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Be sure you know the following words and their translation

English - Ukrainian - Russian
borehole - стовбур свердловини - ствол скважины
buoy - буй, маркер - буй, маркер
conductor line - електрокабель - электрокабель
Dinoseis - джерело сейсмічних сигналів, що використовує вибух газової суміші - источник сейсмических сигналов, использующий взрыв газовой смеси
doodlebug - верстат для буріння сейсмічних свердловин - станок для бурения сейсмических скважин
driller’s log - буровий журнал - буровой журнал
exploratory well - розвідувально-експлуатаційна свердловина - разведочно-эксплуатационная скважина
hydrophone - гідрофон - гидрофон
impactor - молоткова дробарка - молотковая дробилка
jug hustler - розмотувач сейсмічної коси - размотчик сейсмической косы
permeability - проникність - проницаемость
porosity - пористість - пористость
seismic data - сейсмічні дані - сейсмические данные
shock wave - ударна хвиля - ударная волна
shot - буровий дріб - буровая дробь
sonde - зонд - зонд
thumper - ударне джерело сейсмічних сигналів - ударный источник сейсмических сигналов
van - фургон - фургон
Vibroseis - вібросейс(сейсмічні дослідження, коли джерелом сейсмічної енергії є спеціальний гідравлічний вібратор) - вибросейс(сейсмические иследования, когда источником сейсмической енергии является особенный гидравлический вибратор)
well log - буровий журнал - буровой журнал
wireline - талевий канат - талевый канат
wireline log - каротажна діаграма - каротажная диаграмма

2 Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B

1 doodlebug a) a continuous measurement of formation properties with electrically powered instruments to infer properties and make decisions about drilling and production operations (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
2 hydrophone   b) the percentage of pore volume or void space, or that volume within rock that can contain fluids (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
3 jug hustler   c) related to any aspect of logging that employs an electrical cable to lower tools into the borehole and to transmit data. Wireline logging is distinct from measurements-while-drilling (MWD) and mud logging (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
4 permeability   d) slang term for a member of a seismic acquisition crew or party who lays out cables and plants geophones for seismic acquisition and collects them after surveying (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
5 porosity   e) the wellbore itself, including the openhole or uncased portion of the well. Borehole may refer to the inside diameter of the wellbore wall, the rock face that bounds the drilled hole (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
6 sonde   f) itis a record of information about the formations through which a well has been drilled (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
7 wireline log   g) the ability, or measurement of a rock's ability, to transmit fluids, typically measured in darcies or millidarcies. Formations that transmit fluids readily, such as sandstones, are described as permeable and tend to have many large, well-connected pores. Impermeable formations, such as shales and siltstones, tend to be finer grained or of a mixed grain size, with smaller, fewer, or less interconnected pores (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
8 log h) slang term to describe a seismologist performing seismic field work (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
9 wireline   i) a device designed for use in detecting seismic energy in the form of pressure changes under water during marine seismic acquisition. Hydrophones are combined to form streamers that are towed by seismic vessels or deployed in a borehole. Geophones, unlike hydrophones, detect motion rather than pressure (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).
10 borehole   j) the section of a logging tool that contains the measurement sensors, as distinct from the cartridge, which contains the electronics and power supplies (http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/).


Pre-reading tasks

a) scan the text and answer the following questions:

1) Who developed one of the first practi­cal uses of seismic data and how did it work?

2) What land methods of creating vibrations do you know and what devices can the crew use?

3) What marine methods of postioning hydrophones do you know?

4) What different types of logs do you know? What is the difference between them?

5) What are the peculiarities of the process of wireline logging?

b) skim the text and define the main ideas

Dr. L. Mintrop, a German scientist, developed one of the first practi­cal uses of seismic data during World War I.He invented a portable seis­mograph machine for the German armies to use in locating the positions of the Allied guns. Mintrop set up three seismographs on the battlefield op­posite Allied artillery, and when a gun fired, he calculated the precise loca­tion so accurately that often the Germans could wipe out that position with one try.

While fighting the war, the Germans realized that miscalculations in distance were due to the variation of seismic vibrations caused by geologi­cal formations through which shock waves passed. They then applied ba­sic geological concepts to correct their computations of the distance.

After the war, Mintrop reversed the process, setting off an explosion a known distance from the seismograph and measuring how long it took for the subsurface shock wave reflections to return. Using this informa­tion, he estimated the depths of formations. Finding that field exploration confirmed his theories, he put them into practice, forming the first seismic exploration company, Seismos. Soon after Mintrop started the company, the Gulf Production Company hired one of the Seismos crews and brought them to the Gulf Coast of Texas. With their arrival, news of seismic explo­ration spread, and soon rival companies were opening all over the state.

Two enterprising young brothers—Dabney E. and O. Scott Petty-decided to improve on Dr. Mintrop's methods. They resigned their jobs and spent a year developing a machine much more sensitive than Mintrop's. Their new seismograph used a vacuum tube sensitive enough to register the vibration of a "fly landing on a bar of steel," as O. Scott Petty explained it. They established the Petty Geophysical Engineering Company, which became one of the early leaders in the field.

Explosive Methods

In the past, the most common method of creating seismic vibrations was to place dynamite (the shot) into a shallow hole in the ground and explode it. Geophones embedded in the earth at various locations around the dynamite picked up the reflected waves. Under certain conditions, dyna­mite is still used to create seismic waves.

A seismic, or doodlebug, crew consists of the party chief, geologists or geophysicists to plan the locations of the equipment, surveyors to mark the locations, drillers to drill the holes for the shot, loaders to make up and load the shot, shooters to set it off, and jug hustlers to attach the geophones to the recording equipment by means of cables. Jug is another name for a geophone.

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