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These are by far all Ukrainian and English means which can together with the diminutive/augmentative affixes considerably influence the denotative and connotative (evaluative) meaning of some notional words. The beginning translator must be well aware of this fact while selecting equivalent versions for such kind of words in the target language. Still greater care should be taken when rendering the connotative meanings of words which are not morphologically manifested.

Ways of Conveying the Meanings of Polysemantic Language Units

Unlike words with evaluative and other connotation, the denotative meaning of a bulk of words can be identified at the level of word-combinations or sentences only. These words constitute a considerable part of present-day English lexicon and are referred to as polysemantic words. For example, the denotative meanings of the verb (or noun) part can be fully displayed in the word-combinations like: to part the fighting cocks, to part company with somebody, to part one's hair, to take part in something, the sixth part of the melon, to have a small part in the event, etc.

Sometimes it may be difficult to identify without larger context the proper meaning even of such a simple polysemantic word as your, which can be in Ukrainian either ваш, ваша, ваші/твій, твоя, твоє, твої or свій, своя, своє, свої respectively. The proper meaning of many other polysemantic words can be realized


already at word-combination level. This can be seen, for example, from the translation of the verbs to break and to come in the following sentences:

He shouldn't be surprised if Він не здивувався б, коли б

they began to break the windows, вони почали бити вікна.


Bossiney broke the silence. Боссіні порушив мовчанку. (Ibid.)

If Irene broke such laws what Якщо Айрін порушила такі

does it matter? (Ibid.) закони, то що це означає?

When the evening came Car- Коли настав вечір, Керрі

rie hurried eagerly away, поспішила хутенько зник-

(T. Dreiser) нути.

«But don 'tcome near the wa- «Але не підходь близько/не

ter, or else you may be attacked наближайся до води, бо на

by sharks. (J.AIdridge) тебе можуть напасти акули.»

Stilll other meanings of these and other verbs can be realized and consequently faithfully rendered into the target language only at sentence level as in the following examples: The first prize came to me. and the 2nd and the 3rd went to students of the Stanford and Berkely Universities. (J.London) Перша премія дісталась мені, а другу й третю одержали студенти Стенфордського і Берклійського університетів. But being very lonely I read everything that came my way. (Ibid.) Але будучи самотнім/нудьгуючи на самоті, я читав усе, що потрапляло мені до рук.

The verb come has some quite different realizations in set/idiomatic expressions, cf.: to come under one's eye/notice -привернути до себе увагу; to come under one's thumb -викликати підозру; to come under the yoke - примиритися з поразкою (вгнути голову); to come unstuck-провалитися, піти прахом; соте what may-що буде, те буде; to come Yorkshire over one - обдурити, обманути когось.

Some meanings of polysemantic verbs and other parts of speech are not quite easy to identify even at sentence level, as can be seen from the examples below:

«Shall I take you round the «Може, сер, я пошлю кухаря house, sir, while I send the cook повідомити його про це. доки я tQ_break it to him?» (Galsworthy) показуватиму вам будинок?»


Крістінбула четвертою за столом.

... коли б не якась копійка у моєї дружини, я не міг би стільки терти лямку (не протяг би, не витримав би так довго).

Christine made a fourth at the table. (Cronin)

... if it had not been for my wife having a little money of her own, I couldn't have carried on as I have done. (J.Priestley)

Translation of polysemantic words may often require a deep insight into content of a part or of the whole passage/text comprising some sentences. This can be partly seen from the meanings of the nouns stuff and run in the sentences below:

«But isn't there time before «Та невже у тебе не буде

your train to get all your stuff to- часу до відходу поїзда зібрати

gether?» (M. Wilson) всі свої манатки/речі?»

All that kind of antiwar talk you Усі ці патякання проти

hear nowadays from your fellows війни, які чуєш серед молоді, -

is the worst kind of subversive та це ж найгіршого штибу

stuff. (Ibid.) підривна діяльність.

Since it is always the concrete context that predetermines the real meaning of a polysemantic word, the translator has to study first of all the original passage/text thoroughly and only then suggest an equivalent which would fit in for the translation:

менший, ніж 1929 року, адже он які події розгортаються в Европі.

