrainian: дитя


baby/kid/child; осел ass, donkey; тьху! phew, pie, pshaw, pooh!; чиж/ик greenfinch, siskin. These words have one referent similarly to many different terms which are translated both at word level and at word-group/sentence level. E.g.: sprint спринт, біг на короткі дистанції; steeple-chase біг з перешкодами; service first stroke (tennis) удар, яким уводиться м'яч у гру.

A faithful conveying of a referential meaning at word level may often depend upon some extralingual factors as well. Thus, depending on the readers/listeners addressed, the translator/interpreter should use correspondingly either British or American lexical variants: lorry вантажна машина (Br. Engl.), truck (Amer. Engl.), tin консервна банка (Br. Engl.), can (Amer. English), ІітеїаЬІерозклас) (Br. Engl.), schedule (Amer. Engl.), sweets цукерки (Br. Engl.), candies (Amer. Engl.), bathroom ванна (Br. Engl.), туалет (Amer. English), maize кукурудза (Br. Engl.), corn (Am. Engl.), cloak-room роздягальня (Br. Engl.), coat-room (Amer. English), etc.

Regional peculiarities of the kind must be taken into consideration in order to achieve the necessary national orientation of a purposeful written or oral translation.

Most of compound English words having transparent componental semes are translated into Ukrainian either at the level of words (compounds) or at the level of word-combinations, the latter being formed from the componental parts which become separate words in Ukrainian: air-base авіабаза; but air-raid повітряний наліт; birthplace місце народження; cross-road перехрестя шляхів/ доріг; steamship пароплав; tooth paste зубна паста; hour-hand годинникова стрілка.

The translation of compounds may sometimes look like descriptive though: breadthways у ширину/завширшки; longwise у довжину/завдовжки; southwardna південь/у південному напрямку; tenfold десятиразовий; thousandfold у тисячу разів; westward спрямований на захід/у західному напрямку.

A similar approach is often made when translating many Ukrainian structural and semantic compounds into English: восьмина the eighth part of smth.; вузькоколійка the narrow-gauge railway; третина, the third part of smth./one-third of smth.; сімсотріччя the seven-hundredth anniversary.

Since the number of notions in any language does not coincide with the number of words expressing them, a word-level translation can not always provide a faithful rendering of any single word meaning. Thence, a large number of the source language words are to be


translated into the target language by means of word-combinations or even sentences: hi-jack силою змушувати пілотів міняти курс літака з корисливою метою; abound бути багатим на щось; agape роззявивши рота (від здивування); armistice коротке перемир'я / припинення воєнних дій; asyndeton пропуск сполучників; aurist спеціаліст із захворювань вуха; banting лікування ожиріння дієтою; briber той, хто дає хабарі; casualize переводити на тимчасову роботу; didacticism схильність до повчань.

Quite a few monosemantic words in Ukrainian are also notion-ally extended: вчадіти to be affected by the fumes/to die from carbon monoxide poisoning; доба day and night (24 hours); заполоч coloured threads for embroidering; літепло slightly warm/ed water; бути нівроку (to be) healthy looking and fleshy, beautiful, strong; нудьгувати to be despirited/to be in the dumps; нюшити to sniff the air (about dogs); окріп boiling/extremely hot water, періодизація division into periods; цяцькатися to take much trouble over smb./smth.

Various evaluating meanings (diminutive, augmentative, etc.) are expressed or rather conveyed in English and Ukrainian both at word level and at word-combination level, the former being predominant, as a rule, in Ukrainian: baggie мішечок; catkin котик (на вербі); coatee пальтечко; горбик hillock; квіточка floweret; чоловічок manikin.

Many Ukrainian diminutives expressing also the meaning of endearment through morphological means may have in English two realizations (morphological and lexico-syntactic): матуся mummy/ dear mum; татко dad (daddy), dear dad; сестричка sissy/little sister; книжечка booklet/little book; пташина birdie/little bird; хмаринка cloudlet/little cloud, small little cloud.

It must be emphasized, however, that more Ukrainian words expressing their evaluating meanings morphologically are rendered in English through lexico-syntactic sense units/word-combinations: будиночок a small house or a small little house; рученька a little hand or a small little hand; садочок a small garden or a small little garden/orchard, воріженьки perfidious/cunning enemies.

Higher degrees of diminutiveness and endearment in Ukrainian diminutive words which is expressed as shown above (through suffixes and prefixes) can be conveyed in English (though not always to an equal degree) with the help of lexico-syntactic means (at word-combination level): матусенька/татунечко dear/dearly loved (beloved) mummy/daddy; рученятка /рученяточка small little hands/dear little hands; манюсінький ґномик small/tiny little gnome;


найкращенька рибинка the most beautiful small/tiny little fish; двієчко діточок two small little babies/two dear kiddies; спатоньки to have a little sleep, have a sweet little sleep, etc.

Negative evaluating meanings, which are mostly expressed at word level in Ukrainian, can also be rendered into English lexico-syntactically (at word-combination level): бицюра (про чоловіка) а veritable man of a bull; собацюра a monster of a dog; рибисько а whale of a fish; ямище a veritable abyss; дідуган (pejorative) a venerable/staid old man, вітрюга heavy/strong wind, an almost stormy wind; дурощі (напр. куріння) monkey-business, etc.

It must be noted that some pejorative evaluating meanings can be expressed in Ukrainian and sometimes in English by morphological means. Consequently, these meanings are rendered at word level: heavy йшп/га/г/п'яничка/п'янюга; с/и//ага[тупак/тупиця, «ступа»; kinglet нікчемний король/королик, sluggard ледацюга/лежень.

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