Now, of course, there was as Зараз, звичайно, роботи much business in machine tools вистачає, на станки попит не at least as there had been in 1929, what with this European stuff going on. (M.Wilson)

Ну а як воно покаже себе на важкому станку? Адже нас саме важкі станки цікавлять.

But what happens when he gets to the heavy stuff? And it's the heavy stuff we're interested.


«Oh, stuff it up your nose!» one of the companions said. (D.Carter)

«Then I'll finish up the grids and get ready for the run just as I was going to do.» (Ibid.)

«... I am going to give young Dr.Anthony Haviland the run of his goddamn life.» (Ibid.)

«Заткни пельку/замовкни!» -гримнув один із тієї компанії.

«Тоді я закінчу з захисними сітками і приготую їх до досліду, який я саме й мав намір проводити...»

«... Я цьому молодому докторові Ентоні Гевіленду дам такої нагінки. що він усе життя пам'ятатиме.»


Lately, we've had a run of Останнім часом ми

shocking bad luck at the Depart- отримали кілька відмов у

ment. (Cronin) міністерстві.

Their stores were already run- У них уже закінчувалися

ning low. (Stevenson) (завершувалися) запаси


«They seem to be running «Вони, здається, готують

wild». (J.AIdridge) бунт» (захопити владу)

It would be wrong to assume that only polysemantic notionals can realize their actual meanings at the level of word-combinations and sentences. Some meanings of functionals can also be identified only at the level of sentences or external word-groups. Among these may be even the meanings of conjunctions as, for example, that of and in the following sentence: The poem was long and he could not learn it by heart. Here and may have either the meaning of the coordinate conjunction / or the implicit meaning of the subordinate conjuction оскільки/тому. (Why could he not learn the poem by heart? - Because it was long.) - Оскільки/тому що вірш був великий, він його не вивчив напам'ять.

Similarly with some other functionals whose implicit meanings, functions and sometimes even their logico-grammatical nature can be clearly established only at the level of word-groups or sentences. This becomes clearly evident from the following sentences in which the lexical and logico-grammatical nature of the word but is most explicitly realized:

«He is but a boy!» «Та ж він me хлопчина/

(R.AIdington) дитина!»

All of us but a few have come Ми всі, за винятком/крім to this conclusion. (G.Greene) небагатьох, прийшли до

цього висновку.

But for his open eyes, he Якби очі не були

might have been asleep, розплющені, можна було

(Glasworthy) подумати, що він спить.

The contextual environment ofbuf. therefore, predetermines the lexico-grammatical nature of the word (and not only of this word), which may be adverb (We can not but try. - Нам залишається тільки ще раз спробувати) or conjunction (Never a week passes but he comes. - He минає і тиждня, щоб він не навідався.)

The word but is also used in different functions in idiomatic expressions. Cf.: «But me no buts. sir, interrupts the diddler, apparently in a very high dungeon.» (E.Poe) - «а ти мені не


«алекай» (не відхрещуйся), - грубо обірвав йогф голос причепи ніби/мов із глибокої темниці. The last but one -передостанній, but for - якби не/коли б не. but for your help we should not have finished in time-якби не твоя допомога, ми не зактчили б роботу вчасно; but then крім того: London is a busy place, but then it is also the place where you get the best entertainment. (CADE) Лондон - місто великої ділової активності, а крім того ще й місце, де можна найкраще порозважатися.

The choice of a definite meaning out of some inherent in the semantic structure of an English language unit can also depend upon the style of the matter under translation. For example, the idiomatic expression to loose one's reason and its synonyms to loose one's mind, to go out of one's head, to go insane are confined in their use to literary speech styles, while to go mad or to go crazy are used in colloquial and low colloquial speech styles, as a rule.

Similar stylistic restrictions are observed with the use of Ukrainian equivalents and analogies of this idiomatic expression too. Cf.:

literary/neutral style: зійти з розуму/рішитися розуму, з'їхати з глузду.

colloquial/low colloquial: блекоти/чемериці наїстися, здуріти, сказитися.

No need to prove that the lexical meaning of each of these variants, even when taken out of context, already predetermines at the same time the speech style, in which it can and should be used in the target language.

A considerable number of other sense units, however, which are endowed with particular emotive, stylistic or extralingual meanings, can not exaustively explicate these characteristics at the level of a word-group or even sentence, but only at the level of passage/ text. This becomes especially evident when translating belles-lettres/ publicistic and some other styles texts.1

Conveying the Meanings of Language Units at Passage/Text Level

The text as a term is in the true sense of the word a segment of written/oral speech or a whole work consisting of grammatically

1 See: Nida E.A. Componentat Analysis of Meaning. - The Hague - Paris: Mouton, 1975. Hoey M. Patterns of Lexis in Text. - Oxford: Ox.University Press, 1991.



and logically arranged language units forming with their meanings its general content. Text as a speech unit may be smaller or larger, but irrespective of its dimension it always remains a macrostructure, which is not an indivisible monolith but a harmonious unity of different language units. A larger text usually falls into several constituent parts -supra-phrasal units and different types and kinds of sentences. All of them due to their communicative completeness and logical succession1 constitute something of a semantic and structural backbone of any text. These parts together with their various meanings make the general contextual stream of the text, whose content can be fully and faithfully conveyed only when all contents of each block are fully and exaustively expressed. As the blocks/supra-phrasal units are made of sentences, hence, the necessary degree of faithfulness in any translation of texts/passages can be achieved only through faithful translation of all types of their ingredient sentences.

It must be emphasized, however, that it is not only content (the semantic plane), in other words, not only the lexical meanings of various sense units, that have to be fully and faithfully transplanted in the process of translation. No less important is to fully convey apart from many denotative meanings of language units also their connotative characteristics, as well as their stylistic and structural peculiarities. A faithful translation of supra-phrasal units or passages/ text of any speech style, therefore, presents a complex process, which involves a full and faithful expression in the target language of all the main constituent parts forming the semantic, structural, stylisitic and other planes of a text. In view of all this it will be expedient to emphasize that all characteristics (nothing to say about the denotative and the connotative meanings of words and the means of expression in general) are identified, as a rule, by way of a thorough analysis of the original text. This analysis inevitably involves apart from the particularities of content also the pragmatic toning/orientation, which can be exhaustively established, however, only at deep level structure of the communicative units.

It must also be added that despite the differences in their actualization, the planes of a text are impossible to separate from each other, since they are closely interconnected and form the surface and the deep structures complexity of any text. Hence it follows, that the characteristic features of each plane manifest themselves and are fully realized at text level, which can sometimes be restricted, as has

See: Москальская О.И. Грамматика текста. -М.: Вьісшая школа, 1981, р.14.


been said, to a supersyntactic unit/paragraph reflecting its m^in structural, stylistic, pragmatic and other peculiarities. These peculiarities should be rendered in the faithful variant of the target language text/ passage as well, though usually by other than in the target language means of expression.

But whatever the divergences in the means of expression of the source language and of the target language, and irrespective of the fact that far from all the characteristic features of any text are fully reflected in its main componental parts, the translation of a text can be succefully performed only on the basis of its constituent sentences. This is because all syntactic level units are endowed with predication and modality, they have mostly a stuctural and sense completion, they are stylistically and pragmatically in full conformity with the whole text. In view of all this only the sentence can fully meet the requirements laid before a unit of translation, when the object assigned to translation is a text which usually consists of different types and kinds of sentences joined in supra-syntactic structures.

Since a faithful translation of any passage/text is performed sentence after sentence, their ideas/thoughts, the main structural, stylistic, genre and pragmatic characteristics are mostly conveyed in a consecutive succession too. Their constituent words, word-groups and set expressions/idioms functioning as different parts of the sentence or forming constituent elements of the latter (or even being independent elements in the sentence) are all first translated as single units. In other words, prior to translating the sentence as a whole (provided it is not a one-member sentence, like Winter. Bitter frost. Evening time), its parts and functionally independent elements are to be translated as separate sense units. E.g.:

All day we had been sitting in Цілісінький день ми просиділи

the piano box waiting for the rain в ящикові з-під піаніно, чекаючи,

to stop. (E. Caldwell) доки перестане дощ.

As can easily be ascertained, only through translation of the component parts 1) All day, 2) we had been sitting, 3) in the piano box, 4) waiting, 5) for the rain to stop could the translation of the sentence be fully and faithfully accomplished.

Similarly in the following simple two-member sentence:

There was an old two-storey Того року на ФілдінґАве-

yellow house on Fielding A venue ню ще стояв старий де опо-

that year. (W.Saroyan) верховий жовтий будинок.



This sentence too could be translated faithfully into Ukrainian only after its component parts, which also function as parts of the sentence, were translated one after another, though not necessarily in absolutely the same, as in the source language, succession. Cf.: 1) that year, 2) on Fielding Avenue, 3) was, 4) an old two-storey yellow house. There is no need to adduce any further proofs in support of the existence of a preliminary stage of translation preceding the final one, i.e., complete and faithful translation of the whole communicative sense unit. One must acknowledge, therefore, the existence of translation at all main language levels represented by the corresponding sense units. Consequently, one can speak of the existence of some language units having their separate levels of translation. This was already exemplified more than once on the foregoing pages and it will be shown in the process of translating several supersyntactic level units/paragraphs a little further. And yet a language unit in which all possible meanings pertained to other language units, which are hierarchically lower in rank than the sentence and thus function as its componental parts, are fully realized at the level of the communicative unit or text as a whole. There will be more than one chance to ascertain in that in the process of the commented translation of an excerpt from D.Parker's short story Arrangement in Black and White below. Some other excerts representing different language styles and assigned for independent translation will also testify to the pointed above statements.

The selected passage to be analysed belongs to the belles-lettres style and consequently abounds in various features characteristic of it1. Besides it represents a dialogue with many colloquialisms peculiar of spoken American English. The authoress employed many other stylistic means to make the narration lively and the development of the plot dynamic and interesting. The story is a masterly piece of psychological motivation of each character's behavior and speech part. The text abounds in many shortened and elliptical sentences and other stylistic means which are used to create some pragmatic subtext which the translator has to comprehend and then fully convey with the help of some functionally relevant stylistic, syntactic and lexical/semantic means of the Ukrainian target language.

Before starting the commented translation of the text it is expedient to repeatedly make mention of the obligatory stages that

1 See: Коптілов В. В. Теорія і практика перекладу. - К.: Вища шк. Вид-во при Київ, ун-ті, 1982.-166с.



should precede the very process of translation. The first of them is to read through the passage/work selected for translation and to analyse it. All attention in the course of this analysis should be paid to picking out the language units whose denotative or connotative meanings present some difficulties for translating. After this all attension must be paid to choosing in dictionaries/reference books the possible semantic, structural and stylistic variants for the language units or signs as they are sometimes called1, which present difficulties for translating. The second stage implies a regular selection from the chosen variants, which are usually more than one, the most fitting into the given sentence/passage semantic, functional or stylistic equivalents and substitutes. Only when this preparatory work is completed, the translation proper can be started.

It must also be noted that the peculiar sentence structures, the tropes, the prosodic and other means in belles-lettres texts serve the aim of creating the necessary impact on the reader/listener. That is why the regular preparatory work on the text selected for translation always takes some time, the latter being often predetermined not only by the skill and theoretical grounding of the translator but by some other factors as well. These include the ease (or otherwise) of the author's style, the abundance or absence of difficult for translation linguistic phenomena in his work as neologisms, archaisms, dialectal material or any other obscure places created by some historic events or customs, culturally biased national notions and the like. Because of this the preparatory time needed for a translation proper to begin may vary from text to text. The main methods by which the «resistance» of the source language text may be overcome in translation (with particular attention to selecting the means of expression) will be shown further on the pages to come.

And now in accordance with the requirements of the first stage in the preparatory work for translation, read and thoroughly analyse the passage below paying attention to difficult or obscure (if any) places you come across in each separate sentence. Put the picket out sense units down and offer one or some suitable lexical/semantic equivalents for each of them. See to it that they also suit in the speech style of the corresponding sentences and in the excerpt of this D.Parker's story as a whole.

1 For further information on the meaning of various language signs зее:Комиссаров B.H. Слово о переводе. - M.: Междунар. отношения, 1973. - р.213



1. The woman with the pink velvet poppies turned round the

assisted gold of her hair1, traversed the crowded room at an inter

esting gait combining a skip with a sidle, and clutched the lean arm

of her host.

2. «Now I got you!» she said. «Now you can't get away!»

3. «Why, hello,» said her host. «Well. How are you?»

4. «Oh, I'm finely,» she said. «Just simply finely. Listen. I want

you to do me the most terrible favor. Will you? Will you please? Pretty


5. «What is it?» said her host.

6. «Listen,» she said. «I want to meet Walter Williams. Hon

estly, I'm just simply crazy about that man. Oh, when he sings! When

he sings those spirituals2. Well, I said to Burton, «It's a good thing for

you Walter Williams is colored,» I said, «or you'd have lots of reason

to be jealous.» I'd really love to meet him. I'd like to tell him I've heard

him sing. Will you be an angel and introduce me to him?»

7. «Why, certainly,» said her host. «I thought you'd met him.

The party's for him. Where is he, anyway?»

8. «He's over there by the bookcase,» she said. «Let's wait till

those people get through talking to him. Well, I think you're simply

marvellous, giving this perfectly marvellous party for him and having

him meet all those white people, and all. Isn't he terribly grateful?»

9. «I hope not,» said her host.


10. «I think it's really terribly nice,» she said. «I do. I don't see

why on earth it isn't perfectly all right to meet colored people. I haven't

any feeling about it at all - not one single bit. Burton, - oh, he's just

the other way. Well, you know, he comes from Virginia, and you know

how they are.»

11. «Did he come tonight?» said her host.

12. «No, he couldn't,» she said. «I'm a regular grass widow

tonight. I told him when I left, There's no telling what I'll do, I said. He

was just so tired out, he couldn't move. Isn't it a shame?»

13. «Ah,» said her host.

14. «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams!» she said. «He'll

just about die. Oh, we have more arguments about colored people.

1 the assisted gold of her hair- her hair had been dyed gold.

2 spirituals - Negro songs, religious in essence, like folk ballades.


I talk to him like I don't know what, I get so excited. «Oh, don't be so silly,» I say. But I must say for Burton, he's heaps broader-minded than lots of these Southerners. He's really awfully fond of colored people. Well, he says himself, he wouldn't have white servants. And you know, he had this old colored nurse, this regular old nigger mammy and he just simply loves her. Why, every time he goes home, he goes out in the kitchen to see her. He does, really, to this day. All he says is, he says, he hasn't got a word to say against colored people as long as they keep their place. He's always doing things for them - giving them clothes and I don't know what all. The only thing he says, he says he wouldn't sit down at the table with one for a million dollars. «Oh,» I say to him, «you make me sick, talking like that. I'm just terrible to him. Aren't I terrible?»

15. «Oh, no, no, no,» said her host. «No, no.»

16. «I am», she said. «I know I am. Poor Burton! Now, me, I

don't feel that way at all. I haven't the slightest feeling about colored

people. Why, I'm just crazy about some of them. They're just like

children - just as easy-going, and always singing and laughing and

everything. Aren't they the happiest things you ever saw in your life?

Honestly, it makes me laugh just to hear them. Oh, I like them. I

really do.»

Note. As could be ascertained, the excerpt contains several features characterestic of the belles-lettres style. This is also proved by some ways of expression and by syntactic peculiarities of speech pertained only to present-day colloquial English of the USA. The translator has to recreate and convey faithfully the content side, the style, the artistic and syntactic peculiarities, and the pragmatic intention/ the subtext only of D.Parker's highly artistic story. This can be disclosed through a complex analysis of the main planes of the excerpt. Such an explicatory analysis of the afore-cited sentences is also performed on the forthcoming pages.


Lexico-Semantic, Stylistic and Structural Analysis of Language Units/Sense Units of the Excerpt

The analysis of this excerpt, like any complex analysis of a text, should be started from the title, which is metaphorical by nature (Arrangement in Black and White). Here is a case when the real meaning of the title can be established only after a thorough semantic and stylistic analysis of the passage. Apart from this, some extralingual factors, as the once strained racial relationship between the whites and blacks in the USA, should be taken into account. And yet the title, as becomes clear from its component parts (Arrangement, between, Black, White) already discloses the main idea of the excerpt. At any rate it hints to the intention of the white woman character to get acquainted with a well-known Negro singer, performer of spirituals. This gives the clue to some suggestions conceiving the meaning of the title, which may have the following versions in Ukrainian: 1. «Влаштування зустрічі білої з чорним», 2. «Зустріч білої з нергом-співаком», 3. «Знайомство білої з кольоровим співаком».

None of these suggested titles, however, is felicious enough to be accepted as final, since neither of them fully expresses the main idea of the excerpt and the story as a whole. Each of the suggested titles fails to express the falsehood of the woman character who is not simply a white, but a racist white. Taking this negative feature of the character into considaration, one can offer some additional Ukrainian versions for the title, which might be more expressive and closer to the original sense: 1. «Біла на концерті чорного співака»; 2. «Біла на концерті кольорового співака»; 3. «Відвідини концерту кольорового співака білою «поклонницею» таланту»; 4. «Біла «поклонниця таланту» кольорового співака».

Out of these four offered versions only the last appears to be close to the content of the story and intention of the authoress. It expresses to some extent the falsehood and the double-dealing conduct of the woman character, which is partly reflected in the title. It also hints to the hidden negative features of the main character of the story, though even this Ukrainian version does not fully express the meaning of the original title. Nevertheless, it may be the beginning to the solution of this far from easy question and serve as a basis for other versions, which may be closer to the concept of D.Parker, who has given a most vivid portrayal of a regular mentally and psychologi-


cally split character proclaims her principle of respect to the equality of different races and acts, just on the contrary. This striking feature in the psychological state and behavior of the female character gives grounds for suggesting some more Ukrainian versions of the title, some of which may be really final: 1. «Поклонниця» таланту кольорового митця», 2. «Біла «поклонниця» таланту чорного співака», 3. «Вдавана поклонниця таланту», and even a single word version «Хамелеон».

The most fitting in comparison with the preceding four suggested titles may be considered the last two of these offered versions, one of which may be chosen (with some transformation) as absolutely acceptable in Ukrainian: «Вдавана поклонниця таланту» or «Палка «прихильниця» таланту».

The lengthy contemplation upon the title of the excerpt/story testifies to the difficulties facing the translator of belles-lettres, which may sometimes become insurmountable. In view of this, some losses, as a result of the great «resistance» of the original text, must be condoned (виправдані). Despite the difficulties, the translator should never desist from the efforts to select the most fitting target language variants for any language unit/sense unit of the source language.

It must be emphasized that the process of selecting the semantic and structural equivalents for certain sense units in the target language requires not only profound knowledge of the source language, but also, and not to a smaller degree, that of his native tongue. Hence, of paramount importance is the translator's skill in selecting among synonymous sense units of the source language the only suitable versions in the target language, as will be observed further, when analysing separate blocks of sentences from the excerpt. This aim is achieved via a thorough lexico-semantic, grammatical/structural and stylistic analysis of sense units during the process of translating each single sentence of the excerpt/passage below. It may also be interesting, and not only for an inexperienced translator, to follow the analysis beginning with the structure of the first primary predication word-group, which reads as follows: The woman with the pink velvet poppies turned round the assisted gold of her hair... The predicate turned roundmay be erroneously understood by the student as вінок навколо пофарбованих у золотавий колір кіс/волосся, which would be absolutely wrong, since turned here means повернула голову з пофарбованим у золотавий колір волоссям. A proof to

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